groundwater recharge
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2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 24-36
Hayat Ait inoh ◽  
Mohamed Tayebi ◽  
Rajji Abdelatif

In view of the progressive retreat of groundwater due to rarity, continuous depletion and overexploitation of water, especially in mountainous areas, which are a major source of water, there is a need for artificial recharge for better management of these resources to ensure their long-term sustainability. The approach used is a contribution of new geomatic technologies; Remote Sensing coupled with Geographic Information Systems, for the mapping of potential areas of artificial recharge in the fractured medium of the Talmakent region, which is located in the western high atlas and is characterized by the presence of impermeable rocks. This study requires the consideration of different factors influencing the recharge potential, which are the characteristics of the land surface such as geology lineaments, geomorphology and drainage system. All these criteria are grouped in a GIS prototype in which a multi-criteria overlay analysis has been done for the cartographic restitution of the potential areas for artificial groundwater recharge. The existing basins in the area revealed that only 6% of the total area was identified as having a high potential for groundwater recharge, hence suitable for the implementation of new artificial recharge structures. While 94% of the area has a low to moderate recharge potential, hence unsuitable for groundwater recharge processes.

Adam Schreiner-McGraw ◽  
Hoori Ajami ◽  
Ray Anderson ◽  
Dong Wang

Accurate simulation of plant water use across agricultural ecosystems is essential for various applications, including precision agriculture, quantifying groundwater recharge, and optimizing irrigation rates. Previous approaches to integrating plant water use data into hydrologic models have relied on evapotranspiration (ET) observations. Recently, the flux variance similarity approach has been developed to partition ET to transpiration (T) and evaporation, providing an opportunity to use T data to parameterize models. To explore the value of T/ET data in improving hydrologic model performance, we examined multiple approaches to incorporate these observations for vegetation parameterization. We used ET observations from 5 eddy covariance towers located in the San Joaquin Valley, California, to parameterize orchard crops in an integrated land surface – groundwater model. We find that a simple approach of selecting the best parameter sets based on ET and T performance metrics works best at these study sites. Selecting parameters based on performance relative to observed ET creates an uncertainty of 27% relative to the observed value. When parameters are selected using both T and ET data, this uncertainty drops to 24%. Similarly, the uncertainty in potential groundwater recharge drops from 63% to 58% when parameters are selected with ET or T and ET data, respectively. Additionally, using crop type parameters results in similar levels of simulated ET as using site-specific parameters. Different irrigation schemes create high amounts of uncertainty and highlight the need for accurate estimates of irrigation when performing water budget studies.

Climate ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 6
Emmanuel Dubois ◽  
Marie Larocque ◽  
Sylvain Gagné ◽  
Marco Braun

Long-term changes in precipitation and temperature indirectly impact aquifers through groundwater recharge (GWR). Although estimates of future GWR are needed for water resource management, they are uncertain in cold and humid climates due to the wide range in possible future climatic conditions. This work aims to (1) simulate the impacts of climate change on regional GWR for a cold and humid climate and (2) identify precipitation and temperature changes leading to significant long-term changes in GWR. Spatially distributed GWR is simulated in a case study for the southern Province of Quebec (Canada, 36,000 km2) using a water budget model. Climate scenarios from global climate models indicate warming temperatures and wetter conditions (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5; 1951–2100). The results show that annual precipitation increases of >+150 mm/yr or winter precipitation increases of >+25 mm will lead to significantly higher GWR. GWR is expected to decrease if the precipitation changes are lower than these thresholds. Significant GWR changes are produced only when the temperature change exceeds +2 °C. Temperature changes of >+4.5 °C limit the GWR increase to +30 mm/yr. This work provides useful insights into the regional assessment of future GWR in cold and humid climates, thus helping in planning decisions as climate change unfolds. The results are expected to be comparable to those in other regions with similar climates in post-glacial geological environments and future climate change conditions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Anurag Verma ◽  
Prabhakar Sharma

