biological studies
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Sijia Liu ◽  
Yingjie Wang ◽  
Zhennan Li ◽  
Miao Jin ◽  
Lei Ren ◽  

Abstract Artificial fish-like robots developed to date often focus on the external morphology of fish and have rarely addressed the contribution of the structure and morphology of biological muscle. However, biological studies have proven that fish utilize the contraction of muscle fibers to drive the protective flexible connective tissue to swim. This paper introduces a pneumatic silicone structure prototype inspired by the red muscle system of fish and applies it to the fish-like robot named Flexi-Tuna. The key innovation is to make the fluid-driven units simulate the red muscle fiber bundles of fish and embed them into a flexible tuna-like matrix. The driving units act as muscle fibers to generate active contraction force, and the flexible matrix as connective tissue to generate passive deformation. Applying alternant pressure to the driving units can produce a bending moment, causing the tail to swing. As a result, the structural design of Flexi-Tuna has excellent bearing capacity compared with the traditional cavity-type and keeps the body smooth. On this basis, a general method is proposed for modeling the fish-like robot based on the independent analysis of the active and passive body, providing a foundation for Flexi-Tuna’s size design. Followed by the robot’s static and underwater dynamic tests, we used finite element static analysis and fluid numerical simulation to compare the results. The experimental results showed that the maximum swing angle of the tuna-like robot reached 20°, and the maximum thrust reached 0.185 N at the optimum frequency of 3.5 Hz. In this study, we designed a unique system that matches the functional level of biological muscles. As a result, we realized the application of fluid-driven artificial muscle to bionic fish and expanded new ideas for the structural design of flexible bionic fish.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Channabasava Chola ◽  
J. V. Bibal Benifa ◽  
D. S. Guru ◽  
Abdullah Y. Muaad ◽  
J. Hanumanthappa ◽  

Drosophila melanogaster is an important genetic model organism used extensively in medical and biological studies. About 61% of known human genes have a recognizable match with the genetic code of Drosophila flies, and 50% of fly protein sequences have mammalian analogues. Recently, several investigations have been conducted in Drosophila to study the functions of specific genes exist in the central nervous system, heart, liver, and kidney. The outcomes of the research in Drosophila are also used as a unique tool to study human-related diseases. This article presents a novel automated system to classify the gender of Drosophila flies obtained through microscopic images (ventral view). The proposed system takes an image as input and converts it into grayscale illustration to extract the texture features from the image. Then, machine learning (ML) classifiers such as support vector machines (SVM), Naive Bayes (NB), and K -nearest neighbour (KNN) are used to classify the Drosophila as male or female. The proposed model is evaluated using the real microscopic image dataset, and the results show that the accuracy of the KNN is 90%, which is higher than the accuracy of the SVM classifier.

Rafat Milad Mohareb ◽  
Noha M. Asaad Bagato ◽  
Ibrahim Taha Radwan

Background: Cancer is a disease illustrated by a shift in the controlled mechanisms that control both cell proliferation and differentiation. It is regarded as a prime health problem worldwide, leading cause of human death-rate exceeded only by cardiovascular diseases. Many reported work was concerned with the discovery of new antitumor compounds this encourage us to synthesis new anticancer agents. Objective: In this work, we are aiming to synthesize target molecules from 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds through many heterocyclization reactions. Method: The reaction of either 4-methylaniline (1a) or 1-naphthylamine (1b) with diethyl malonate (2) gave the anilide derivatives 3a and 3b, respectively. The latter products underwent a series of heterocyclization reactions to give the pyridine, pyran andthiazole derivatives which confirmed with the required spectral data. Results: Thein-vitro antitumor evaluations of the newly synthesized products against four cancer cell lines MCF-7, NCI-H460, SF-268 and WI 38 as normal cell line were screened and the data revealed that compounds 11a, 18b, 18c and 20d showed high antitumor activity and 20dindividualize with potential antitumor activity towards cell lines with lowest cytotoxicity effect. Both EGFR and PIM-1 enzyme inhibition were investigated for the compound 20d and his inhibition effect was promising for each enzyme showing IC50=45.67 ng and 553.3 ng for EGFR and PIM-1, respectively. Conclusion: Molecular docking results of compound 20d showed a strong binding interactions on both enzymes, where, good binding modes obtained on case of EGFR, which closely similar to the binding mode of standard Erlotinib. While, 20d showed complete superimposition binding interactions with VRV-cocrystallized ligand of PIM-1 that may expounds the in-vitro antitumor activity.

