Storage Conditions
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Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 216
Charles Krasnow ◽  
Carmit Ziv

Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a widely grown vegetable crop that is nutritious and flavorful and economically important for growers worldwide. A significant limiting factor in the postharvest storage and long-distance transport of peppers is gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea. The pathogen is widespread in nature, highly aggressive, and able to cause disease at cool refrigerated temperatures during transport and storage. Fungicides have been relied on in the past to reduce bell pepper rots in storage; however, concern over residues on the fruit and environmental degradation have heightened the importance of natural and generally recognized as safe (GRAS) solutions that effectively limit disease. Essential oils, plant extracts, inorganic chemicals, biocontrols, defense activators, hot water treatments, and modified storage conditions have been tested to reduce losses from gray mold. Despite significant amounts of research on natural methods of control of B. cinerea postharvest, research specific to gray mold in peppers is limited. The objective of this review is to summarize the research conducted with environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical fungicides to control this important pathogen of peppers postharvest. To ensure a steady supply of healthy and nutritious produce, more research is needed on the development, use, and application of non-hazardous Botrytis control methods. Until an effective solution is found, using a combined approach including environmental controls, sanitation, and GRAS products remain paramount to limit Botrytis fruit rot of peppers postharvest.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
Nils Th. Grabowski ◽  
Amir Abdulmawjood ◽  
Fatma Acheuk ◽  
Karol Barragán Fonseca ◽  
Ty Chhay ◽  

For almost a decade, edible insects have become promoted on a wider basis as one way to combat world hunger and malnourishment, although attempts to do so have a longer history. Contemporary researchers and consumers, particularly those without an entomophagous background, have been rising safety and sustainability concerns. The present contribution seeks a substantiated answer to the question posed above. The possible answer consists of different factors that have been taken into consideration. First, the species and its life cycle. It is mandatory to realize that what is labeled as “edible insects” stands for more than 2,140 animal species, not counting other edible, non-crustacean arthropods. Their life cycles are as diverse as the ecological niches these animals can fill and last between some days to several years and many of them may—or may not—be reproduced in the different farming systems. Second, the level of knowledge concerning the food use of a given species is important, be it traditional, newly created by research, or a combination of both. Third, the existence of a traditional method of making the use of the insect safe and sustainable, ideally from both the traditional and the modern points of view. Fourth, the degree of effectiveness of these measures despite globalization changes in the food-supplying network. Fifth, farming conditions, particularly housing, feeding (type, composition, and contaminants), animal health and animal welfare. Sixth, processing, transport, and storage conditions of both traditional and novel insect-based foodstuffs, and seventh, consumer awareness and acceptance of these products. These main variables create a complex web of possibilities, just as with other foodstuffs that are either harvested from the wild or farmed. In this way, food safety may be reached when proper hygiene protocols are observed (which usually include heating steps) and the animals do not contain chemical residues or environment contaminants. A varying degree of sustainability can be achieved if the aforementioned variables are heeded. Hence, the question if insects can be safe and sustainable can be answered with “jein,” a German portmanteau word joining “yes” (“ja”) and “no” (“nein”).

Amreen Bashir ◽  
Peter A. Lambert ◽  
Yvonne Stedman ◽  
Anthony C. Hilton

The survival on stainless steel of ten Salmonella isolates from food factory, clinical and veterinary sources was investigated. Stainless steel coupons inoculated with Salmonella were dried and stored at a range of temperatures and relative humidity (RH) levels representing factory conditions. Viability was determined from 1 to 22 days. Survival curves obtained for most isolates and storage conditions displayed exponential inactivation described by a log-linear model. Survival was affected by environmental temperatures and RH with decimal reduction times (DRTs) ranging from <1 day to 18 days. At 25 °C/15% RH, all isolates survived at levels of 103 to 105 cfu for >22 days. Furthermore, temperatures and RH independently influenced survival on stainless steel; increasing temperatures between 10 °C and 37 °C and increasing RH levels from 30–70% both decreased the DRT values. Survival curves displaying a shoulder followed by exponential death were obtained for three isolates at 10 °C/70% RH. Inactivation kinetics for these were described by modified Weibull models, suggesting that cumulative injury occurs before cellular inactivation. This study highlights the need to control temperature and RH to limit microbial persistence in the food manufacturing environment, particularly during the factory shut-down period for cleaning when higher temperature/humidity levels could be introduced.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 201
Aurita Butkeviciute ◽  
Jonas Viskelis ◽  
Mindaugas Liaudanskas ◽  
Pranas Viskelis ◽  
Valdimaras Janulis

Apples are seasonal fruits, and it is important to prepare them adequately for storage and ensure proper storage conditions. In this study, we used ten different apple cultivars: ‘Alva’, ‘Auksis’, ‘Connell Red’, ‘Cortland’, ‘Ligol’, ‘Lodel’, ‘Noris’, ‘Rubin’, ‘Sampion’, and ‘Spartan’. We studied the qualitative and quantitative composition of phenolic compounds in the apple and apple extracts antioxidants activity before placing them in the controlled atmosphere chambers and again at the end of the experiment, eight months later. Different concentrations of O2, CO2, and N2, constant temperature, relative humidity, and removal of endogenous ethylene were continually maintained. HPLC analysis showed that the highest amount of 2265.7 ± 152.5 µg/g of chlorogenic acid was found in apple samples of the ‘Auksis’ cultivar stored under variant IV conditions. Different concentrations of gas in the controlled atmosphere chambers caused changes in antioxidant activity in whole apple and apple peel extracts. In our study, we found that the antioxidant activity of apple extracts varied between samples of different apple cultivars and depended on the composition of the controlled atmosphere. Determining the optimal storage conditions is beneficial to providing the consumers with apples that have a known and minimally altered chemical composition of phenolic compounds and the strongest antioxidant activity, which determine the use of apples in the healthy food chain.

