application range
Recently Published Documents





Micromachines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 118
Jiamin Chen ◽  
Chenyang Xue ◽  
Yongqiu Zheng ◽  
Jiandong Bai ◽  
Xinyu Zhao ◽  

The ideal development direction of the fiber-optic acoustic sensor (FOAS) is toward broadband, a high sensitivity and a large dynamic range. In order to further promote the acoustic detection potential of the Fabry–Pérot etalon (FPE)-based FOAS, it is of great significance to study the acoustic performance of the FOAS with the quality (Q) factor of FPE as the research objective. This is because the Q factor represents the storage capability and loss characteristic of the FPE. The three FOASs with different Q factors all achieve a broadband response from 20 Hz to 70 kHz with a flatness of ±2 dB, which is consistent with the theory that the frequency response of the FOAS is not affected by the Q factor. Moreover, the sensitivity of the FOAS is proportional to the Q factor. When the Q factor is 1.04×106, the sensitivity of the FOAS is as high as 526.8 mV/Pa. Meanwhile, the minimum detectable sound pressure of 347.33 μPa/Hz1/2  is achieved. Furthermore, with a Q factor of 0.27×106, the maximum detectable sound pressure and dynamic range are 152.32 dB and 107.2 dB, respectively, which is greatly improved compared with two other FOASs. Separately, the FOASs with different Q factors exhibit an excellent acoustic performance in weak sound detection and high sound pressure detection. Therefore, different acoustic detection requirements can be met by selecting the appropriate Q factor, which further broadens the application range and detection potential of FOASs.

2022 ◽  
Fotios Drakopoulos ◽  
Viacheslav Vasilkov ◽  
Alejandro Osses Vecchi ◽  
Tijmen Wartenberg ◽  
Sarah Verhulst

It is well known that ageing and noise exposure are important causes of sensorineural hearing loss, and can result in damage of the outer hair cells or other structures of the inner ear, including synaptic damage to the auditory nerve (AN), i.e., cochlear synaptopathy (CS). Despite the suspected high prevalence of CS among people with self-reported hearing difficulties but seemingly normal hearing, conventional hearing-aid algorithms do not compensate for the functional deficits associated with CS. Here, we present and evaluate a number of auditory signal-processing strategies designed to maximally restore AN coding for listeners with CS pathologies. We evaluated our algorithms in subjects with and without suspected age-related CS to assess whether physiological and behavioural markers associated with CS can be improved. Our data show that after applying our algorithms, envelope-following responses and perceptual amplitude-modulation sensitivity were consistently enhanced in both young and older listeners. Speech intelligibility showed small improvements across participants, with the young group benefitting the most from processed speech. Our proposed hearing-restoration algorithms can be rapidly executed and can thus extend the application range of current hearing aids and hearables, while leaving sound amplification unaffected.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Eléonore Roussel ◽  
Christophe Szwaj ◽  
Clément Evain ◽  
Bernd Steffen ◽  
Christopher Gerth ◽  

AbstractRecording electric field evolution in single-shot with THz bandwidth is needed in science including spectroscopy, plasmas, biology, chemistry, Free-Electron Lasers, accelerators, and material inspection. However, the potential application range depends on the possibility to achieve sub-picosecond resolution over a long time window, which is a largely open problem for single-shot techniques. To solve this problem, we present a new conceptual approach for the so-called spectral decoding technique, where a chirped laser pulse interacts with a THz signal in a Pockels crystal, and is analyzed using a grating optical spectrum analyzer. By borrowing mathematical concepts from photonic time stretch theory and radio-frequency communication, we deduce a novel dual-output electro-optic sampling system, for which the input THz signal can be numerically retrieved—with unprecedented resolution—using the so-called phase diversity technique. We show numerically and experimentally that this approach enables the recording of THz waveforms in single-shot over much longer durations and/or higher bandwidth than previous spectral decoding techniques. We present and test the proposed DEOS (Diversity Electro-Optic Sampling) design for recording 1.5 THz bandwidth THz pulses, over 20 ps duration, in single-shot. Then we demonstrate the potential of DEOS in accelerator physics by recording, in two successive shots, the shape of 200 fs RMS relativistic electron bunches at European X-FEL, over 10 ps recording windows. The designs presented here can be used directly for accelerator diagnostics, characterization of THz sources, and single-shot Time-Domain Spectroscopy.

Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 210
Fengyu Zhang ◽  
David Gerada ◽  
Zeyuan Xu ◽  
Yuling He ◽  
He Zhang ◽  

The laminated rotor Induction Machine (IM), with its simple construction and manufacturing, robustness, ease of control and comparatively lower cost remains by far the most utilized electromechanical energy converter. At very high speeds, traditionally its use is considered to be limited to the previously established operational limits of 2.5 × 105 rpm√kW, beyond which the surface Permanent Magnet (PM) Machine and the solid rotor Induction Machine become the machines available for consideration. The aforesaid limits are derived from the use of classic materials. This paper reviews the recent developments in electrical steels and copper alloys and translates these into the resulting performance entitlement and operational limits through a case study involving a marine application, for which an existing rare-earth PM machine is in use. It is concluded that with novel materials, laminated rotor induction machines can be operated up to 6 × 105 rpm√kW, thus opening the use of the rare-earth free Induction Machine for a wider application range previously limited to PM machines.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Julian Prangenberg ◽  
Elke Doberentz ◽  
Anthea Mawick ◽  
Burkhard Madea

Forensic pathologists are routinely confronted with unclear causes of death or related findings. In some instances, difficulties arise in relation to questions posed by criminal investigators or prosecutors. Such scenarios may include questions about wound vitality or cause of death where typical or landmark findings are difficult to ascertain. In addition to the usual examinations required to clarify unclear causes of death or address specific questions, immunohistochemistry and genetic analyses have become increasingly important techniques in this area since their establishment last century. Since then, many studies have determined the usefulness and significance of immunohistochemical and genetic investigations on cellular structures and proteins. For example, these proteins include heat shock proteins (Hsp), which were first described in 1962 and are so called based on their molecular weight. They predominantly act as molecular chaperones with cytoprotective functions that support cell survival under (sub) lethal conditions. They are expressed in specific cellular compartments and have many divergent functions. Central family members include, Hsp 27, 60, and 70. This mini review investigates recent research on the Hsp family, their application range, respective forensic importance, and current limitations and provides an outlook on possible applications within forensic science.

