storage conditions
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2022 ◽  
Vol 185 ◽  
pp. 111773
Enrique Pino-Hernández ◽  
Carlos A. Pinto ◽  
Luís Abrunhosa ◽  
José António Teixeira ◽  
Jorge A. Saraiva

2022 ◽  
Vol 184 ◽  
pp. 111761
Shikha Tiwari ◽  
Umang Goswami ◽  
Adinath Kate ◽  
Bharat Modhera ◽  
Manoj Kumar Tripathi ◽  

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 216
Charles Krasnow ◽  
Carmit Ziv

Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a widely grown vegetable crop that is nutritious and flavorful and economically important for growers worldwide. A significant limiting factor in the postharvest storage and long-distance transport of peppers is gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea. The pathogen is widespread in nature, highly aggressive, and able to cause disease at cool refrigerated temperatures during transport and storage. Fungicides have been relied on in the past to reduce bell pepper rots in storage; however, concern over residues on the fruit and environmental degradation have heightened the importance of natural and generally recognized as safe (GRAS) solutions that effectively limit disease. Essential oils, plant extracts, inorganic chemicals, biocontrols, defense activators, hot water treatments, and modified storage conditions have been tested to reduce losses from gray mold. Despite significant amounts of research on natural methods of control of B. cinerea postharvest, research specific to gray mold in peppers is limited. The objective of this review is to summarize the research conducted with environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical fungicides to control this important pathogen of peppers postharvest. To ensure a steady supply of healthy and nutritious produce, more research is needed on the development, use, and application of non-hazardous Botrytis control methods. Until an effective solution is found, using a combined approach including environmental controls, sanitation, and GRAS products remain paramount to limit Botrytis fruit rot of peppers postharvest.

Amreen Bashir ◽  
Peter A. Lambert ◽  
Yvonne Stedman ◽  
Anthony C. Hilton

The survival on stainless steel of ten Salmonella isolates from food factory, clinical and veterinary sources was investigated. Stainless steel coupons inoculated with Salmonella were dried and stored at a range of temperatures and relative humidity (RH) levels representing factory conditions. Viability was determined from 1 to 22 days. Survival curves obtained for most isolates and storage conditions displayed exponential inactivation described by a log-linear model. Survival was affected by environmental temperatures and RH with decimal reduction times (DRTs) ranging from <1 day to 18 days. At 25 °C/15% RH, all isolates survived at levels of 103 to 105 cfu for >22 days. Furthermore, temperatures and RH independently influenced survival on stainless steel; increasing temperatures between 10 °C and 37 °C and increasing RH levels from 30–70% both decreased the DRT values. Survival curves displaying a shoulder followed by exponential death were obtained for three isolates at 10 °C/70% RH. Inactivation kinetics for these were described by modified Weibull models, suggesting that cumulative injury occurs before cellular inactivation. This study highlights the need to control temperature and RH to limit microbial persistence in the food manufacturing environment, particularly during the factory shut-down period for cleaning when higher temperature/humidity levels could be introduced.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
Nils Th. Grabowski ◽  
Amir Abdulmawjood ◽  
Fatma Acheuk ◽  
Karol Barragán Fonseca ◽  
Ty Chhay ◽  

For almost a decade, edible insects have become promoted on a wider basis as one way to combat world hunger and malnourishment, although attempts to do so have a longer history. Contemporary researchers and consumers, particularly those without an entomophagous background, have been rising safety and sustainability concerns. The present contribution seeks a substantiated answer to the question posed above. The possible answer consists of different factors that have been taken into consideration. First, the species and its life cycle. It is mandatory to realize that what is labeled as “edible insects” stands for more than 2,140 animal species, not counting other edible, non-crustacean arthropods. Their life cycles are as diverse as the ecological niches these animals can fill and last between some days to several years and many of them may—or may not—be reproduced in the different farming systems. Second, the level of knowledge concerning the food use of a given species is important, be it traditional, newly created by research, or a combination of both. Third, the existence of a traditional method of making the use of the insect safe and sustainable, ideally from both the traditional and the modern points of view. Fourth, the degree of effectiveness of these measures despite globalization changes in the food-supplying network. Fifth, farming conditions, particularly housing, feeding (type, composition, and contaminants), animal health and animal welfare. Sixth, processing, transport, and storage conditions of both traditional and novel insect-based foodstuffs, and seventh, consumer awareness and acceptance of these products. These main variables create a complex web of possibilities, just as with other foodstuffs that are either harvested from the wild or farmed. In this way, food safety may be reached when proper hygiene protocols are observed (which usually include heating steps) and the animals do not contain chemical residues or environment contaminants. A varying degree of sustainability can be achieved if the aforementioned variables are heeded. Hence, the question if insects can be safe and sustainable can be answered with “jein,” a German portmanteau word joining “yes” (“ja”) and “no” (“nein”).

