antihypertensive medication
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Alun D. Hughes ◽  
Sophie V. Eastwood ◽  
Therese Tillin ◽  
Nish Chaturvedi

Objectives:We characterised differences in BP control and use of antihypertensive medications in European (EA), South Asian (SA) and African-Caribbean (AC) people with hypertension and investigated the potential role of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), reduced arterial compliance (Ca), and antihypertensive medication use in any differences.Methods:Analysis was restricted to individuals with hypertension [age range 59–85 years; N = 852 (EA = 328, SA = 356, and AC =168)]. Questionnaires, anthropometry, BP measurements, echocardiography, and fasting blood assays were performed. BP control was classified according to UK guidelines operating at the time of the study. Data were analysed using generalised structural equation models, multivariable regression and treatment effect models.Results:SA and AC people were more likely to receive treatment for high BP and received a greater average number of antihypertensive agents, but despite this a smaller proportion of SA and AC achieved control of BP to target [age and sex adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 0.52 (0.38, 0.72) and 0.64 (0.43, 0.96), respectively]. Differences in BP control were partially attenuated by controlling for the higher prevalence of T2DM and reduced Ca in SA and AC. There was little difference in choice of antihypertensive agent by ethnicity and no evidence that differences in efficacy of antihypertensive regimens contributed to ethnic differences in BP control.Conclusions:T2DM and more adverse arterial stiffness are important factors in the poorer BP control in SA and AC people. More effort is required to achieve better control of BP, particularly in UK ethnic minorities.

2022 ◽  

The idea of Fuzzy Expert System (FES) used in this research work is proposed to assist the medical experts to make right diagnosis for patients that are suffering from hypertension. The only sure way to monitor high blood pressure is through regular checkups. Majority of the researchers that have worked in this field only focused on using fuzzy expert system for classification of hypertension data, while few of them dealt with data analysis. This research work further checked for the efficacy of medication on the patients and the exact time the effect began to have impact on the patients using secondary data collected from questionnaire. It was gathered from the sampled respondents that the antihypertensive medication (Dieuretic) has been reliable in the treatment of hypertension.

Abhilash Chandra ◽  
Namrata Rao ◽  
Divya Srivastava ◽  
Prabhaker Mishra

Abstract Introduction There is a high prevalence of hypertension in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Information regarding prevalent pattern of antihypertensive medications will help modify it to prevent future cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, patients on maintenance hemodialysis, aged ≥18 years visiting Nephrology outpatient department (OPD) from April 2019 to May 2020 were included. The patients were divided into two groups based on their dialysis vintage, ≤12 months and >12 months. Their antihypertensive medication patterns and two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography (ECHO) findings were compared. Independent t-test was used to compare continuous variables. One-way analysis of variance was used to study the antihypertensive drug-dosing pattern in both the groups. Results Out of 250 patients, 131 had a dialysis vintage of ≤12 months, whereas 119 had a vintage of >12 months. There was no significant difference in the number of antihypertensive agents used in either of the vintage groups. Calcium channel blockers (87.02 and 89.07%, respectively, in ≤12 and >12 months' vintage groups) and β blockers (64.12 and 65.54%, respectively, in ≤12 and >12 months' vintage groups) were the commonly used antihypertensive agents. Metoprolol use was higher in ≤12 months' group, whereas carvedilol usage was higher in >12 months' group (p = 0.028). Mean pill burden was more than five in both the groups. Concentric left ventricular hypertrophy was significantly more common in >12 months' group. Renin–angiotensin system (RAS) blocking agent use was limited to 3% of patients. Conclusion This study shows a high antihypertensive pill burden in dialysis patients likely due to underlying chronic volume overload in addition to the perceived efficacy of certain class of drug in a frequent dosing pattern. Low use of RAS blocking agent was also underlined. This study highlights the need to bring about changes in the antihypertensive prescription pattern in line with the existing evidence.