Growing dependence on groundwater to fulfill the water demands has led to continuous depletion of groundwater levels and, consequently, poses the maintenance of optimum groundwater and management challenge. The region of South Bihar faces regular drought and flood situations, and due to the excessive pumping, the groundwater resources are declining. Rainwater harvesting has been recommended for the region; however, there are no hydrogeological studies concerning groundwater recharge. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a managed aquifer recharge technique to store excess water in the aquifer through borewells to meet the high-water demand in the dry season. Therefore, this paper presents the hydrogeological feasibility for possible ASR installations in shallow aquifers of South Bihar with the help of flowing fluid electrical conductivity (FFEC) logging. For modeling, the well logging data of two shallow borewells (16- and 47-m depth) at Rajgir, Nalanda, were used to obtain the transmissivity and thickness of the aquifers. The estimated transmissivities were 804 m2/day with an aquifer thickness of 5 m (in between 11 and 16 m) at Ajatshatru Residential Hall (ARH) well. They were 353 and 1,154 m2/day with the aquifer thicknesses of 6 m (in between 16 and 22 m) and 2 m (in between 45 and 47 m), respectively, at Nalanda University Campus (NUC) well. Despite the acceptable transmissivities at these sites, those aquifers may not be fruitful for the medium- to large-scale (more than 100-m3/day injection rate) ASR as the thickness of the aquifers is relatively small and may not efficiently store and withdraw a large amount of water. However, these aquifers can be adequate for small (up to 20-m3/day injection rate) ASR, for example, groundwater recharge using rooftop water. For medium- to large-scale ASR, deeper aquifers need to be further explored on these sites or aquifers with similar characteristics.

2022 ◽  
Bilel Abdelkarim ◽  
Faten Telahigue ◽  
Belgacem Agoubi

Abstract In Gabès region (southeastern Tunisia), given the semi-arid to arid climate conditions, groundwater is an essential resource to supply the growth needs of the socio-economic development. To ensure sustainable development and preserve water resources, a careful estimation of the present day recharge amount and the delineation of the potential zones of rainfall precipitation are of required for an accurate evaluation of regional water balance. In this context, this study aims to a preliminary assessment of groundwater recharge in Gabes basin in regard to the delineation of the potential recharge areas of phreatic aquifers. Thus, a geological and hydrogeological collected database coupled with remote sensing techniques (RST) were used for the determination of the lateral variation of recharging zone ,Treatment by ArcGIS and Matlab softwares and Kohonen self-organizing maps (K-SOM) approaches.The obtained results indicate that five recharge potential areas have been identified and classified as 27% very low, 23% low, 40% moderate recharge, 7% good and 3 % very good potential recharge located principally on southern part of the study region .This distribution is controlled principally by the geomorphological, geologic, and hydrogeologic features of the region . Reasonable management strategies based on a perennial exploitation of these low renewable resources are required to optimize the water dependent socio-economic development. The estimated groundwater potential recharge of Gabès aquifer system using K-SOM and RST is of 11.4 Mm3.y-1. This recharging rate is very low it present 7% of the total rain, thus it must be ameliorated. K-SOM and RST approach is a useful method for groundwater potential recharge mapping and is a helpful of wells establishment and groundwater sustainable isotopic analyses is recommended to ameliorate the decision maker to establish the adequate strategy.

2022 ◽  
Omeed H. Al-Kakey ◽  
Arsalan A. Othman ◽  
Broder J. Merkel ◽  

Excessive extraction, uncontrolled withdrawal of groundwater, and unregulated practices have caused severe depletion of groundwater resources in the Erbil basin, Iraq. This situation has had a number of negative consequences on human settlement, agricultural activities, clean water supply, and the environment. Runoff harvesting and artificial groundwater recharge play a significant role in the sustainable management of water resources, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. This study aims to: (1) delineate groundwater recharge zones using multiple thematic layers that control the groundwater recharge process, and (2) identify prospective sites and structures to perform artificial groundwater recharge. In order to generate a potential map for groundwater recharge zones, seven thematic layers are considered in this study, namely, topographic position index, geomorphology, lithology, land cover, slope, drainage-length density, and lineament-length density. After that, the analytic hierarchy process was applied to weight, rank, and reclassify these seven thematic layers. All maps are then integrated within the ArcGIS environment for delineating groundwater recharge zones. Accordingly, the resulting map categorizes the study area into five zones: extremely high, high, moderate, low, and extremely low potential for groundwater recharge. As expected, areas along the Greater Zab river show the highest possibility for groundwater recharge. Likewise, rugged eastern hills demonstrate an encouraging capacity for artificial aquifer recharge, whereas the least effective area is represented by built-up land. Based on the generated map, two dams are proposed as promising artificial recharge structures for harvesting runoff water east of Erbil city. Lastly, the resulting map of the potential groundwater recharge zones is verified using static water level data, where the coefficient of determination (R2) achieved a satisfactory result (0.73). These findings provide crucial evidence for implementing a sustainable management plan of surface and groundwater resources. The applied method is eventually valid for regions where appropriate and adequate field data availability is a serious issue.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 545
Hiroki Amano ◽  
Yoichiro Iwasaki