Lijiao Liang ◽  
Ping Wang ◽  
Tianming Qu ◽  
Xiaomei Zhao ◽  
Yiqiang Ge ◽  

Abstract Introduction The raw milk is the basic raw material of dairy products, Bacillus cereus is a typical conditional pathogenic bacteria and cold-phagocytic spoilage bacteria in raw milk. This study established a qPCR method for detecting B. cereus in raw milk Materials and Methods In this study, a qPCR method for detecting B. cereus in raw milk was established. The specificity of the method was verified by using other Bacillus bacteria and pathogenic bacteria, the sensitivity of the method was evaluated by preparing recombinant plasmids and simulated contaminated samples, and the applicability of the method was verified by using pure spore DNA. The actual sample detection was completed by using the established qPCR method Results The qPCR established in this study can specifically detect B. cereus in raw milk. The LOD of the method was as low as 200 CFU/mL, and the LOQ ranged from 2 × 10 2 to 2 × 10 8 CFU/ml, the amplification efficiency of qPCR was 96.6% Conclusins The method established in this study can distinguish B. cereus from other Bacillus bacteria, and spore DNA can be used as the detection object. This method has the advantages of strong specificity, high sensitivity, wide application range and short detection time, which is expected to be applied in the dairy industry.

Fady Abd El-malek ◽  
Alexander Steinbüchel

Because of their biodegradability, compostability, compatibility and flexible structures, biodegradable polymers such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are an important class of biopolymers with various industrial and biological uses. PHAs are thermoplastic polyesters with a limited processability due to their low heat resistance. Furthermore, due to their high crystallinity, some PHAs are stiff and brittle. These features result sometimes in very poor mechanical characteristics with low extension at break values which limit the application range of some natural PHAs. Several in vivo approaches for PHA copolymer modifications range from polymer production to enhance PHA-based material performance after synthesis. The methods for enzymatic and chemical polymer modifications are aiming at modifying the structures of the polyesters and thereby their characteristics while retaining the biodegradability. This survey illustrates the efficient use of enzymes and chemicals in post-synthetic PHA modifications, offering insights on these green techniques for modifying and improving polymer performance. Important studies in this sector will be reviewed, as well as chances and obstacles for their stability and hyper-production.

Holzforschung ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Guido Panzarasa ◽  
Ingo Burgert

Abstract Wood has great potential to become a key material for future bio-economy, thanks especially to its intrinsic renewability and CO2-storing capacity. Improved functionalization treatments can make wood materials valid substitutes for less ecofriendly ones, expanding and widening their application range. However, further research is needed. This mini-review highlights some of the most recent developments in the design of functional wood materials, critically discussing their current limitations and obstacles to their implementation.

2021 ◽  
Sarah Täuber ◽  
Luisa Blöbaum ◽  
Valentin Steier ◽  
Marco Oldiges ◽  
Alexander Grünberger

In large-scale bioreactors, gradients in cultivation parameters such as oxygen, substrate and pH result in fluctuating environments. pH fluctuations were identified as a critical parameter for bioprocess performance. Traditionally, scale-down systems at the laboratory scale are used to analyze the effects of fluctuating pH values on strain and thus process performance. Here, we demonstrate the application of dynamic microfluidic single-cell cultivation (dMSCC) as a novel scale-down system for the characterization of Corynebacterium glutamicum growth using oscillating pH conditions as a model parameter. A detailed comparison between two-compartment reactor (two-CR) scale-down experiments and dMSCC was performed for one specific pH oscillation between reference pH 7 (~8 min) and disturbed pH 6 (~2 min). Similar reductions in growth rates were observed in both systems (dMSCC 21% and two-CR 27%). Afterward, systematic experiments at different symmetric and asymmetric pH oscillations between pH ranges of 4 −6 and 8 −11 and different intervals from 1 minute to 20 minutes, were performed to demonstrate the unique application range and throughput of the dMSCC system. Finally, the strength of the dMSCC application was demonstrated by mimicking fluctuating environmental conditions within large-scale bioprocesses, which is difficult to conduct using two-CRs.

Min Yang ◽  
Licai Fu ◽  
Zeshunji Luo ◽  
Jiajun Zhu ◽  
Wulin Yang ◽  

Abstract Garnet-type Ta-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZTO) solid electrolyte has been widely investigated for secondary Li ionic or metal batteries at ambient temperature. Because of the increasing ionic conductivity of LLZTO with temperature, we applied the LLZTO solid electrolyte to thermal battery working at 550℃. The LLZTO presents ultrahigh specific energy as the discharge specific energy and specific power is 605 W h/kg and 2.74 kW/kg at 100 mA/cm2 with a cut-off voltage of 1.8 V, respectively. This is larger than the LiF–LiCl-LiBr electrolyte which is commonly used in thermal battery with a specific energy of 514 W h/kg. The internal resistance of the single cell reaches 0.65 Ω, but the specific energy remains at about 400 W h/kg as the current density increases to 400 mA/cm2. We report the application of LLZTO in thermal battery with high specific energy, large current, and high voltage discharge for the first time, broadening the application range of solid electrolytes.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document