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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-26
V. S. R. Annapareddy ◽  
T. Bore ◽  
M. Bajodek ◽  
A. Scheuermann

This letter proposes semi-analytical methods to obtain the local permeability for granular soils based on indirect measurements of the local porosity profile in a large coaxial cell permeameter using spatial time domain reflectometry. The porosity profile is used to obtain the local permeability using the modified Kozeny-Carman and Katz-Thompson equations, which incorporated an effective particle diameter that accounted for particle migration within the permeameter. The profiles of the local permeability obtained from the proposed methods are compared with experimentally obtained permeability distributions using pressure measurements and flow rate. The permeabilities obtained with the proposed methods are comparable with the experimentally obtained permeabilities and are within one order of magnitude deviation, which is an acceptable range for practical applications.

2022 ◽  
Arash Rayegani ◽  
Gholamreza Nouri

Abstract The possibility of pounding on isolated structures with surrounding moat walls is one of the concerns in the design of isolation systems, especially in pulse-type near-field earthquakes. This paper puts forward the seismic probability assessment of structures equipped with passive and smart hybrid isolation systems by considering pounding possibilities. This investigation is performed on isolated structures equipped with a high damper rubber bearing (HDRB) considering stiff moat walls around the structure. In the Hybrid isolation system, magnetorheological dampers (MR) are considered an adaptive dissipation energy device along with isolators using an optimized novel interval Type-2 fuzzy logic controller with adaptive red-zone function (IT2FS+RZF) to reduce pounding possibilities. The fragility curves of the building for various cases are determined using IDA analysis, and possible damage costs are evaluated by using exceedance probability in each damage level. This study concludes that the collapse probability of the isolated structures with restrains at the code-based distance is over the acceptable limit of ASCE 7-22. The smart additional damping system with the proposed controller reduces the possible damage cost of the building by about 64% compared to the uncontrolled system and puts the collapse probability of the structure in the acceptable range.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 66-76
So Takabatake ◽  
Mariko Takahashi ◽  
Kayoko Kabaya ◽  
Yoshimasa Sekiya ◽  
Kenichi Sekiya ◽  

This study aimed to develop and validate a Japanese version of the Tinnitus Acceptance Questionnaire (TAQ), an instrument that measures the process of intentional acceptance of adverse experiences associated with tinnitus. A total of 125 patients with chronic tinnitus from multiple institutions participated in this study. Participants completed the Japanese versions of the TAQ, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, Valuing Questionnaire, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. A second TAQ was administered 1–2 weeks later. Because the model fitted poorly in confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory factor analysis was conducted, which yielded a two-factor structure that was divided into forward and reversed item groups. Hypotheses regarding criterion and construct validity were clearly supported. A high Cronbach’s α coefficient value was obtained for the TAQ total score (0.88). The interclass correlation coefficient for test–retest reliability was within the acceptable range (0.95). The results of the exploratory factor analysis were considered to be due to artifacts caused by the characteristics of the Japanese language. The present study confirmed the validity and reliability of the Japanese version of the TAQ in measuring tinnitus-specific receptivity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 320
Jinyu Bao ◽  
Xiaoling Zhang ◽  
Tianwen Zhang ◽  
Xiaowo Xu

Most existing SAR moving target shadow detectors not only tend to generate missed detections because of their limited feature extraction capacity among complex scenes, but also tend to bring about numerous perishing false alarms due to their poor foreground–background discrimination capacity. Therefore, to solve these problems, this paper proposes a novel deep learning network called “ShadowDeNet” for better shadow detection of moving ground targets on video synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. It utilizes five major tools to guarantee its superior detection performance, i.e., (1) histogram equalization shadow enhancement (HESE) for enhancing shadow saliency to facilitate feature extraction, (2) transformer self-attention mechanism (TSAM) for focusing on regions of interests to suppress clutter interferences, (3) shape deformation adaptive learning (SDAL) for learning moving target deformed shadows to conquer motion speed variations, (4) semantic-guided anchor-adaptive learning (SGAAL) for generating optimized anchors to match shadow location and shape, and (5) online hard-example mining (OHEM) for selecting typical difficult negative samples to improve background discrimination capacity. We conduct extensive ablation studies to confirm the effectiveness of the above each contribution. We perform experiments on the public Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) video SAR data. Experimental results reveal the state-of-the-art performance of ShadowDeNet, with a 66.01% best f1 accuracy, in contrast to the other five competitive methods. Specifically, ShadowDeNet is superior to the experimental baseline Faster R-CNN by a 9.00% f1 accuracy, and superior to the existing first-best model by a 4.96% f1 accuracy. Furthermore, ShadowDeNet merely sacrifices a slight detection speed in an acceptable range.