PLoS Medicine ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. e1003855
Jinkook Lee ◽  
Jenny Wilkens ◽  
Erik Meijer ◽  
T. V. Sekher ◽  
David E. Bloom ◽  

Background Hypertension is the most important cardiovascular risk factor in India, and representative studies of middle-aged and older Indian adults have been lacking. Our objectives were to estimate the proportions of hypertensive adults who had been diagnosed, took antihypertensive medication, and achieved control in the middle-aged and older Indian population and to investigate the association between access to healthcare and hypertension management. Methods and findings We designed a nationally representative cohort study of the middle-aged and older Indian population, the Longitudinal Aging Study in India (LASI), and analyzed data from the 2017–2019 baseline wave (N = 72,262) and the 2010 pilot wave (N = 1,683). Hypertension was defined as self-reported physician diagnosis or elevated blood pressure (BP) on measurement, defined as systolic BP ≥ 140 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mm Hg. Among hypertensive individuals, awareness, treatment, and control were defined based on self-reports of having been diagnosed, taking antihypertensive medication, and not having elevated BP, respectively. The estimated prevalence of hypertension for the Indian population aged 45 years and older was 45.9% (95% CI 45.4%–46.5%). Among hypertensive individuals, 55.7% (95% CI 54.9%–56.5%) had been diagnosed, 38.9% (95% CI 38.1%–39.6%) took antihypertensive medication, and 31.7% (95% CI 31.0%–32.4%) achieved BP control. In multivariable logistic regression models, access to public healthcare was a key predictor of hypertension treatment (odds ratio [OR] = 1.35, 95% CI 1.14–1.60, p = 0.001), especially in the most economically disadvantaged group (OR of the interaction for middle economic status = 0.76, 95% CI 0.61–0.94, p = 0.013; OR of the interaction for high economic status = 0.84, 95% CI 0.68–1.05, p = 0.124). Having health insurance was not associated with improved hypertension awareness among those with low economic status (OR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.86–1.07, p = 0.437) and those with middle economic status (OR of the interaction = 1.15, 95% CI 1.00–1.33, p = 0.051), but it was among those with high economic status (OR of the interaction = 1.28, 95% CI 1.10–1.48, p = 0.001). Comparing hypertension awareness, treatment, and control rates in the 4 pilot states, we found statistically significant (p < 0.001) improvement in hypertension management from 2010 to 2017–2019. The limitations of this study include the pilot sample being relatively small and that it recruited from only 4 states. Conclusions Although considerable variations in hypertension diagnosis, treatment, and control exist across different sociodemographic groups and geographic areas, reducing uncontrolled hypertension remains a public health priority in India. Access to healthcare is closely tied to both hypertension diagnosis and treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
Hyeon Chang Kim ◽  
Hokyou Lee ◽  
Hyeok-Hee Lee ◽  
Eunsun Seo ◽  
Eunji Kim ◽  

Abstract Background The Korean Society of Hypertension has published the Korea Hypertension Fact Sheet 2021 to provide an overview of the magnitude and management status of hypertension and their recent trends. Methods The Fact Sheets were based on the analyses of Korean adults aged 20 years or older of the 1998–2019 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the 2002–2019 National Health Insurance Big Data. Results Currently, the population average of systolic/diastolic blood pressure was 119/76 mmHg in Korean adults aged 20 years or older showing little change in the recent decade. It is estimated that 28% of the adult population aged 20 or older (33% of adults aged 30 or older) have hypertension. The estimated number of people with hypertension was 6.30 million for men and 5.77 million for women, and 1.96 million for men and 2.99 million for women among the population aged 65 or older. The number of people diagnosed with hypertension increased from 3.0 million in 2002 to 10.1 million in 2019. During the same period, the number of people using antihypertensive medication increased from 2.5 million to 9.5 million, and the number of people adherent to treatment increased from 0.6 million to 6.9 million. Among antihypertensive prescriptions, 40.6% of the patients received monotherapy, 43.4% received dual therapy, and 16.0% received triple or more therapy. The most commonly prescribed antihypertensive medication was angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), followed by calcium channel blockers (CCB) and diuretics. In young women, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi), ARB and CCB are less frequently prescribed than in men, but 59.5% of hypertensive women aged 20–39 are prescribed ACEi or ARBs. Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy have been increasing over the past 10 years. In 2019, 5.4% of women who gave birth were diagnosed with chronic hypertension and 3.1% with pregnancy-induced hypertension. Conclusions To achieve further improvement in management of hypertension, we need to encourage awareness and treatment in young adults. It is required to develop tailored prevention and management strategies that are appropriate for and inclusive of various demographics.