2022 ◽  
Quanhong Ou ◽  
Xien Yang ◽  
Weiye Yang ◽  
Liqin Jiang ◽  
Kai Qian ◽  

Abstract Background: Raman and fluorescence spectra techniques are potential tools for disease diagnosis. In recent years, the application of Raman and fluorescence spectra techniques in biological studies has increased a great deal, and clinical investigations relevant to cancer detection by spectroscopic means have attracted particularly attention from both clinical and non-clinical researchers. Methods: In this article, Raman and fluorescence spectra were employed for the detection of liver cancer and healthy individuals using their serum samples. These serum samples were compared with their spectral features acquired by Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy to initially establish spectral features that can be considered spectral markers of liver cancer diagnosis. Resuits: The intensity differences from characteristic peaks of carotene, protein and lipid associated Raman spectra were clearly observed in liver cancer patient serum samples versus normal human serum. The changes in the serum fluorescence profiles of liver cancer patients were also analyzed. To probe the capacity and contrast of Raman spectroscopy as an analytical implement for the early diagnosis of liver cancer, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to analyze the Raman spectra of controls , liver cancer patients and healthy individuals. Furthermore, the Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) was performed to compare the diagnostic performance of Raman spectroscopy for the classification of disease samples and healthy samples.Conclusion: Compare with the existing diagnostic techniques, the Raman spectroscopy technique has an excellent advantage in extremely low sample requirements, ease of use and ideal screening procedures. Thus, Raman spectroscopy has great potential to be developed as a powerful tool for distinguishing between healthy and liver cancer serum samples.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 363
Małgorzata Kikowska ◽  
Justyna Chanaj-Kaczmarek ◽  
Monika Derda ◽  
Anna Budzianowska ◽  
Barbara Thiem ◽  

Three species from the Eryngium L. genus—E. campestre, E. maritimum, and E. planum, plants with a rich chemical composition, were selected for phytochemical and biological studies. The applied biotechnological methods allowed to obtain the biomass of these rare or protected species in the form of multiplied shoots (stationary system) and roots cultured in a liquid medium (agitated system). In the extracts from the raw material obtained under in vitro conditions, the content of selected phenolic acids and flavonoids (HPLC-DAD method) as well as the total of polyphenols (Folin–Ciocalteu assay) were quantified. The highest amount of all phenolic compounds was found in extracts from E. planum roots (950.90 ± 33.52 mg/100 g d.w.), and the lowest from E. campestre roots (285.00 ± 10.07 mg/100 g d.w.). The quantitatively dominant compound proved to be rosmarinic acid. The highest amounts were confirmed for E. planum root extract (694.58 mg/100 g d.w.), followed by E. planum (388.95 mg/100 g d.w.) and E. campestre (325.85 mg/100 g d.w.) shoot extracts. The total content of polyphenols was always increased in the biomass from in vitro cultures in comparison to the analogous organs of intact plants of each species. The obtained extracts were assessed for antiprotozoal activity against Acanthamoeba sp. The strength of biological activity of the extracts correlated with the content of phenolic compounds. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the amoebicidal activity of E. campestre, E. maritimum, and E. planum extracts from biomass produced by biotechnological methods.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 515
Lucy R. Hart ◽  
Charlotta G. Lebedenko ◽  
Saige M. Mitchell ◽  
Rachel E. Daso ◽  
Ipsita A. Banerjee

