angle of incidence
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (4) ◽  
pp. 7-12
Valeriy V. Yatsishen

An analysis of the ellipsometric parameters of the reflected light from the prism test material air system is carried out when circularly polarized light is incident on it under the conditions of the onset of the phenomenon of total internal reflection. At the onset of total internal reflection, the ellipsometry parameter shows high variability with the angle of incidence, in contrast to the parameter r0. It is shown that TIR occurs when the angle of incidence is not equal to the critical angle of the adjacent media for two different materials, these angles differ from each other. In the case of a film, the TIR phenomenon occurs at an angle equal to the critical angle at the prism-air interface and does not depend on the film material. The results obtained show the high efficiency of using the ellipsometric method together with circularly polarized incident radiation for diagnostics of thin films made of biological material.

Rod Cross

Abstract The collision of a disk with a rigid surface is analysed in this paper assuming that the disk slides throughout the collision at glancing angles or grips the surface at other angles of incidence. Experimental results are presented for an ice hockey puck and a plastic disk, showing that there is no rolling involved, as assumed in previous studies. Measurements are presented of the outgoing speed, angle and spin as a function of the angle of incidence, and the results are described in terms of the normal and tangential coefficients of restitution plus the coefficient of sliding friction. The experiment would be suitable for use in a student laboratory.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 247
Zbigniew Otremba ◽  
Jacek Piskozub

The article presents the results of simulations that take into account the optical parameters of the selected sea region (from literature data on the southern Baltic Sea) and two optically extreme types of crude oil (from historical data) which exist in the form of a highly watered-down oil-in-water emulsion (10 ppm). The spectral index was analyzed based on the results of modeling the radiance reflectance distribution for almost an entire hemisphere of the sky (zenith angle from 0 to 80°). The spectral index was selected and is universal for all optically different types of oil (wavelengths of 650 and 412 nm). The possibility of detecting pollution in the conditions of the wavy sea surface (as a result of wind of up to 10 m/s) was studied. It was also shown that if the viewing direction is close to a direction perpendicular to the sea surface, observations aimed at determining the spectral index are less effective than observations under the zenith angle of incidence of sunlight for all azimuths excluding the direction of sunlight’s specular reflection.

2022 ◽  
pp. 2100202
Vinay Kumar ◽  
Stephan Dottermusch ◽  
Aditya Chauhan ◽  
Bryce S. Richards ◽  
Ian A. Howard

Nanomaterials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 72
Stefano Bellucci ◽  
Volodymyr Fitio ◽  
Iryna Yaremchuk ◽  
Oleksandr Vernyhor ◽  
Yaroslav Bobitski

In this work the features of the resonance in a rectangular dielectric surface-relief gratings, illuminated with a limited cross-section Gaussian beam, have been studied. The rigorous coupled wave method and beam decomposition into the plane waves by the Fourier transform have been used. It is shown that there is a resonant wavelength for each thickness of the dielectric grating. The value of resonant wavelength depends on the beam angle of incidence on the gratings. Moreover, the two types of resonances can occur in the grating at certain grating parameters. The power reflection coefficient is practically equal to unity for the first type of resonance and is much smaller than unity, for the second one. The obtained results extend the knowledge regarding the nature of the waveguide resonance in the dielectric grating, considering the limited cross section beam, and they can increase its use in many applications.

Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 7
Alexander Ebner ◽  
Robert Zimmerleiter ◽  
Kurt Hingerl ◽  
Markus Brandstetter

