AbstractUbiquitous digitization enables promising options for cultural heritage preservation. Therefore, a new approach is presented that considers deployment scenarios by linking heritage science to tourism. Such an approach is necessary because neither technology nor society views can be treated separately to obtain deployable solutions of a wider social, and even national importance. Clearly, while the traditional approaches to cultural heritage preservation will remain a gold standard, they will be increasingly complemented by digital preservation techniques. Thus, based on practical implementations and lessons learnt in other areas, this multidisciplinary framework paper analyses existing disruptive information technologies deployments. In line with the findings it presents a novel technological architecture tailored to the needs of cultural heritage preservation that deploys an open blockchain architecture. The architecture preserves the advantages of traditional blockchains, which made this technology so important, while enabling energy efficient implementations that can be deployed in mobile applications. By additionally using the contribution-ware principle it links it to tourism, where the identification of users focused incentives and business models play a central role. It is obvious that tourism is a good candidate in such preservation efforts due to the organic links between it and cultural heritage and can support further developments in the heritage preservation domain.
The aim of this article is to explore the interdisciplinary turn observed in the development of humanities computing, in terms of integration and fusion of expertise. The debate started with the Seminar on Discipline umanistiche e informatica. Il problema dell’integrazione, held in 1991 at the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei. Moving backwards in time, already from the 1960s the role of ‘integration’ was at the heart of many interdisciplinary initiatives supported by the National Research Council of Italy and the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei as part of their coordinated efforts to promote scientific progress. Through a number of archaeological case studies pivoting around the Etruscan civilisation, it will be shown how over time archaeological computing, and its evolution towards digital archaeology, has found in GIS and multimedia systems a unitary platform on which methods and practice of data acquisition, analysis, interpretation, and communication can converge. The concept of ‘fusion’, however, is much more recent and responds to a global resource management model, which combines the methods of archaeology with the objectives of Heritage Science, along the research path that goes from field and laboratory investigation to the protection, enhancement and communication of cultural heritage.
Revealing precious hidden features by a completely non-invasive approach is one of the crucial issues in the Heritage Science field. In this regard, concealed fresco paintings still represent an analytical challenge. This paper addresses the specific issue in wall painting diagnostics by the photoacoustic (PA) imaging technique, already proven to be efficient in revealing underdrawings and internal stratigraphy in movable paintings on paper and canvas. A newly set-up reflection PA prototype was applied here for the first time to probe the charcoal, graphite and sinopia hidden sketch drawings in concealed (gypsum, limewash, overpainted) wall paintings. The results presented here push forward the frontiers of the PA imaging technique and point to its potential effectiveness of revealing hidden underdrawings in historical wall paintings with complex stratigraphy.
Cinnabar (α-HgS) is a common mineral used in various fields. The identification of cinnabar can be achieved by classic mineralogical methods and instrumental methods. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is the most reliable instrumental method for identifying material phases, but the sampling process and the immovable instrument limit its wider application in the cultural heritage field. The occurrence of Assing S. p. A. Surface Monitor, a portable system integrating X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and XRD, provides researchers with a new solution. Raw mineral, polished gemstone, pigment powder and Chinese ink stick claimed to be composed of cinnabar were measured by the system as well as laboratory-type XRD and micro-Raman techniques in this study. The qualitative XRF results were applied to determining the elements existing in the samples and thus defining the range of possible phases. Patterns obtained were compared carefully with the characteristic lines to determine the most likely phases, while the pattern appearances were compared in order to recognize the different states of cinnabar and generalize the experience for identifying cinnabar by the system. The Raman spectra obtained were compared and analyzed in order to learn the best parameters and determine the real composition of each sample. The results indicate that the XRF detector is sensitive enough to distinguish cinnabar from another red pigment, minium (Pb3O4), without destructive preparation provided that the desired phases occupy a major content in the sample, while the laser micro-Raman is even better in application range and measurement speed but correct analysis of the spectra is highly dependent on experience and literatures. The portable coupled XRF-XRD system and the micro-Raman provide researchers with convenient and efficient options to preliminarily identify minerals like cinnabar, which is significantly meaningful to several research fields including mineralogy, heritage science, material science, etc.
Two efficient and non-destructive methods for the preliminary identification of minerals like cinnabar were developed.
The optimum instrument parameters for the effective measurement of different cinnabar samples were given in detail.
The study provides useful data for various fields including analytical science, material science, heritage science, etc.
AbstractAsbads (Persian windmills) present a multifaceted view of using heritage science. These mills are no longer in use due to advances in technology and the advent of new grinding systems. Windmills show perfect harmony between vernacular architecture and mechanical system. This paper aims to review and analyze the mechanism of one of these windmills in Iran and illustrate how these historical buildings can bridge the gaps between these two science branches for better understanding of cultural heritage. To that purpose, a precise 3D modelling of mechanical components and architectural elements is provided based on architectural survey, photographs and sketches. This study addresses how vernacular architecture, with the specific flexibility, can be considered as one of the most useful tools for human beings. Thus, one of the Iranian windmills in Nehbandan was selected through field studies to be modelled. In this construction, local materials such as wood, adobe and stone are used. Findings reveal that windmills and their architectural flexibility are consistent with mechanical components and address environmental needs.
One of the ongoing challenges for effective utilization of heritage science data is the lack of access to well-organized and accessible extant data sets and the need to structure data in formats that allow interrogation and integration of related data. This need for data fusion expands
to both subjective and objective measurements and descriptors, as well as a long-overdue need for established guidelines for metadata and shared terminologies, or more critically, ontologies. Research into this area has shown the need for Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS) that bridge and
integrate multiple ontologies that address specific needs – for example the Getty Vocabularies for cultural heritage terms, the Linked Art model for a simplified core CIDOC-CRM, as well as the OBO Foundry and other scientific ontologies for measurements and heritage science terminology.
The past year of off-site telework allowed Preservation Research and Testing Division (PRTD) staff to do a deep dive into serious considerations about data analytics and data visualizations. Much of this work related to utilizing the tools we had available, linking the visualizations
to data analytics for cultural heritage and heritage science research projects, with a strong focus on how best to adapt visualizations for specific audiences, ranging from scientific colleagues, conservation and collection care, interested public, and personnel wanting to use the information
for a range of decision-making functions. Some of the factors we assessed related to the amount of information or data presented, whether to present minimal data with hover-over functionality to encourage exploration or allow different views for different audiences, what was “too much”
data, what programs people were familiar with and the types of presentations, graphs, scatterplots, bar-charts, interactives etc. Significant discussions and reworking of visualizations answered some questions, while exposing many more.