In this work, in silico studies were carried out for the design of diterpene and polyphenol-peptide conjugates to potentially target over-expressed breast tumor cell receptors. Four point mutations were induced into the known tumor-targeting peptide sequence YHWYGYTPQN at positions 1, 2, 8 and 10, resulting in four mutated peptides. Each peptide was separately conjugated with either chlorogenate, carnosate, gallate, or rosmarinate given their known anti-tumor activities, creating dual targeting compounds. Molecular docking studies were conducted with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), to which the original peptide sequence is known to bind, as well as the estrogen receptor (ERα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARα) using both Autodock Vina and FireDock. Based on docking results, peptide conjugates and peptides were selected and subjected to molecular dynamics simulations. MMGBSA calculations were used to further probe the binding energies. ADME studies revealed that the compounds were not CYP substrates, though most were Pgp substrates. Additionally, most of the peptides and conjugates showed MDCK permeability. Our results indicated that several of the peptide conjugates enhanced binding interactions with the receptors and resulted in stable receptor-ligand complexes; Furthermore, they may successfully target ERα and PPARα in addition to EGFR and may be further explored for synthesis and biological studies for therapeutic applications.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 126
Kanwal Ilyas ◽  
Lamia Singer ◽  
Muhammad Asim Akhtar ◽  
Christoph P. Bourauel ◽  
Aldo R. Boccaccini

Bioactive glasses (BGs) are being increasingly considered for numerous biomedical applications. The loading of natural compounds onto BGs to increase the BG biological activity is receiving increasing attention. However, achieving efficient loading of phytotherapeutic compounds onto the surface of bioactive glass is challenging. The present work aimed to prepare novel amino-functionalized mesoporous bioactive glass nanoparticles (MBGNs) loaded with the phytotherapeutic agent Boswellia sacra extract. The prepared amino-functionalized MBGNs showed suitable loading capacity and releasing time. MBGNs (nominal composition: 58 wt% SiO2, 37 wt% CaO, 5 wt% P2O5) were prepared by sol-gel-modified co-precipitation method and were successfully surface-modified by using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). In order to evaluate MBGNs loaded with Boswellia sacra, morphological analysis, biological studies, physico-chemical and release studies were performed. The successful functionalization and loading of the natural compound were confirmed with FTIR, zeta-potential measurements and UV-Vis spectroscopy, respectively. Structural and morphological evaluation of MBGNs was done by XRD, SEM and BET analyses, whereas the chemical analysis of the plant extract was done using GC/MS technique. The functionalized MBGNs showed high loading capacity as compared to non-functionalized MBGNs. The release studies revealed that Boswellia sacra molecules were released via controlled diffusion and led to antibacterial effects against S. aureus (Gram-positive) bacteria. Results of cell culture studies using human osteoblastic-like cells (MG-63) indicated better cell viability of the Boswellia sacra-loaded MBGNs as compared to the unloaded MBGNs. Therefore, the strategy of combining the properties of MBGNs with the therapeutic effects of Boswellia sacra represents a novel, convenient step towards the development of phytotherapeutic-loaded antibacterial, inorganic materials to improve tissue healing and regeneration.

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 114
Zinaida S. Zobkova ◽  
Ekaterina G. Lazareva ◽  
Vladislav K. Semipyatniy

The development of food products implies ensuring the optimal composition and ratio of the basic components, as well as their technological compatibility. A priori, the quality of raw materials, the optimal formula of the product and the efficiency of the technological process determine the quality of products, including biological value. The use of whole-cell sensors such as infusoria Tetrahymena pyriformis is most productive for screening biological studies. At present, for a comprehensive assessment there are no data on the use of simplest technology of fermented dairy products and the design of their biological value. The purpose of this research is to develop a methodology for creating whole-milk products of optimal biological value using the express method of biotesting. The research object was yogurt with the ratio of the mass fraction of fat and protein in the range of 0.36 ÷ 1.5, sucrose in the range of 5 ÷ 10%. An express method for determining the relative biological value of fermented dairy products using test organisms and an original methodology for creating whole-milk products of optimal biological value have been developed. A software has been developed to calculate formula of the product optimized for the following indicators: the relative biological value of the product, the cost of raw material and basic materials. The methodology is a tool to assist industry organizations in improving production technologies and quality management systems.

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