Young Age
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2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Jarrod Haar

PurposeJob burnout is a popular topic for researchers and a pressing issue for employees and employers. However, the most popular measure has become widely critiqued, and a new construct – the Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT) – has been offered as a better way to assess burnout.Design/methodology/approachThe study uses data from 1,022 employees across a wide range of occupations, sectors and industries. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and odds ratio calculations are explored.FindingsThe present psychometric properties of the BAT construct are supported. Overall, 11.1% of employees met the high burnt-out risk threshold. Determinants of burnt-out risk were explored, with significant findings from high perceptions of organizational support, large firm-size, young age and long work hours found. No gender differences. The odds ratio provides greater insights into the risks associated with factors, especially working 55+ hours/week, which resulted in 580% higher risk of burnt-out risk.Research limitations/implicationsThe findings highlight the danger of burnt-out risk and provide a useful benchmark for those exploring the burnt-out risk rate.Originality/valueThe BAT has not been tested in New Zealand across a sample of employees. Given the large size and breadth of employees, this provides useful generalizability to the BAT-NZ. The determinants tested here are all unique to the literature and provide new insights.

2021 ◽  
Vol 36 (1) ◽  
James J. Yahaya

Abstract Background Early diagnosis of spinal cord neoplasia serves patients from developing a number of complications and even death. Methods After obtaining ethical approval, retrospectively, a total of 53 tissue blocks of patients attended at the spinal ward were reviewed. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 20.0, and p value of less than 0.05 was applied to establish the existence of statistical significance between the compared categorical variables. Results The mean age of the patients was 30.7 ± 15.96 years. Most of the patients 32.1% (n = 17) were aged ≤ 19 years, and majority of the neoplasia 77.3% (n = 41) were extramedullary. Also, majority of the neoplasia 60.4% (n = 32) were benign and the malignant ones were 35.8% (n = 19). The mean duration of onset of symptoms for benign and malignant neoplasia in this study was 13.1 ± 16.4 and 3.4 ± 2.8 years, respectively, with statistical difference (95% CI 2.09–17.35, p = 0.014). Conclusion The patients with spinal cord neoplasia in the present study were of young age, and majority of them had benign neoplasia that were extramedullary located. The mean duration of onset of symptoms for patients with malignant neoplasia was significantly shorter than that of benign neoplasia.

BMJ Open ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. e049533
Cornelia Anne Barth ◽  
Andreas Wladis ◽  
Catherine Blake ◽  
Prashant Bhandarkar ◽  
Sigirya Aebischer Perone ◽  

ObjectivesLimb amputation incidence is particularly high in fragile contexts due to conflict, accidents and poorly managed diabetes. The study aim was to analyse (1) demographic and amputation characteristics of persons with any type of acquired amputation (PwA) and (2) time between amputation and first access to rehabilitation in five conflict and postconflict countries.DesignA retrospective, observational study analysing differences in demographic and clinical factors and time to access rehabilitation between users with traumatic and non-traumatic amputations.SettingFive countries with the highest numbers of PwA in the global International Committee of the Red Cross database (Afghanistan, Cambodia, Iraq, Myanmar, Sudan). Cleaned and merged data from 2009 to 2018 were aggregated by sex; age at amputation and registration; cause, combination and anatomical level of amputation(s); living environment.ParticipantsAll PwA newly attending rehabilitation.ResultsData for 28 446 individuals were included (4329 (15.2%) female). Most were traumatic amputations (73.4%, 208 90); of these, 48.6% (138 01) were conflict related. Average age at traumatic amputation for men and women was 26.9 and 24.1 years, respectively; for non-traumatic amputation it was 49.1 years and 45.9 years, respectively. Sex differences in age were statistically significant for traumatic and non-traumatic causes (p<0.001, p=0.003). Delay between amputation and rehabilitation was on average 8.2 years for those with traumatic amputation, significantly higher than an average 3 years for those with non-traumatic amputation (p<0.001).ConclusionsYoung age for traumatic and non-traumatic amputations indicates the devastating impact of war and fragile health systems on a society. Long delays between amputation and rehabilitation reveal the mismatch of needs and resources. For rehabilitation service providers in fragile settings, it is an enormous task to manage the diversity of PwA of various causes, age, sex and additional conditions. Improved collaboration between primary healthcare, surgical and rehabilitation services, a prioritisation of rehabilitation and increased resource provision are recommended to ensure adequate access to comprehensive rehabilitation care for PwA.

