volcanic rocks
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 71-75
R. Orujeva

Gay gray-brown soils are distributed mainly in the foothills of the Lesser Caucasus, on the Ganja-Gazakh plain and in the lower reaches of the Araz basin. They are formed by changing volcanic rocks in hot and dry climates. In the process of erosion and soil formation, pyrite, alunitized and other sulfur-containing rocks turn into gazh, on which gray-brown gazh soils are formed. As a result of human activity, i. e. deep plowing and irrigation, these lands are being converted. It turned out that the transformation of these soils is clearly felt in the thickness of the humus layer, its distribution along the profile, quantity and composition. The thickness of the humus layer increases from 40–45 cm to 100 cm. As a result of the transformation, the length of the humus profile is constantly decreasing. Changes in the composition of humus led to an increase in the content of humic acids. Although the coefficient in the uncultivated area decreased from 1.36 to 0.80, in the irrigated area it changed from 1.70 to 0.93.

2022 ◽  
José Iván Morales Arredondo ◽  
Armienta Hernández ◽  
I.Z. Flores-Ocampo ◽  
R. Flores-Vargas

Abstract Chronic exposure from drinking water with naturally high concentrations of fluoride (F⁻) has serious health consequences in several regions across the world including north-central Mexico as Guanajuato State, where the rural population is particularly dependent on untreated groundwater pumped from wells that have natural F- concentrations higher than those allowed by national and international regulations. The contaminated aquifers in the area are usually located in fractured volcanic environment that interacts with sedimentary basins and have a carbonate basement. Few studies focused on identifying the origin and hydrogeochemical processes related to fluoride release and mobilization have been developed, and even fewer that quantify the natural content of F in the geological environment. In this study, an evaluation of fluoride in volcanic rocks collected from 11 sampling sites along the Sierra de Codornices (Guanajuato State, Central Mexico) was carried out. The fluoride content is disseminated in volcanic rocks and the highest contents were obtained in felsic rocks. According to results obtained of a sampling campaign of 32 wells in 2019 their statistical and hydrogeochemical evaluation suggest that F- mobilization in groundwater from Juventino Rosas and Villagran municipalities, is a product of volcanic glass dissolution, a process involved in alkaline desorption occurring on the surfaces of F-containing minerals, and possibly on ion exchange occurring in minerals and some clays or even in deep fluids enriched in F. All these processes may be accelerated by the geothermal characteristics of the groundwater in the study area. The hydrogeochemical results and the epidemiological survey conducted indicate that children and older adults of Praderas de la Venta are at risk of exposure to F- due to the high concentrations ingested over a long period of time, to the toxicity of the element and its ability to accumulate in the bones. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations increases the risk.

2022 ◽  
Vol 906 ◽  
pp. 47-52
Maria Badalyan ◽  
Amalya Karapetyan ◽  
Hovsep Hoveyan

The possibility of using a clinker-free binder as an alternative to expensive and energy-intensive Portland cement is being considered. The pozzolanizing effect of volcanic rocks is presented, where along with the binding of calcium hydroxide by silica to hydrosilicates, the binding of calcium hydroxide by “free” alumina to hydroaluminates also takes place. In the process of hardening of the clinker-free binder, the phase mineralogical composition of the formed new formations differs from the new formations that are synthesized during hardening of traditional Portland cement, which explains the difference in their properties. The new formations that are formed during the hardening process of clinker-free cements are mainly low-basic hydrosilicates, and alkaline aluminosilicates give the cast-in-place stone water resistance, frost resistance, waterproofing, etc., in a word, durability. Physical and chemical studies of the hardening process of clinker-free lime-igneous cements have been carried out, which indicates the possibility of replacing the energy-intensive Portland cement with cheaper clinker-free cement.

2022 ◽  
Vol 906 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Emma Sahakyan ◽  
Avetik Arzumanyan ◽  
Nelli Muradyan

The prospects of implementing the mechanochemical activation method of volcanic silicate and aluminosilicate rocks - perlites, tuffs, pumice, etc. are being considered for the production of a wide range of building materials using energy-conserving technologies. The thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of interaction in the systems of aluminosilicate – NaOH have been presented, indicating low-temperature sintering of volcanic rocks with sodium hydroxide. According to the degree of activity, the rocks have the following order: perlites, tuffs, obsidian, microcline. Kinetic parameters are presented: concentration, temperature, conversion degree, reaction rate constant, time of complete reaction and product layer thickness.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Wu Wei ◽  
Chuan-Zhou Liu ◽  
Ross N. Mitchell ◽  
Wen Yan