Mohammed Salah Hussein ◽  
Almutairi, Samia Nouh ◽  
Azam Mohammed Alnamy ◽  
Alsulami, Roaya Ayed ◽  
Zainab Ali Alshaikh ◽  

Renovascular hypertension (RVH) is a prevalent cause of secondary hypertension that frequently develops to resistant hypertension. It is characterised as systemic hypertension that develops as a result of a restricted blood supply to the kidneys. Patients cannot be recognized clinically from those with essential hypertension; therefore, diagnosis requires arteriography, however urography and isotope renography may hint to the diagnosis. Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) and fibromuscular dysplasia are the two most prevalent causes of RVH. The ultimate objective of controlling RVH, like with other kinds of hypertension, is to minimize the morbidity and mortality associated with high blood pressure The widespread use of effective antihypertensive medication treatment, statins, and other strategies to control vascular disease has resulted in remarkable improvements. In this review we will be looking at etiology, pathogenesis and treatment or RVH.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Xianglin L. Du ◽  
Lara M. Simpson ◽  
Brian C. Tandy ◽  
Judy Bettencourt ◽  
Barry R. Davis

Background. Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) ended in 2002, but it is important to study its long-term outcomes during the posttrial period by incorporating posttrial antihypertensive medication uses in the analysis. Purposes. The primary aim is to explore the patterns of antihypertensive medication use during the posttrial period from Medicare Part-D data over the 11-year period from 2007 to 2017. The secondary aim is to examine the potential effects of these posttrial antihypertensive medications on the observed mortality and morbidity benefits. Methods. This is a posttrial passive follow-up study of ALLHAT participants in 567 US centers in 1994–1998 with the last date of active in-trial follow-up on March 31, 2002, by linking with their Medicare and National Death Index data through 2017 among 8,007 subjects receiving antihypertensive drugs (3,637 for chlorthalidone, 2,189 for amlodipine, and 2,181 for lisinopril). Outcomes included posttrial antihypertensive drug use, all-cause mortality, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Results. Of 8007 subjects, 3,637 participants were initially randomized to diuretic (chlorthalidone). The majority (67.9%) of them still received diuretics in 2007, and 52.7%, 47.2%, and 44.0% received β-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and calcium channel blockers (CCBs), respectively. Compared to participants who received diuretic-based antihypertensives, those who received CCB had a nonsignificantly higher risk of all-cause mortality (1.17, 0.99–1.37), whereas those who received ACE/ARB (angiotensin receptor blockers) had a significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality (1.26, 1.09–1.45). For the combined fatal or nonfatal hospitalized events, the risk of CVD was significantly higher in patients receiving CCB (1.30, 1.04–1.61) and ACE/ARB (1.49, 1.22–1.81) as compared to patients receiving diuretics. Conclusion. After the conclusion of the ALLHAT, almost all patients switched to combination antihypertensive therapies, independently by the original drug class, and the combination therapies (mostly based on diuretics) reduced the incidence of major cardiovascular outcomes and mortality.