2022 ◽  

Abstract A number of methods have been applied to measure total antioxidant capacity (TAC), including FRAP, which is based on reducing the amount of iron ions in a complex compound. Researchers often use measurement of absorbance 10 min after mixing a sample with the FRAP reaction solution to calculate TAC. The FRAP solution has been shown to alter absorbance over time by ca 0.0010–0.0020 per hour, under storage conditions. This article intends to show that some substances do not fully or sufficiently react within the common analysis period. It is evident from the results that some substances react more quickly and others very slowly. Absorbance in relation to various phenols was measured. Compared to the levels of absorbance at 10 min, mean absorbance at 48 h was higher by 5,395% for vanillin, 426% for caffeic acid, 170% for sinapinic acid, 67% for gallic acid, 19% for syringic acid, and only by 4% for Trolox. Results for vanillin and caffeic acid indicate potential auto-catalysis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Levi A. Tamming ◽  
Diana Duque ◽  
Anh Tran ◽  
Wanyue Zhang ◽  
Annabelle Pfeifle ◽  

SARS-CoV-2 infections present a tremendous threat to public health. Safe and efficacious vaccines are the most effective means in preventing the infections. A variety of vaccines have demonstrated excellent efficacy and safety around the globe. Yet, development of alternative forms of vaccines remains beneficial, particularly those with simpler production processes, less stringent storage conditions, and the capability of being used in heterologous prime/boost regimens which have shown improved efficacy against many diseases. Here we reported a novel DNA vaccine comprised of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein fused with CD40 ligand (CD40L) serving as both a targeting ligand and molecular adjuvant. A single intramuscular injection in Syrian hamsters induced significant neutralizing antibodies 3-weeks after vaccination, with a boost substantially improving immune responses. Moreover, the vaccine also reduced weight loss and suppressed viral replication in the lungs and nasal turbinates of challenged animals. Finally, the incorporation of CD40L into the DNA vaccine was shown to reduce lung pathology more effectively than the DNA vaccine devoid of CD40L. These results collectively indicate that this DNA vaccine candidate could be further explored because of its efficacy and known safety profile.

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 209
Alessio Cappelli ◽  
Andrea Bini ◽  
Enrico Cini

Many types of baked goods are firmly rooted in the food habits of many people in different countries. Although there have been great strides in improving milling, kneading, and baking, given the lack of essential studies, further steps forward need to be taken to understand the effects of storage time and environmental storage conditions, thus motivating this work. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of storage time, using one-way ANOVA, and environmental storage conditions (environmental temperature and humidity), using MOLS analysis, on flour composition, dough rheology, and biscuit characteristics. Seven levels of storage time were tested: T0 (control), T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, and T6. The results showed that flour storage time significantly increased dough tenacity (P) and curve configuration ratio (P/L), and decreased the biscuit volume (best at T0). However, 2–3 weeks of storage highlighted a significant increase in deformation energy (W), an essential alveograph parameter that is closely correlated to the technological success of leavened products. This optimum found for W might be considered as a great stride in understanding the effects of storage time, confirming that wheat flour can reach its optimal performance after two-three weeks of storage, in particular for W. Moreover, this information could be useful, not only for biscuits production, but also for bread and bakery products (and, thus, the entire bakery industry). MOLS analysis highlighted that dough rheology and biscuit characteristics are mainly affected by flour composition (primarily from starch content) rather than environmental storage parameters. In conclusion, to optimize the biscuit characteristics, it is necessary to use flours with a low content of damaged starch by selecting the most suitable milling technique and carefully managing the operative parameters.

Bioanalysis ◽  
2022 ◽  
Fatih Ahmet Erulaş ◽  
Dotse Selali Chormey ◽  
Ersoy Öz ◽  
Sezgin Bakırdere

Background: Epilepsy is a neurologic condition that is occurs globally and is associated with various degrees of seizures. Levetiracetam is an approved drug that is commonly used to treat seizures in juvenile epileptic patients. Accurate quantification of the drug’s active compound and determining its stability in the stomach after oral administration are important tasks that must be performed. Results & methodology: Levetiracetam was extracted from drug samples and quantified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry using calibration standards. Stability of levetiracetam was studied under various storage conditions and in simulated gastric conditions. The calibration plot determined for levetiracetam showed good linearity with a coefficient of determination value of 0.9991. The limits of detection and quantification were found to be 0.004 and 0.014 μg·ml-1, respectively. The structural integrity of levetiracetam did not change within a 4-h period under the simulated gastric conditions, and no significant degradation was observed for the different storage temperatures tested. Discussion & conclusion: An accurate and sensitive quantitative method was developed for the determination of levetiracetam in drug samples. The stability of the drug active compound was monitored under various storage and gastric conditions. The levetiracetam content determined in the drug samples were within ±10% of the value stated on the drug labels.

RAMONA Georgescu State ◽  
Jacobus Frederick van Staden ◽  
Raluca Ioana Stefan-van Staden

Abstract Synthetic dyes were widely used in food industry due to the advantages offered, such as good stability to oxygen, light, and pH, reproducibility, bright color, low sensitivity to storage conditions and technological processing, and of course, low cost. Unfortunately, some of them have potential harmful effects on human health (the presence of azo group in the molecular structure of azo dyes has carcinogenic and mutagenic effects in the human health), thus, their detection in various food and beverage products became essential. This review presents the latest development in sensors design used for the determination of two commonly used azo dyes – tartrazine and sunset yellow in real food and beverage samples, revealing that there is a variety of efficient sensors with low limits of detection, wide linear concentration ranges, and high selectivities and sensitivities.

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