Triassic volcanic rocks, including basalts and dacites, were drilled from Meiji Atoll in the South China Sea (SCS), which represents a rifted slice from the active continental margin along the Cathaysia Block. In this study, we present apatite and whole rock geochemistry of Meiji dacites to decipher their petrogenesis. Apatite geochronology yielded U-Pb ages of 204–221 Ma, which are identical to zircon U-Pb ages within uncertainty and thus corroborate the formation of the Meiji volcanic rocks during the Late Triassic. Whole rock major elements suggest that Meiji dacites mainly belong to the high-K calc-alkaline series. They display enriched patterns in light rare earth elements (LREE) and flat patterns in heavy rare earth elements (HREE). They show enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE) and negative anomalies in Eu, Sr, P, Nb, Ta, and Ti. The dacites have initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7094–0.7113, εNd(t) values of -5.9–-5.4 and εHf(t) values of -2.9–-1.7, whereas the apatite has relatively higher initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.71289–0.71968) and similar εNd(t) (-8.13–-4.56) values. The dacites have homogeneous Pb isotopes, with initial 206Pb/204Pb of 18.73–18.87, 207Pb/204Pb of 15.75–15.80, and 208Pb/204Pb of 38.97–39.17. Modeling results suggest that Meiji dacites can be generated by <40% partial melting of amphibolites containing ∼10% garnet. Therefore, we propose that the Meiji dacites were produced by partial melting of the lower continental crust beneath the South China block, triggered by the underplating of mafic magmas as a response to Paleo-Pacific (Panthalassa) subduction during the Triassic. Meiji Atoll, together with other microblocks in the SCS, were rifted from the South China block and drifted southward due to continental extension and the opening of the SCS.

2022 ◽  
Innocent Badriyo Agama ◽  
Gilles Chazot ◽  
Pierre Kamgang

Geology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Michele Lustrino ◽  
Natascia Luciani ◽  
Vincenzo Stagno ◽  
Silvia Narzisi ◽  
Matteo Masotta ◽  

In this experimental study, we documented the formation of strongly ultrabasic and ultracalcic melts through the interaction of melilititic and basanitic melts with calcite. Three strongly to moderately SiO2-undersaturated volcanic rocks from the Bohemian Massif (central Europe) were mixed with 10, 30, and 50 wt% CaCO3 and melted at 1100, 1200, and 1300 °C at 2 kbar to evaluate the maximum amount of carbonate that can be assimilated by natural ultrabasic melts at shallow depths. Experiments revealed a surprisingly complete dissolution of the CaCO3, only rarely reaching carbonate saturation, with typical liquidus phases represented by olivine, spinel, melilite, and clinopyroxene. Only in the runs with the most SiO2-undersaturated compositions did abundant monticellite form instead of clinopyroxene. For all starting mixtures, strongly ultrabasic (SiO2 down to 15.6 wt%), lime-rich (CaO up to 43.6 wt%), ultracalcic (CaO/Al2O3 up to ~27) melt compositions were produced at 1200 and 1300 °C, with up to ~25 wt% dissolved CO2. When present, quenched olivine showed much higher forsterite content (Fo95–97) than olivine in the natural samples (Fo79–85). The two major results of this study are (1) silicate-carbonatite melt compositions do not necessarily imply the existence of carbonatitic components in the mantle, because they are also produced during limestone assimilation, and (2) Fo-rich olivines cannot be used to infer any primitive character of the melt nor high potential temperature (Tp).

Bryant Ware ◽  
Kyle P. Tumpane ◽  
Gene A. Kurz ◽  
Mark D. Schmitz ◽  
Clyde J. Northrup

The Olds Ferry terrane is the more inboard of two accreted volcanic arc terranes in the late Paleozoic−early Mesozoic Blue Mountains province of the northern U.S. Cordillera. We present geologic, geochronologic, and geochemical data from the volcano-sedimentary Huntington Formation of the Olds Ferry arc that place the terrane within a firm temporal and tectonomagmatic context, and establish its identity as a fringing arc terrane along the Triassic to Early Jurassic Cordilleran margin. The Huntington Formation is divided into two unconformity-bounded informal members: a Norian (ca. 220 Ma) lower member comprising a sequence of mafic-intermediate volcanics, massive volcaniclastic breccias, and minor carbonates deposited unconformably onto the 237.7 Ma Brownlee pluton and intruded by the 210.0 Ma Iron Mountain pluton; and a Rhaetian through Pleinsbachian (<210−187.0 Ma) upper member composed of massive conglomerates, abundant rhyodacite to rhyolite effusive and pyroclastic flows, and interlayered sandstone turbidites, deposited with angular unconformity onto the lower member. An erosional hiatus and regional tilting produced an angular unconformity separating the Huntington Formation from the overlying basal conglomerates of the late Early to Middle Jurassic Weatherby Formation of the Izee forearc basin transgressive onlap sequence. Huntington Formation volcanic rocks are isotopically enriched relative to depleted mantle and coeval igneous rocks in the outboard Wallowa terrane. A temporal evolution to more radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7036−0.7057) and εNd values (+5.4 to +3.1) in the upper member volcanics suggests increasing involvement of continental-derived material in their petrogenesis. Precambrian xenocrystic zircons in both lower and upper member volcaniclastic rocks strongly support a proximal location of the Olds Ferry terrane to cratonal North America during much of its history. The chronology and tectonostratigraphic architecture of the Olds Ferry terrane allows its robust correlation to other fringing-arc terranes along the U.S. and Canadian Cordillera.

2022 ◽  
pp. 106076
D. Hatzenbühler ◽  
L. Caracciolo ◽  
G.J. Weltje ◽  
A. Piraquive ◽  
M. Regelous

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