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Cureus ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ashwaghosha Parthasarathi ◽  
Rahul Puvvada ◽  
Himanshu Patel ◽  
Pooja Bhandari ◽  
Sagar Nagpal

2021 ◽  
Vol 59 (239) ◽  
Author(s):  
Sudeep Yadav ◽  
Suman Kumar Jha ◽  
Neela Sunuwar ◽  
Anu Radha Twayana

Introduction: An acid-base disorder is a change in the normal value of extracellular pH that may result when renal or respiratory function is abnormal or when an acid or base load overwhelms their excretory capacity. Clinical acid-base disorders are conventionally defined from the vantage point of their impact on carbonic-acid-bicarbonate buffer system. The aim of the study is to find out the prevalence of acid-base disorder among patients visiting the emergency department of a tertiary care hospital. Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among 370 patients who underwent arterial gas analysis at the emergency department of a tertiary care hospital. The study was carried out from 15th July 2016 to 15th July 2017 after receiving ethical approval from Institutional Review Committee. Convenient sampling was done. Point estimate at 95% Confidence Interval was calculated along with frequency and proportion for binary data. Data were entered in Microsoft-Excel. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17 was used for analysis. Results: Out of 370 patients analyzed, 329 (88.91%) (84.68-91.311 at 95% Confidence Interval) had acid-base disorder. The mixed disorder was the most common finding 80 (21.6%), followed by compensated Respiratory Acidosis 56 (17.8%). The mean age group of male patients studied was 50.72±20.586 and among females, it was 49.95±20.908 Among those most common symptoms were shortness of breath 151 (40.81%) followed by vomiting 91 (24.59%). Conclusions: Most common acid-base disorder was mixed disorder presenting with prominent symptoms of shortness of breathe in non-geriatric patients wherein the geriatric patient, the most common disorder was compensated respiratory acidosis with the prominent symptom of shortness of breath.


Author(s):  
Saleem Yousuf ◽  
Fazle E-Roub ◽  
Athiya Fahiem Khan

Background: objective of the study was to describe and compare frequency of psychiatric disorders in two groups of patients, one with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNESs) and other with epilepsy.Methods: We studied 64 patients in which 32 belonged to the group with PNESs and 32 belonged to group with Epilepsy, admitted in a video-EEG unit of tertiary care hospital in Kashmir in order to confirm epileptic diagnosis. This study was conducted from March 2019 to August 2019 in neurology department and the patients underwent neurological evaluation, inter ictal EEG, MRI, neuropsychological assessment and psychiatric diagnosis codified in DSM-5.Results: Depression was found to be the most common diagnosis in the group with epilepsy-40% versus 15.75% of those with PNES, while as personality disorder (21.88%) was the common psychiatric disorder in group with PNES. Anxiety disorder was found to be the second leading psychiatric disorder and was almost common in both the groups, 13.33% in group with epilepsy and 18.75% in the group with PNES. It was also cited that Psychotic disorder (13.33%) was found only in the group with Epilepsy, while Personality disorder and PTSD was found only in the group with PNES. Bipolar disorder was more prevalent in group with epilepsy (13.33%) than in the group with PNES (3.13%). Somatic symptom disorder, dissociation and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was also found in both the groups.Conclusions: Psychiatric disorder is more common in PNES than in epilepsy.


Author(s):  
Amethyst Bamon ◽  
Rajiv Raina ◽  
Sudhir Sharma ◽  
Nidhi Chauhan

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, with male preponderance. It is associated with both motor and non-motor symptoms, which affect quality of life in elderly people. Due to paucity of studies on its epidemiology and prevalence, this disease needs assiduity and further exploration.Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted in the tertiary care hospital, among 45 patients diagnosed with PD.Results: The mean age of the participants was 61.17±12.30 years, with male to female ratio was 2:1. The average age of onset of PD was 57.4±12.30 years. Tremor was the most common initial symptom (68.88%) followed by rigidity (20%) and bradykinesia. Most of the patients (86.66%) had progressive symptoms, and 69% had unilateral involvement of limbs.Conclusions: The profile of patients with PD in Himachal Pradesh is similar to that from other populations in India and other developing countries. However, the dearth of studies and data pertaining to PD, invigorate the need to explore this neurodegenerative disorder to comprehend its clinic-epidemiological profile in our state.


Author(s):  
. Palwasha ◽  
Kanwal Abbas Bhatti ◽  
Fahmida Gul ◽  
Sameena Gul Memon ◽  
Pashmina Shaikh

Background: During gestational period, the most common disorder is hypertension that directly affects the gestation. The frequency of gestational hypertension is increasing day by day and ultimately the pressure is developed on the endothelial wall. Gestational hypertension mostly reduces the platelet counts. Aim of Study: The major theme of this research is evaluating the count of platelet during pregnancy and other gestational conditions. Methodology: A Retrospective research was carried out for the period of 06 months at Gynae and Obstetrics ward at tertiary care hospital of Sindh, Pakistan. Total 104 females were selected with different gestational age and trimester. A questionnaire was filled by all participants that were comprised of demographic data and gestational conditions such as preeclampsia, eclampsia, parity and seizure episodes. Females with highest risk factors diseases such as Diabetes, Hepatic disorder, Anemia, renal disorder and cardio vascular disease were not included in our research. Blood samples were collected from all selected participants for proper platelet count and data was compared with normal ranges of platelet count among the pregnant females. Data was analyzed by using statistical software 24.00 versions. Results: It was observed that 49 patients were having normal pregnancy, 32 had preeclampsia and 23 had eclampsia. 38 participants were first timer & 52 were having second time parity. 58 participants had 2nd trimester of pregnancy. According to condition of anemia, 27 had severe anemic condition whereas 43 had moderate anemic condition. 49 participants had reduced level of platelet count and 17 had very low platelet count. Severity of gestation can be managed through proper management and physician instructions. Hypertension was measured through severity scale, 29 patients had moderate level of hypertension and 22 had severe level of hypertension. 19 participants had very abnormal level of blood count. Conclusion: It was concluded that proper diagnostic test should be conducted on time for proper management of reduced platelet count and there should be proper mass counseling should be conducted in order to overcome the deficiency of platelet count. There should be proper diet and exercise during pregnancy that can manage the condition of hypertension.  Severity of gestation can be managed through proper management and physician instructions.


Author(s):  
Preeti Singh ◽  
Karanvir Attri ◽  
Deonath Mahto ◽  
Virendra Kumar ◽  
Dipti Kapoor ◽  
...  

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