Objective: Ginger is one of the Indonesian plants that has been used as traditional medicine. The flavonoids and phenols compounds contained high antioxidant activity. This study aimed to formulate effervescent granules (EG) from red ginger (RG) extract and evaluate its antioxidant activity. Methods: The formulation of EG from RG extract was prepared by the wet granulation method using different concentrations of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Furthermore, the flowability of granules was evaluated, including flow rate, angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Carr's index, Hausner ratio, and effervescent time. The physical stability of granules such as organoleptic evaluation, effervescent time, and pH measurement was also evaluated after 28 d of storage, and the antioxidant activity of EG from RG extract was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Results: The result showed that the EG of RG extract was successfully prepared by wet granulation with a concentration of 15%. In addition, the flowability study showed that all formulas of EG from RG extract have good flow properties, and the granules showed excellent flow properties based on Carr′s index results. The effervescent time of granules remained within the acceptable range according to USP, and the physical stability did not change even after 28 d of storage. The IC50 of EG from RG extract was 283.28±3.6 ppm and has moderate in free radicals scavenging activity. Conclusion: EG from RG extract can be used as food supplements to protect the human body from free radicals and inhibit oxidases.

Crystals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 75
David O. Nduka ◽  
Babatunde J. Olawuyi ◽  
Olabosipo I. Fagbenle ◽  
Belén G. Fonteboa

The present study examines the durability properties of Class 1 (50–75 MPa) high-performance concrete (HPC) blended with rice husk ash (RHA) as a partial replacement of CEM II B-L, 42.5 N. Six HPC mixes were prepared with RHA and used as 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30% of CEM II alone and properties are compared with control mix having only CEM II. The binders (CEM II and RHA) were investigated for particle size distribution (PSD), specific surface area (SSA), oxide compositions, mineralogical phases, morphology, and functional groups using advanced techniques of laser PSD, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared/attenuated total reflection (FTIR/ATR), respectively, to understand their import on HPC. Durability properties, including water absorption, sorptivity, and chemical attack of the HPC samples, were investigated to realise the effect of RHA on the HPC matrix. The findings revealed that the durability properties of RHA-based HPCs exhibited an acceptable range of values consistent with relevant standards. The findings established that self-produced RHA would be beneficial as a cement replacement in HPC. As the RHA is a cost-effective agro-waste, a scalable product of RHA would be a resource for sustainable technology.

2022 ◽  
pp. 0958305X2110639
Aparna Singh ◽  
Akhilesh Kumar Choudhary ◽  
Shailendra Sinha ◽  
Hitesh Panchal ◽  
Kishor Kumar Sadasivuni

Extensive consumption of fossil fuel has contributed to the worldwide decline of its reserves and detrimental effect on the environment. Therefore, it is essential to explore alternative option of fuel for diesel engine. The main objective of this research article is to optimize vibrations in a single-cylinder variable compression ratio diesel engine driven by Jatropha biodiesel blend. The heterogeneous catalyst (calcium oxide) is used to manufacture of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil by a process of transesterification. The optimization technique (Response Surface Methodology) has been employed to optimize root mean square acceleration of vibration by taking load, compression ratio (CR), and fuel injection pressure (FIP) as engine input parameters. Experiments were designed according to central composite design. The amplitude of the frequency domain signals is determined using Fast Fourier Transform and the influence of input parameters has been investigated in the frequency domain analysis of the vibration signatures. The adequacy and significance of the models have been checked by p-value and F value tests. Regression coefficients Adj. R2, R2, Pred. R2 were also found in acceptable range. The experimental outcome reveals that biodiesel yield of 81.6% was obtained at methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 12:1, reaction temperature of 65°C, reaction time of 3 h, and catalyst concentration of 5 wt%. Simultaneously, the model obtained a series of solutions based on the desirability criteria and proposed optimum setting of engine input parameters at a load of 2.59 kg, 17.94 CR, and 268.76 bar FIP for B30 blend. B30 blend generated root mean square acceleration of 4.46 m/s2 at above optimized conditions. A validation trial was conducted and the percentage of error for root mean square acceleration was found to be 2.3356% and 1.3039%, respectively, for B0 and B30 blend.