BJPsych Open ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Rocco Micciolo ◽  
Giorgio Bianconi ◽  
Luisa Canal ◽  
Massimo Clerici ◽  
Maria Teresa Ferla ◽  

Background During adolescence and young adulthood people appear to be more prone to violent behaviour. A greater tendency to violent behaviour appears to be associated with hyperactivity, impulsivity and low tolerance for frustration and provocation in social settings. Aims This prospective cohort study aimed to evaluate rates of violent behaviour among young people with mental disorders, compared with older age groups. Method A total of 340 individuals with severe mental disorders (125 living in residential facilities and 215 out-patients) were evaluated at baseline with the SCID-I and II, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Specific Level of Functioning scale, Brown–Goodwin Lifetime History of Aggression scale, Buss–Durkee Hostility Inventory, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and State–Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2. Aggressive behaviour was rated every 15 days with the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS). Results The sample comprised 28 individuals aged 18–29 years, 202 aged 30–49 and 110 aged 50 and over. Younger age was associated with a personality disorder diagnosis, substance use disorder, being single and employed. These results were confirmed even controlling for the gender effect. The patterns of the cumulative MOAS mean scores showed that younger (18–29 years old) individuals were significantly more aggressive than older (≥50) ones (P < 0.001). Conclusions This study highlights how young age in people with severe mental disorders is correlated with higher levels of impulsivity, anger and hostility, confirming previous analyses. Our results may assist clinicians in implementing early interventions to improve anger and impulsivity control to reduce the risk of future aggressive behaviours.

Zhe Huang ◽  
Emily Ying Yang Chan ◽  
Chi Shing Wong ◽  
Benny Chung Ying Zee

The concept of socioeconomic vulnerability has made a substantial contribution to the understanding and conceptualization of health risk. To assess the spatial distribution of multi-dimensional socioeconomic vulnerability in an urban context, a vulnerability assessment scheme was proposed to guide decision-making in disaster resilience and sustainable urban development to reduce health risk. A two-stage approach was applied in Hong Kong to identify subgroups among Tertiary Planning Units (TPU) (i.e., the local geographic areas) with similar characteristics. In stage 1, principal components analysis was used for dimension reduction and to de-noise the socioeconomic data for each TPU based on the variables selected, while in stage 2, Gaussian mixture modeling was used to partition all the TPUs into different subgroups based on the results of stage 1. This study summarized socioeconomic-vulnerability-related data into five principal components, including indigenous degree, family resilience, individual productivity, populous grassroots, and young-age. According to these five principal components, all TPUs were clustered into five subgroups/clusters. Socioeconomic vulnerability is a concept that could be used to help identify areas susceptible to health risk, and even identify susceptible groups in affluent areas. More attention should be paid to areas with high populous grassroots scores and low young-age score since they were associated with a higher mortality rate.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Anneli Silvén Hagström

Background: Children of parents who suffer mental ill-health and die by suicide are vulnerable to developing psychological and social problems themselves; they also have a severely elevated risk of dying at a young age – particularly through suicide. This highlights the need to design supportive measures that can counteract such negative developments after a parent's suicide.Aim: This narrative evaluation of a grief support camp for families affected by a parent's suicide arranged by the non-profit organization Children's Rights in Society in Sweden investigates whether children [N = 11] and parents [N = 11] perceived their participation as meaningful and, if so, in what way, and the changes to which the program was said to have contributed.Methods: Family members were invited to reflect on their experiences in narratively structured interviews that took place 18 months after participation. Their narrated experiences were analyzed to examine how the program was integrated into their biographies and with what significance. Narratives of change were identified in particular in order to grasp the self-perceived effects of participation.Results: Both children and parents attributed major significance to their encounters with other suicide bereaved. This led to support exchange and normalization, which countered a perceived “suicide stigma” in everyday life. Help to narratively construct destigmatizing understandings of suicide was also said to have relieved self-blame and shame. Overall, the participants described changes in the form of a better-informed position in grief, increased manageability and enhanced family communication. The parents also reported improved ability to support their children and a more hopeful view of life ahead.Conclusion: The evaluation showcases how this psychoeducational intervention, at a relatively low cost compared to traditional approaches, has great potential to lessen the negative effects of a suicide in the family by assisting families with psychological processing and de-stigmatization. Parental resources are also strengthened, which can serve as continuing support for the children.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 6038
Liudmyla Zurnadzhy ◽  
Tetiana Bogdanova ◽  
Tatiana I. Rogounovitch ◽  
Masahiro Ito ◽  
Mykola Tronko ◽  

