Abstract During this one year study, blood and fecal samples of doves (Zenaida asiatica), ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), pigeons (Columba livia), partridges (Alectoris chukar), turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and goose (Chen caerulescens) were collected to assess the parasitic prevalence in these birds. The birds were kept at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. All these avian species were kept in separate cages and their entire body was inspected on regularly basis to record external parasites. For internal parasites, 100 blood and 100 fecal samples for each species were analyzed. During present study, two species of ectoparasites i.e. fowl ticks (Args persicus) and mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) while 17 species of endoparasites; three from blood and 14 from fecal samples were identified. Prevalence of blood parasites was Plasmodium juxtanucleare 29.3%, Aegyptinella pullorum 15% and Leucoctoyzoon simond 13%. Parasitic species recorded from fecal samples included 6 species of nematodes viz. Syngamus trachea with parasitic prevalence of 50%, Capillaria anatis 40%, Capillaria annulata 37.5%, Heterakis gallinarum 28.3%, Ascardia galli 24% and Allodpa suctoria 2%. Similarly, two species of trematodes viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus having parasitic prevalence of 12.1% and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 9.1% were also recorded from fecal samples of the birds. Single cestode species Raillietina echinobothrida having parasitic prevalence of 27% and 3 protozoan species i.e. Eimeria maxima having prevalence 20.1%, Histomonas meleagridis 8% and Giardia lamblia 5.3% were recorded. In our recommendation, proper medication and sanitation of the bird’s houses and cages is recommended to avoid parasites.
PT Surya Putra Mulia is a company that produces gray (greige) using the knitting process. This research is focused on the warehouse section on the loading process finished goods. In the warehouse section there are some excessive physical activities due to activities are carried out manually. Measurement of work posture is needed to determine whether the work posture carried out by the operator is good and ergonomic. Assessment of work posture is carried out using the Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) method. Based on an assessment using the REBA (Rapid Entire Body Assessment) method, it shows that the withdrawal of finished goods includes a moderate level of risk, which means that improvements are needed. The activity of loading finished goods onto trucks (figure 3) includes a moderate risk level which means that repairs are needed, while in Figure 4 it is a high risk level which means that immediate corrective action is needed. For the preparation of finished goods on trucks, it is a moderate risk level, which means that repairs are needed. So that in the process of withdrawing finished goods, proposals are given to reduce the burden being transported. Then add a tool in the process of loading finished goods to the truck in the form of a hand stacker.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) confers neural control of the entire body, mainly through the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves. Several studies have observed that the physiological functions of the eye (pupil size, lens accommodation, ocular circulation, and intraocular pressure regulation) are precisely regulated by the ANS. Almost all parts of the eye have autonomic innervation for the regulation of local homeostasis through synergy and antagonism. With the advent of new research methods, novel anatomical characteristics and numerous physiological processes have been elucidated. Herein, we summarize the anatomical and physiological functions of the ANS in the eye within the context of its intrinsic connections. This review provides novel insights into ocular studies.
Cholesterol is an essential component of eukaryotic cellular membranes. It is also an important precursor for making other molecules needed by the body. Cholesterol homeostasis plays an essential role in human health. Having high cholesterol can increase the chances of getting heart disease. As a result of the risks associated with high cholesterol, it is imperative that studies are conducted to determine the best course of action to reduce whole body cholesterol levels. Mathematical models can provide direction on this. By examining existing models, the suitable reactions or processes for drug targeting to lower whole-body cholesterol can be determined. This paper examines existing models in the literature that, in total, cover most of the processes involving cholesterol metabolism and transport, including: the absorption of cholesterol in the intestine; the cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver; the storage and transport of cholesterol between the intestine, the liver, blood vessels, and peripheral cells. The findings presented in these models will be discussed for potential combination to form a comprehensive model of cholesterol within the entire body, which is then taken as an in-silico patient for identifying drug targets, screening drugs, and designing intervention strategies to regulate cholesterol levels in the human body.
Less has been said about the hand movements of the film makers, their cultural dimension and the place of this "corporate language" in the film making process, probably because this object is difficult to capture even with a diary. Gestures go too fast to be sketched on the spot and often faster than the perception of the ethnographer. Some of these gestures are made to stabilize the frame or simulate the camera movement but lots of them are difficult to classify and don't fall into this category, like the ones which are produced to accompany the actors' action or to invite him to perform a certain action and which have more to do with a mode of demonstration involving the entire body. This article, mostly based on videos of Bombay film makers at work, tries to identify the specificity of these gestures in terms of communication or interaction and their potential of coordination in the film set dynamics.
