mechanical and thermal properties
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 471-479
Aqsa Khan ◽  
Ghazna Hassan Khan ◽  
Eraj Humayun Mirza ◽  
Alidad Chandio ◽  
Maliha Mohsin ◽  

Bone tissue engineering has emerged as a multidisciplinary field in recent times with an aim to expedite the process of regeneration of damaged or diseased tissues. This study is an attempt to fabricate and characterize Tricalcium Phosphate (TCP) and Chitosan incorporated Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) based bone cement. In total two experimental PMMA based bone cements were fabricated that were differentiated by presence and absence of Chitosan. In both groups (10 and 30 wt.%) TCP were incorporated into Methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer. PMMA was used as a control. The physical, mechanical and thermal properties of the composites were assessed. Morphological changes of PMMA after the introduction of TCP and Chitosan were observed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD). Major peak shifts in Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra demonstrated the strong bonding of PMMA with incorporated materials. PMMA incorporated with 10% TCP showed the maximum wettability in absence of Chitosan. Hardness of the tested specimens decreased with increasing content of TCP which in turns enhanced ductility. It was also observed that neither of the samples showed significant degradation. The incorporation of additives enhance the physical and chemical properties of PMMA as bone cement.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Mingqiang Wang ◽  
Ahmet E. Emre ◽  
Ji-Young Kim ◽  
Yiting Huang ◽  
Li Liu ◽  

AbstractLithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries have a high specific capacity, but lithium polysulfide (LPS) diffusion and lithium dendrite growth drastically reduce their cycle life. High discharge rates also necessitate their resilience to high temperature. Here we show that biomimetic self-assembled membranes from aramid nanofibers (ANFs) address these challenges. Replicating the fibrous structure of cartilage, multifactorial engineering of ion-selective mechanical, and thermal properties becomes possible. LPS adsorption on ANF surface creates a layer of negative charge on nanoscale pores blocking LPS transport. The batteries using cartilage-like bioinspired ANF membranes exhibited a close-to-theoretical-maximum capacity of 1268 mAh g−1, up to 3500+ cycle life, and up to 3C discharge rates. Essential for safety, the high thermal resilience of ANFs enables operation at temperatures up to 80 °C. The simplicity of synthesis and recyclability of ANFs open the door for engineering high-performance materials for numerous energy technologies.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 494
Dariusz Brząkalski ◽  
Robert E. Przekop ◽  
Miłosz Frydrych ◽  
Daria Pakuła ◽  
Marta Dobrosielska ◽  

In this work, silsesquioxane and spherosilicate compounds were assessed as novel organosilicon coupling agents for surface modification of TiO2 in a green process, and compared with their conventional silane counterparts. The surface-treated TiO2 particles were then applied in preparation of epoxy (EP) composites and the aspects of pigment dispersion, suspension stability, hiding power, as well as the composite mechanical and thermal properties were discussed. The studied compounds loading was between 0.005–0.015% (50–150 ppm) in respect to the bulk composite mass and resulted in increase of suspension stability and hiding power by over an order of magnitude. It was found that these compounds may be an effective alternative for silane coupling agents, yet due to their low cost and simplicity of production and manipulation, silanes and siloxanes are still the most straight-forward options available. Nonetheless, the obtained findings might encourage tuning of silsesquioxane compounds structure and probably process itself if implementation of these novel organosilicon compounds as surface treatment agents is sought for special applications, e.g., high performance coating systems.