Histopathological changes in the fusion oncogene-driven papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) from children and adolescents exposed to Chernobyl fallout have been extensively studied. However, characteristics of the radiogenic BRAFV600E-positive PTCs, whose proportion is growing with time, are not well described yet. We analyzed the relationship between the BRAFV600E status (determined immunohistochemically with the VE1 antibody) and the clinicopathological features of 247 radiogenic and 138 sporadic PTCs from young Ukrainian patients aged ≤28 years. The frequency of BRAFV600E was increasing with patient age, consistently remaining lower in radiogenic PTCs. In both etiopathogenic groups, the BRAFV600E-positive PTCs more frequently had a dominant papillary growth pattern, smaller tumor size, higher Ki67 labeling index, and a frequency of the major indicators of tumor invasiveness that is lower than or equal to that of the BRAFV600E-negative tumors. Comparison of the BRAFV600E-positive PTCs across the groups found a virtual absence of differences. In contrast, the BRAFV600E-negative radiogenic PTCs displayed less frequent dominant papillary and more frequent solid growth patterns, lower Ki67 labeling index, and higher invasiveness than the BRAFV600E-negative sporadic tumors. Thus, BRAFV600E is not associated with a more aggressive course of PTC in young patients regardless of etiology. The major clinicopathological differences between the radiogenic and sporadic PTCs are observed among the BRAFV600E-negative tumors.

2021 ◽  
pp. 027614672110543
Myriam Ertz ◽  
Guillaume Le Bouhart

During the last two decades, childhood obesity has become a global pandemic, creating harmful impacts on children, tutors, and society. If the obesity/overweight trend continues upwards, especially in developing countries, it may significantly alter millions of children's professional, social, and psychological well-being. Furthermore, it is conceivable that when obesity/overweight issues appear at a young age, they may persist during adulthood and disrupt individual development and community well-being. By targeting children at a very young age and with a broad array of strategies, junk food marketers have often been accused of inducing children to (over)consume junk food from an early age and throughout adolescence until adulthood. This paper reviews the literature about childhood obesity/overweight and junk food marketing strategies to develop a conceptual framework delineating the forces and counter-forces to the childhood obesity phenomenon and identify avenues for future research and managers.

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (4) ◽  
pp. 791-813
Elena V. Beliakovich

Administrative procedural law is full of numerous and varied procedural time limits which, as time-related categories, define the temporal boundaries of the administrative process and can act as an effective regulator of administrative procedural legal relations. The article examines the concept of time limit in administrative procedural law from the standpoint of integrativeness. It notes that the studied issue was not thoroughly elaborated in science, which appears to result from the young age of administrative procedural law as a separate branch. The research identifies substantial characteristics of the administrative procedural time limit. It reveals the temporal content of time limit in administrative procedural law. A conclusion is reached that the administrative procedural time limit results from the impact of temporal categories on the administrative procedural legal regulation when administrative cases are settled by a public administrative authority and a court. The administrative procedural time limit is recognised as a tool used for temporalizing the administrative process and aimed at ensuring the dynamism of administrative procedural activities through duration, speed, rhythm and cyclicity. The article identified the trend towards the legislative refinement of the administrative procedural time limits. In an integrative sense, the attributes inherent to the administrative procedural time limit reveal the versatility and rich inner content of the concept of time limit in administrative procedural law, which results from the legal synthesis of temporality and authoritative procedural activities of public administrative authorities and courts in settling administrative cases. The article proposed the definitions for the category of time limit in administrative procedural law both in a narrow and broad sense, as well as with an emphasis on the temporal side of the examined category.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (23) ◽  
pp. 11197
Marielle Bazzo Di Domênico ◽  
Kauê Farias Collares ◽  
César Dalmolin Bergoli ◽  
Mateus Bertolini Fernandes dos Santos ◽  
Pedro Henrique Corazza ◽  

This study evaluated the effect of clinical and patient-related factors on marginal bone loss. The sample was composed of individuals who were treated at two dental schools in southern Brazil. The variables evaluated were divided into individual (age, sex, diabetes, hypertension and antihypertensive use), and implant levels (arch, position, brand, protection, torque, time). After implant installation and following the second stage, periapical radiographs were obtained to measure the distance between the peri-implant bone crest and implant platform. Measurements were performed using ImageJ software. Data were analyzed using linear and Poisson multilevel regression. Fifty-eight patients with 113 implants were evaluated. The mean marginal bone loss was 0.45 ± 0.48 mm. Considering the linear multivariate model, age, diabetes, torque and time between surgery and reopening were found to be significant (p < 0.05). In the dichotomous model (bone loss <0.2 mm and ≥0.2 mm), only high torques resulted in higher marginal bone loss (p = 0.033). Marginal bone loss occurred before the second surgical stage and was greater in implants with high torque. Torque below 20 N, reopening performed after six months, diabetic status and young age all resulted in higher marginal bone loss, but these values are probably not clinically significant. These variables must be better explored in future studies.

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