Kaposi Sarcoma
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2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (12) ◽  
pp. e245448
Stephen P Connolly ◽  
Jonathan McGrath ◽  
Jane Sui ◽  
Eavan G Muldoon

We describe the case of a 30-year-old man who presented to our institution with hypoxia and widespread pulmonary infiltrates managed initially as COVID-19 before receiving a new diagnosis of HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma (KS) with widespread pulmonary and skeletal involvement. Initial differential diagnoses included Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, disseminated mycobacterial infection and bacillary angiomatosis. A bone marrow biopsy showed heavy infiltration by spindle cells, staining strongly positive for human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) and CD34, suggesting symptomatic, disseminated KS as the unifying diagnosis. The patient commenced cytotoxic therapy with weekly paclitaxel, with a clinical and radiological response. To our knowledge, this case is among the most severe described in the literature, which we discuss, along with how COVID-19 initially hindered developing a therapeutic allegiance with the patient.

Anna C. Buhle ◽  
Mariana A. Phillips ◽  
Yasmine M. Hijazi ◽  
Michael Wiid ◽  
Douglas J. Grider

Roumen Borilov Iordanov ◽  
Lauren M. Leining ◽  
Meng Wu ◽  
Galant Chan ◽  
Andrew R. DiNardo ◽  

Diarrhea in an immunocompromised patient has a broad infectious differential. Diagnosis is difficult despite advances in diagnostic modalities. We report a case of a 45-year-old Nigerian woman who immigrated to the United States 2 years ago. She presented to the hospital with gastrointestinal bleeding, newly diagnosed HIV, and disseminated Kaposi sarcoma. During hospitalization, the patient had an onset of watery diarrhea and high eosinophilia. Subsequent stool analysis using multi-parallel real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction for 13 parasites was positive for Cystoisospora belli. The patient was treated with trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, but had relapsed disease when her antibiotics were stopped prematurely. After restarting trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, her diarrhea and eosinophilia improved, and she had undetectable Cystoisospora belli DNA on repeat stool quantitative polymerase chain reaction. This case highlights the importance of a thorough workup for diarrhea, including parasites, especially for immunocompromised patients. Antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended in patients with Cystoisospora belli and HIV/AIDS.

Hemato ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (4) ◽  
pp. 703-712
Mark Bower ◽  
Antonino Carbone

In 1992, Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8) was discovered and identified as the causative agent for Kaposi sarcoma. Subsequently, the presence of this virus has been detected in a number of lymphoproliferative disorders in people living with HIV (PLWH), including: KSHV-associated multicentric Castleman disease, primary effusion lymphoma, KSHV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and germinotropic lymphoproliferative disorder. Each of these rare entities has subsequently been diagnosed in HIV-negative individuals. The recognition of some of these KSHV/HHV8-associated lymphoproliferative disorders has led to their inclusion in the WHO classification of lymphomas in 2008 and the revision of 2016; however, further revision is under way to update the classification. The relatively recent recognition of these lymphoproliferative disorders and their low incidence, particularly in the HIV-negative population, means that there is little published evidence and consensus on their clinical features and management. The publication of a new WHO classification of lymphomas should yield diagnostic clarity, providing an impetus for retrospective case series and prospective clinical trials in these KSHV/HHV8-associated lymphoproliferative disorders.

Kaitlyn M. Yim ◽  
Tom Liang ◽  
Esteban Gnass ◽  
Brittney DeClerck

2021 ◽  
Stefan Tigges

Paulo Sérgio Souza Pina ◽  
Mariana Lobo Bergamini ◽  
Fábio Luiz Coracin ◽  
Suzana Cantanhede Orsini Machado de Sousa

Objective: This study analyzed the prevalence and clinic-pathological features of soft-tissue sarcomas diagnosed in a single-center of oral pathology from a School of Dentistry in Brazil. Materials and methods: All consecutive cases of intra-oral soft-tissue sarcomas diagnosed between January of 2002 and December of 2018 were retrieved from the files; patient data (sex, age and race) and characteristics of the lesions (site, size, clinical aspect and duration of injury) were collected. Results: Among a total of 62,255 biopsies diagnosed in the studied period, soft-tissue oral sarcomas comprised 76 cases (0.12%). Kaposi sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma encompassed 64.5% of the cases, and 53% of these were diagnosed as Kaposi Sarcoma. Male patients were more affected (59.2%) and white patients comprised 50%. In general, 39.4% of the patients were between 21-40yo. Conclusion: Soft-tissue sarcomas are rare in oral soft-tissue and in our pathology service, they comprised only 0.12% of all diseases diagnosed in the studied period. Kaposi sarcoma was the most frequent, followed by leiomyosarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. Thus, it is important for stomatologists and pathologists to be aware of their characteristics when examining oral mucosa, mainly their peculiarities regarding patient’s age, clinical appearance, and site of occurrence.

Reubina Wadee ◽  
Wayne Grayson

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 491-493
Laura Goyack ◽  
Matthew Heimann

Case Presentation: A 28-year-old male with a recent diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus presented to the emergency department with odynophagia and dysphagia for a month. Physical exam revealed Kaposi sarcoma partially occluding the airway. Point-of-care ultrasound was used to assist with the diagnosis of reactive lymphadenopathy, and computed tomography revealed systemic disease. Otolaryngology was urgently consulted, and the patient was admitted for prompt tracheostomy the following day. Discussion: Kaposi sarcoma is a violaceous vascular neoplasm that is an acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining illness. Mucocutaneous membranes should be thoroughly evaluated with patients suspected of AIDS. This case demonstrates the vital evaluation of the patient’s airway to assess patency. Highly active antiretroviral therapy should be initiated promptly, as well as chemotherapy in severe systemic cases.

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