James P. Sheppard ◽  
Ali Albasri ◽  
Pankaj Gupta ◽  
Prashanth Patel ◽  
Kamlesh Khunti ◽  

AbstractAnalysis of urine samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has previously revealed high rates of non-adherence to antihypertensive medication. It is unclear whether these rates represent those in the general population. This study aimed to investigate whether it is feasible to collect urine samples in a primary care setting and analyse them using LC-MS/MS to detect non-adherence to antihypertensive medication. This study used a prospective, observational cohort design. Consecutive patients were recruited opportunistically from five general practices in UK primary care. They were aged ≥65 years with hypertension and had at least one antihypertensive prescription. Participants were asked to provide a urine sample for analysis of medication adherence. Samples were sent to a laboratory via post and analysed using LC-MS/MS. Predictors of adherence to medication were explored with multivariable logistic regression. Of 349 consecutive patients approached for the study, 214 (61.3%) gave informed consent and 191 (54.7%) provided a valid urine sample for analysis. Participants were aged 76.2 ± 6.6 years and taking a median of 2 antihypertensive medications (IQR 1–3). A total of 27/191 participants (14.2%) reported not taking all of their medications on the day of urine sample collection. However, LC-MS/MS analysis of samples revealed only 4/27 (9/191 in total; 4.7%) were non-adherent to some of their medications. Patients prescribed more antihypertensive medications were less likely to be adherent (OR 0.24, 95%CI 0.09–0.65). Biochemical testing for antihypertensive medication adherence is feasible in routine primary care, although non-adherence to medication is generally low, and therefore widespread testing is not indicated.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. 334-335
Michelle Odden ◽  
Sei Lee ◽  
Michael Steinman ◽  
Anna Rubinsky ◽  
Bocheng Jing ◽  

Abstract There is growing interest in deprescribing of antihypertensive medications in response to adverse effects, or when a patient’s situation evolves such that the benefits are outweighed by the harms. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the incidence and predictors of deprescribing of antihypertensive medication among VA long-term care residents ≥ 65 years admitted between 2006 and 2017. Data were extracted from the VA electronic health record, CMS Minimum Data Set, and Bar Code Medication Administration. Deprescribing was defined as a reduction in the number of antihypertensive medications, sustained for 2 weeks. Potentially triggering events for deprescribing included low blood pressure (&lt;90/60 mmHg), acute renal impairment (creatinine increase of 50%), electrolyte imbalance (potassium below 3.5 mEq/L, sodium decrease by 5 mEq/L), and fall in the past 30 days. Among 22,826 VA nursing home residents on antihypertensive medication, 57% had describing event during their stay (median length of stay = 6 months). Deprescribing events were most common in the first 4 weeks after admission and the last 4 weeks of life. Among potentially triggering events, acute renal impairment was associated with greatest increase in the likelihood of deprescribing over the subsequent 4 weeks: among residents with this event, 32.7% were described compared to 7.3% in those without (risk difference = 25.5%, p&lt;0.001). Falls were associated with the smallest increased risk of deprescribing (risk difference = 2.1%, p&lt;0.001) of the events considered. Deprescribing of antihypertensive medications is common among VA nursing home residents, especially after a potential renal adverse event.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. 447-447
Sultana Monira Hussain ◽  
Michael Ernst ◽  
Christopher Reid ◽  
Andrew M Tonkin ◽  
Johannes Neumann ◽  

Abstract Utilising data from the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly trial participants aged 70-years, we estimated MAP and variation in MAP defined as within-individual SD of MAP from baseline and first 2 annual visits. Falls were confined to those involving presentation to a hospital. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for associations with falls. Amongst 16,703 participants (1,540 falls), MAP was not associated with falls irrespective of antihypertensive medication status (all: HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.99-1.01, not on antihypertensive: HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.99, 1.02, on antihypertensive: HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.99-1.02). Amongst 14,818 participants who remained in the study up to year 2 without falls, 1 unit escalation in MAP variability increased the risk (HR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.03). Compared with those in the lowest tercile of variability, those in the middle or highest tercile of variability experienced an increased risk of falling (middle: HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.06-1.65; highest: HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.01-1.55). When stratified for antihypertensive medication status, those receiving diuretics (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.00-1.39) or beta-blockers (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.08-1.73) were at increased risk compared to those receiving renin-angiotensin-system acting agents. All results persisted after adjustment for multiple covariates. The association of diuretics and beta-blockers with falls remained significant even after excluding those with history of heart failure. Older community-dwelling adults with high variability in MAP are at increases risk of falls, particularly amongst those receiving beta-blockers or diuretics.

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