2022 ◽  
pp. 0021955X2110626
Adnan Srihanum ◽  
Maznee TI Tuan Noor ◽  
Kosheela PP Devi ◽  
Seng Soi Hoong ◽  
Nurul H Ain ◽  

Palm olein-based polyol (PP) was used as a partial replacement for commercial sucrose/glycerine initiated polyether polyol (GP) for the production of low density rigid polyurethane foams (RPUFs). The hydroxyl value (OHV) of the GP was 380 mg KOH/g, whereas the OHV for PP was 360 mg KOH/g. The RPUFs were prepared by replacing the GP with PP up to 50 parts per hundred parts of polyols (pph). Characterisation of the RPUFs, including density, compressive strength and strain, cell morphology and thermal conductivity ( k-value), were conducted. The dimensional stability of the foams was also evaluated. The study showed improvement in the compressive strength and strain for palm-based RPUFs with the incorporation of up to 30 pph PP as compared to GP foams. The lowest k-value (0.0232 W/m.K) of RPUF with density below 30 kg/m3 was obtained with the incorporation of 10 pph PP. This was due to the smallest and uniform pore size distribution observed using SEM images. The dimensional stability of the RPUF prepared from PP was within the acceptable range. Thus, the RPUFs made from PP are potential candidates to be used as insulation for refrigerators, freezers and piping.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 24-43
Hina Amin ◽  
Muhammad Abid Malik ◽  
Bulent Akkaya

The study aimes to develop and validate Digital Literacy Scale (DLS) based on Chen’s (2015) theoretical framework which includes nine dimensions: communication, collaboration, critical thinking, creativity, citizenship, character, curation, copyright, and connectedness. A question pool consisting of 62 items based on the nine dimensions of digital literacy was generated on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Content validity of the question pool was sought from experts in terms of clarity of items, language understanding, and relevance. SPSS and AMOS were used for statistical analysis. Using a sample of 349 university students, Exploratory Factor Analysis was employed for reliability analysis, construct validation, and factor structure of the scale. EFA confirms the nine dimensions; however, some items were deleted during this process. Finally, Confirmatory Factor Analysis was employed to check the reliability and validity of the factor structure by using a second sample (n=442). CFA showed that all the values were within the acceptable range (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin 0.886, the total variance explained 62.87%, Cronbach Alpha 0.894, and the goodness of fit 0.924). Thus a standardized DLS consisting of 36 items and 9 factors (communication, copyright, critical thinking, character, citizenship, curation, connectedness, creativity, and collaboration) was finalized. DLS is a psychometrically sound, reliable, and valid measurement tool that can be used to measure digital literacy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 18-29
Adepoju Onifade ◽  
Babatunde Folasayo ◽  
Abimbola Babatunde

Purpose:  The reason for this study is because of observed difference in environmental condition in Lagos metropolis.  The change is witnessed in environmental change arising from air, water and noise pollution mostly from increasing vehicle emissions in the State. This study has been conducted to analyze the environmental effects of pollution on pedestrians. Specific objectives are determine the air quality of the city at most populate headquarters of each of the 20 Local Government Areas of Lagos State, to examine the impact of pollution (air, water and noise) on pedestrians and assess various measures for reducing environmental pollution in the State. Methodology: The use of Thermo scientific MIE pDR-1500 instrument was used to measure air quality index of the selected locations and survey was carried out with well-structured questionnaire to elicit information with the aid of incidental sampling technique on impact of pollution on pedestrians from 177 respondents. Findings: Air Quality Index was shown with histogram chart where six out of 20 Local Government Areas are above the acceptable standard of pollution. There is rising cases of pollution in the State and very few Local governments were within acceptable range. One –Sample T-test showed that air pollution is majorly affecting pedestrians with t-value of 22.226 followed by noise with 19.643 and water with 5.529 respectively. Conclusion and recommendations: The research concluded that, there is need to control the rising cases of pollution in the state and policies to tame air and noise pollution in the state should be adopted. Emission control strategies to be adopted with the existing ones can be in form of restricting hours of movement of vehicles to late at night to avoid human pollutant contact, encourage tree planting and rapid evacuation of environmental waste.

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