Shukra is studied in Ayurveda both as a dhatu and beeja. As a mammalian human body comprises both somatic and gonadal cells. Somatic cells help for growth and regeneration through mitosis. Meiotic cell division causes equal contribution for the inheritance from maternal and paternal sides. Beejartham (reproduction) is the supreme function attributed to Shukra. Reproduction refers to the formation of new cells for tissue growth, repair/replacement (sukshmavayavantarotpatti), or the production of a new individual (shareerantarotpatti). Regenerative capacity is distributed unequally among species, individuals, and tissues. The affliction of shukrastana by kusthadosha (skin disease) causes a failure in regeneration. The affliction of parents' shukra and artava (gametes) by kusthadosha (skin disease) inherits to the next generation. Vrushan (testis) and medru (penis) are the moola of the shukravahavaha srotus, which is meant to fertilise the ovum (beejarupishukra). Majja (bone marrow) and stana (breasts) are the moola of the shukravaha srotus of the one pervading the entire body (dhaturupishukra).
This study aimed to systematically compare three representative observational methods for assessing musculoskeletal loadings and their association with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs): Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS), Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA). The comparison was based on a literature review without time limitations and was conducted on various factors related to observational methods. The comparisons showed that although it has a significant limitation of comprising only two classifications for the leg postures, (1) the RULA is the most frequently used method among the three techniques; (2) many studies adopted the RULA even in evaluation of unstable lower limb postures; (3) the RULA assessed postural loads as higher risk levels in most studies reviewed in this research; (4) the intra- and inter-reliabilities for the RULA were not low; and (5) the risk levels assessed by the RULA were more significantly associated with postural load criteria such as discomfort, MHTs and % capable at the trunk, and MSDs.
There is a long history of arithmetic simulations in the domain of gluconeogenesis. There are various reasons why frameworks are used. Paradigms have been employed to calculate physiologically relevant parameters from intermediate experimental evidence, to offer a clear quantitative description of pathophysiology processes, and to identify clinical relevance indicators from basic empirical procedures. The creation and application of frameworks in this field has expanded in response to the rising social effect of type 2 diabetes that entails a disruption of the glycemic homeostasis system. The frameworks' emphasis has ranged from depictions of entire body functions to lymphocytes (form “in Vivo” to “in Vitro”) study, following the methodologies of physiologic and medicinal exploration. Framework-based techniques to connecting in vivo and in vitro research, and also multi-resolution systems that combine the two domains, have been presented. The arithmetic and psychological domains have had varying levels of effectiveness and influence.
Background: There is a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among personnel working in the healthcare sector, mainly among nursing assistants and orderlies. Objective: The objective is to analyze the effectiveness of a multi-component intervention that included postural feedback in reducing musculoskeletal risk. Method: A total of 24 nursing assistants and orderlies in a hospital setting were randomly assigned to an intervention group or a control group. After collecting sociodemographic information, a selection of tasks was made and assessed using the REBA (rapid entire body assessment) method. A multi-component intervention was designed combining theoretical and practical training, including feedback on the postures performed by the professionals involved, especially those involving high musculoskeletal risk. This program was applied only to participants in the intervention group. Subsequently, eight months after the first assessment and intervention, the second assessment was carried out using the same method and process as in the first evaluation. Results: The results indicate that the musculoskeletal risk in the second assessment in the intervention group was significantly reduced. However, no significant changes were observed in the control group. Conclusion: The multi-component intervention applied can significantly reduce the musculoskeletal risk of nursing assistants and orderlies. In addition, it is a low-cost intervention with great applicability.
AbstractFish mortality assessments for turbine passages are currently performed by live-animal testing with up to a hundred thousand fish per year in Germany. A propelled sensor device could act as a fish surrogate. In this context, the study presented here investigates the state of the art via a thorough literature review on propulsion systems for aquatic robots. An evaluation of propulsion performance, weight, size and complexity of the motion achievable allows for the selection of an optimal concept for such a fish mimicking device carrying the sensors. In the second step, the design of a bioinspired soft robotic fish driven by an unconventional drive system is described. It is based on piezoceramic actuators, which allow for motion with five degrees of freedom (DOF) and the creation of complex bio-mimicking body motions. A kinematic model for the motion’s characteristics is developed, to achieve accurate position feedback with the use of strain gauges. Optical measurements validate the complex deformation of the body and deliver the basis for the calibration of the kinematic model. Finally, it can be shown, that the calibrated model presented allows the tracking of the deformation of the entire body with an accuracy of 0.1 mm.