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 188
Luís Pinto de Andrade ◽  
Abel Veloso ◽  
Christophe Espírito Santo ◽  
Pedro Dinis Gaspar ◽  
Pedro Dinho Silva ◽  

Sweet cherry is a highly appreciated seasonal fruit with a high content of bioactive compounds; however, this highly perishable fruit has a relatively short shelf-life period. Here, we evaluated the evolution of the physicochemical and sensory qualities of sweet cherries (Prunus avium (L.) cv. Satin) under different storage conditions, namely at a Farmers’ Organization (FO) and in a Research Centre (RC) under normal and four different conditions of controlled atmosphere for 49 days. Additional parameters were monitored, such as rotten fruit incidence and stem appearance. Temperature was the factor that most influenced the fruit quality changes over the study time. In fact, fruits stored at higher mean temperatures showed higher weight loss, higher variation in CIE-Lab colour parameters, higher firmness loss, and browner and more dehydrated stems and were less appealing to the consumer. Controlled atmosphere conditions showed a smaller decrease in CIE-Lab colour parameters and lower weight loss. The incidence of rotting was very low and was always equal or lower than 2% for all conditions. Thus, RC chamber conditions were able to sustain fruit quality parameters over 28 days under normal atmosphere conditions and 49 days under controlled atmosphere conditions.

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 218
Raquel da Silva Simão ◽  
Jaqueline Oliveira de de Moraes ◽  
Julia Beims Lopes ◽  
Ana Caroline Cichella Frabetti ◽  
Bruno Augusto Mattar Carciofi ◽  

Color change of fruit-based products during storage is an important quality parameter to determine their shelf life. In this study, a combination of relative humidity (RH) and illumination was evaluated on the stability of strawberry leathers. Samples were conditioned at 25 °C, in chambers with RH of 22.5% and 52.3% and under two levels of illumination (no illumination and with a light-emitting diode (LED) illumination at 1010 lx). Samples were analyzed during storage by instrumental color measurements, total anthocyanin content, and consumers’ acceptance/rejection of the product color. Current-status survival analysis was performed to estimate the sensory-based shelf-life of the strawberry leather. The chromatic parameters (a* and ΔE* values) and anthocyanin content changed with increasing storage time and RH, fitting a first-order fractional conversion model. Samples conditioned at the higher RH showed a higher reduction of a* values and anthocyanins losses when stored under LED illumination than those without illumination. The increase of RH resulted in a faster increase of the consumer rejection probability and a shorter shelf life of the strawberry leather. For 50% of consumers’ rejection, the sensory shelf life of the strawberry leather equilibrated at 22.5% RH was estimated as at least 54 days, while it was reduced to approximately 2 days at 52.3% RH. The red chromatic parameter (a* value) strongly correlated to the percentage of consumer rejection in all storage conditions, suggesting that this analytical parameter can be useful as a predictor of strawberry leather’s shelf life. Therefore, the results of this study show the applicability of an approach that integrates instrumental and sensory data to acquire faster information on color changes during the storage of strawberry leather and product shelf-life prediction.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 201
Aurita Butkeviciute ◽  
Jonas Viskelis ◽  
Mindaugas Liaudanskas ◽  
Pranas Viskelis ◽  
Valdimaras Janulis

Apples are seasonal fruits, and it is important to prepare them adequately for storage and ensure proper storage conditions. In this study, we used ten different apple cultivars: ‘Alva’, ‘Auksis’, ‘Connell Red’, ‘Cortland’, ‘Ligol’, ‘Lodel’, ‘Noris’, ‘Rubin’, ‘Sampion’, and ‘Spartan’. We studied the qualitative and quantitative composition of phenolic compounds in the apple and apple extracts antioxidants activity before placing them in the controlled atmosphere chambers and again at the end of the experiment, eight months later. Different concentrations of O2, CO2, and N2, constant temperature, relative humidity, and removal of endogenous ethylene were continually maintained. HPLC analysis showed that the highest amount of 2265.7 ± 152.5 µg/g of chlorogenic acid was found in apple samples of the ‘Auksis’ cultivar stored under variant IV conditions. Different concentrations of gas in the controlled atmosphere chambers caused changes in antioxidant activity in whole apple and apple peel extracts. In our study, we found that the antioxidant activity of apple extracts varied between samples of different apple cultivars and depended on the composition of the controlled atmosphere. Determining the optimal storage conditions is beneficial to providing the consumers with apples that have a known and minimally altered chemical composition of phenolic compounds and the strongest antioxidant activity, which determine the use of apples in the healthy food chain.

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