Youssef El Moussi ◽  
Laurent Clerc ◽  
Jean-Charles Benezet

The use of bio-based concretes performed with lignocellulosic aggregates constitute an interesting solution for reducing the energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and CO2 generated by the building sector. Indeed, bio-based materials could be used as an alternative of traditional materials such as expended polystyrene and mineral resources (e.g. glass and rock wools) for insulation. Furthermore, these bio-based concretes are known for their interesting insulation properties, indeed they allow to enhance thermal properties of buildings and enables moisture management which lead to design efficient building materials. For this purpose, bio-based concrete using rice straw as aggregate are studied in this present work. The impact of the characteristics of rice straw particle (particle size distribution, bulk density, and water absorption capacity, etc.) on both the mechanical and thermal properties of the bio-based concrete are investigated. Five formulations of rice straw concrete are examined, compared and then classified in terms of insulation properties and mechanical properties. The assessments are based on the measurement of density and thermal conductivity. The variation of compressive strength in function of the characteristics (mean particle length) of rice straw particle are assessed and discussed. The investigation covers also the porosity and density. Tests are also carried out on agricultural by-products with a view to highlight their chemical, physical and structural proprieties. The results show that the use of large particles with low water absorption capacity induce lighter concretes with the density between 339 and 505 kg/m3 and lead to a high compressive strength with a high mechanical deformability. Furthermore, it appears that an increase in the average length of rice straw particle lead to decrease of thermal conductivity of bio-based concretes. It varies from 0.062 to 0.085 W/(m.K).

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 338
Paulina Jakubowska ◽  
Grzegorz Borkowski ◽  
Dariusz Brząkalski ◽  
Bogna Sztorch ◽  
Arkadiusz Kloziński ◽  

This paper presents the impact of accelerated aging on selected mechanical and thermal properties of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) composites filled with sedimentary hybrid natural filler-Opoka rock. The filler was used in two forms: an industrial raw material originating as a subsieve fraction natural material, and a rock calcinated at 1000 °C for production of phosphorous sorbents. Fillers were incorporated with constant amount of 5 wt % of the resulting composite, and the material was subjected to accelerated weathering tests with different exposition times. The neat polypropylene and composites with calcium carbonate as a reference filler material were used for comparison. The aim of the research was to determine the possibility of using the Opoka rock as a new hybrid filler for polypropylene, which could be an alternative to the widely used calcium carbonate and silica. The thermal, mechanical, and structural properties were evaluated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR/ATR) prior to and after accelerated aging. As a result, it was found that the composites of polypropylene with Opoka were characterized by similar or higher functional properties and higher resistance to photodegradation compared to composites with conventional calcium carbonate. The results of measurements of mechanical properties, structural and surface changes, and the carbonyl index as a function of accelerated aging proved that Opoka was an effective ultraviolet (UV) stabilizer, significantly exceeding the reference calcium carbonate in this respect. The new hybrid filler of natural origin in the form of Opoka can therefore be used not only as a typical powder filler, but above all as a UV blocker/stabilizer, thus extending the life of polypropylene composites, especially for outdoor applications.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 182 ◽  
R. A. Ilyas ◽  
M. Y. M. Zuhri ◽  
Mohd Nor Faiz Norrrahim ◽  
Muhammad Syukri Mohamad Misenan ◽  
Mohd Azwan Jenol ◽  

Recent developments within the topic of biomaterials has taken hold of researchers due to the mounting concern of current environmental pollution as well as scarcity resources. Amongst all compatible biomaterials, polycaprolactone (PCL) is deemed to be a great potential biomaterial, especially to the tissue engineering sector, due to its advantages, including its biocompatibility and low bioactivity exhibition. The commercialization of PCL is deemed as infant technology despite of all its advantages. This contributed to the disadvantages of PCL, including expensive, toxic, and complex. Therefore, the shift towards the utilization of PCL as an alternative biomaterial in the development of biocomposites has been exponentially increased in recent years. PCL-based biocomposites are unique and versatile technology equipped with several importance features. In addition, the understanding on the properties of PCL and its blend is vital as it is influenced by the application of biocomposites. The superior characteristics of PCL-based green and hybrid biocomposites has expanded their applications, such as in the biomedical field, as well as in tissue engineering and medical implants. Thus, this review is aimed to critically discuss the characteristics of PCL-based biocomposites, which cover each mechanical and thermal properties and their importance towards several applications. The emergence of nanomaterials as reinforcement agent in PCL-based biocomposites was also a tackled issue within this review. On the whole, recent developments of PCL as a potential biomaterial in recent applications is reviewed.

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