Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol
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Toxins ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (8) ◽  
pp. 545
Eva María Mateo ◽  
José Vicente Gómez ◽  
Andrea Tarazona ◽  
María Ángeles García-Esparza ◽  
Fernando Mateo

The efficacy of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer films (EVOH) incorporating the essential oil components cinnamaldehyde (CINHO), citral (CIT), isoeugenol (IEG), or linalool (LIN) to control growth rate (GR) and production of T-2 and HT-2 toxins by Fusarium sporotrichioides cultured on oat grains under different temperature (28, 20, and 15 °C) and water activity (aw) (0.99 and 0.96) regimes was assayed. GR in controls/treatments usually increased with increasing temperature, regardless of aw, but no significant differences concerning aw were found. Toxin production decreased with increasing temperature. The effectiveness of films to control fungal GR and toxin production was as follows: EVOH-CIT > EVOH-CINHO > EVOH-IEG > EVOH-LIN. With few exceptions, effective doses of EVOH-CIT, EVOH-CINHO, and EVOH-IEG films to reduce/inhibit GR by 50%, 90%, and 100% (ED50, ED90, and ED100) ranged from 515 to 3330 µg/culture in Petri dish (25 g oat grains) depending on film type, aw, and temperature. ED90 and ED100 of EVOH-LIN were >3330 µg/fungal culture. The potential of several machine learning (ML) methods to predict F. sporotrichioides GR and T-2 and HT-2 toxin production under the assayed conditions was comparatively analyzed. XGBoost and random forest attained the best performance, support vector machine and neural network ranked third or fourth depending on the output, while multiple linear regression proved to be the worst.

2021 ◽  
pp. 088391152110224
Pierrick Paillot ◽  
Wissam Farhat ◽  
Frédéric Becquart ◽  
Corinne Jegat ◽  
Mohamed Taha

Currently, there is a great demand for functional materials with effective pathogen-killing properties. In this research, we describe the use of green technology “reactive extrusion” for the synthesis of potent antimicrobial materials based on Ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH). Herein, the antimicrobial agent, copper (II) acetate was used without pretreatment and introduced into the EVOH matrices at high temperatures. The thermal reaction of copper (II) acetate within the EVOH matrices and their effect on the thermal and thermomechanical properties of the polymer were investigated in regards to their concentration. The physicochemical, thermal, and rheological features, as well as, metal salt release kinetics were reported. The antimicrobial agent had significant effects on the properties of the matrix. Results showed a reduction in the glass transition temperatures and storage modulus of the materials in response to the incorporation of copper (II) acetate. Finally, the antimicrobial activity of the products was studied and demonstrated a possibility to create antimicrobial materials in a one-step, solvent-free extrusion process.

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