Agricultural fields, grasslands, and forests are very important areas for groundwater recharge. However, these types of land cover in the Kumamoto area, Japan, were damaged by the Kumamoto earthquake and heavy rains in 2016. In this region, where groundwater provides almost 100% of the domestic water supply for a population of about 1 million, quantitative evaluation of changes in groundwater recharge due to land cover changes induced by natural disasters is important for the sustainable use of groundwater in the future. The objective of this study was to create a land cover map and estimate the groundwater recharge in 2016. Geographic information system (GIS) data and SPOT 6/7 satellite images were used to classify the Kumamoto area into nine categories. The maximum likelihood classifier of supervised classification was applied in ENVI 5.6. Eventually, the map was cleaned up with a 21 × 21 kernel filter, which is larger than the common size of 3 × 3. The created land cover map showed good performance of the larger filter size and sufficient validity, with overall accuracy of 91.7% and a kappa coefficient of 0.88. The estimated total groundwater recharge amount reached 757.56 million m3. However, if areas of paddy field, grassland, and forest had not been reduced due to the natural disasters, it is estimated that the total groundwater recharge amount would have been 759.86 million m3, meaning a decrease of 2.30 million m3 in total. The decrease of 2.13 million m3 in the paddy fields is temporary, because the paddy fields and irrigation channels have been improved and the recharge amount will recover. On the other hand, since the topsoil on the landslide scars will not recover easily in natural conditions, it is expected to take at least 100 years for the groundwater recharge to return to its original state. The recharge amount was estimated to decrease by 0.17 million m3 due to landslides. This amount is quite small compared to the total recharge amount. However, since the reduced recharge amount accounts for the annual water consumption for 1362 people, and 12.1% of the recharge decrease of 1.41 million m3 each year to fiscal year 2024 is expected by municipalities, we conclude that efforts should be made to compensate for the reduced amount due to the disasters.

2022 ◽  
Vol 174 ◽  
pp. 113273
Sabarathinam Chidambaram ◽  
Banajarani Panda ◽  
Tirumalesh Keesari ◽  
M.V. Prasanna ◽  
Dhiraj Kr. Singh ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 964 (1) ◽  
pp. 012025
Pham Quy Nhan ◽  
Le Viet Hung ◽  
Tran Thanh Le ◽  
Thi Van Le Khoa ◽  
Dang Duc Nhan ◽  

Abstract The Red River delta plain is the second largest delta in Vietnam and is located in the North of the country with an area of 14,860 km2 and residing more than 22.5 million inhabitants. Groundwater is mainly exploited in Quaternary sedimentary aquifers with a total discharge of about 3 million m3/day. Some localities have shown signs of over-exploitation such as in Hanoi and in Nam Dinh, which may lead to related problems such as depletion, subsidence, saltwater intrusion, and water pollution. In order to be able to sustainably exploit groundwater, the groundwater potential recharge needs to be estimated. There have been many studies using different methods to estimate the groundwater recharge and to zone potential recharge. In the study area, there are several studies for groundwater recharge, but some are still uncertain because of using indirect methods, some are locally estimated in specific areas. Therefore, the objective of this study is to apply remote sensing and GIS to zone the groundwater potential recharge and its verification by using radioactive isotope 3H analysis in the Red River delta plain. Various types of satellite images have been used and interpreted to detect the different thematic layers which concern the groundwater potential recharge. GIS has been applied as a platform for analysis and integration of thematic layers for zonation, finally. Field trip and water sampling for chemical and radioactive 3H analysis were also conducted. Zones with low, moderate, and high groundwater potential recharge have been delineated with good agreement from the direct estimation of groundwater recharge by radioactive isotopes 3H.

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