Recent developments in mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopic ellipsometry enabled by quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) have resulted in a drastic improvement in signal-to-noise ratio compared to conventional thermal emitter based instrumentation. Thus, it was possible to reduce the acquisition time for high-resolution broadband ellipsometric spectra from multiple hours to less than 1 s. This opens up new possibilities for real-time in-situ ellipsometry in polymer processing. To highlight these evolving capabilities, we demonstrate the benefits of a QCL based MIR ellipsometer by investigating single and multilayered polymer films. The molecular structure and reorientation of a 2.5 µm thin biaxially oriented polyethylene terephthalate film is monitored during a stretching process lasting 24.5 s to illustrate the perspective of ellipsometric measurements in dynamic processes. In addition, a polyethylene/ethylene vinyl alcohol/polyethylene multilayer film is investigated at a continuously varying angle of incidence (0∘– 50∘) in 17.2 s, highlighting an unprecedented sample throughput for the technique of varying angle spectroscopic ellipsometry in the MIR spectral range. The obtained results underline the superior spectral and temporal resolution of QCL ellipsometry and qualify this technique as a suitable method for advanced in-situ monitoring in polymer processing.

Plasmonics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Tom G. Mackay ◽  
Muhammad Faryad

AbstractA local minimum in the plot of linear reflectance versus angle of incidence, on its own, is insufficient to identify a surface-plasmon-polariton wave (SPPW). Further checks are required in order to confirm the identity of a SPPW. The wavenumber should be compared with that extracted from the dispersion relation for the corresponding canonical boundary-value problem. Also, for prism-coupled configurations such as the Turbadar–Otto configuration which are based on SPPW-excitation via evanescent waves, the angle of incidence should be greater than the critical angle needed for total internal reflection.

2021 ◽  
Zahra Mazaheri ◽  
Can Koral ◽  
Antonello Andreone

Abstract We report on the realisation of a customized THz Time Domain Spectroscopic Ellipsometer (THz-TDSE) based on fiber-coupled photoconductive antennas, operating in a wide range of incident angles and allowing also standard transmission spectroscopy without any optical realignment. To ensure accurate parameter extraction for a broad range of materials, we developed a fast and effective algorithm-assisted method to calibrate the setup and compensate for the nonideality in the response of the THz system. The procedure allows to minimise errors induced by imperfect response of the antennas and polarizers, imprecise setting of the impinging and receiving angles in the goniometric mechanical arms, and unavoidable mismatches in the THz beam optics. Differently from other calibration methods applied in the literature, our approach compares in time domain the ellipsometric derived electric field s- and p-polarised components at a given angle of incidence with the reconstructed ones, attained by using the complex dielectric function of a known sample. The calibrated response is determined with high precision by setting the system in transmission mode. In order to validate the technique, ellipsometric measurements have been carried out at various angle of incidences on a number of materials both in solid and liquid form, and their data compared with what obtained by conventional THz spectroscopy. Results show that THz-TDSE accompanied with an accurate calibration procedure is an effective technique for material characterization, especially in case of samples with a high absorption rate that are not easily investigated through transmission measurements.

Crystals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1533
Arafa Aly ◽  
S. Awasthi ◽  
A. Mohamed ◽  
Z. Matar ◽  
M. Mohaseb ◽  

In this manuscript, we have explored the photonic biosensing application of the 1D photonic crystal (PhC) (AB)NCDC(AB)N, which is capable of detecting reproductive progesterone and estradiol hormones of different concentration levels in blood samples of females. The proposed structure is composed of an air cavity surrounded by two buffer layers of material MgF2, which is sandwiched between two identical 1D sub PhCs (AB)N. Both sub PhCs are made up of alternate layers of materials, SiO2 and Si, of period 5. MATLAB software has been used to obtain transmission characteristics of the structure corresponding TE wave, only with the help of the transfer matrix method. The mainstay of this research is focused on the dependence of the intensity and position of the defect mode inside the photonic bandgap with respect to reproductive hormone concentrations in blood samples, change in the thickness of the cavity region and change in angle of incidence corresponding to TE wave only. The proposed design shows high sensitivity of 98.92 nm/nmol/L and 96.58 nm/nmol/L when the cavity of a thickness of 340 nm is loaded with progesterone and estradiol hormones of concentrations of 80 nmol/L and 11 nmol/L, respectively, at an incident angle of 20°. Apart from sensitivity, other parameters such as quality factor and figure of merit have also been computed to gain deep insight about the sensing capabilities of the proposed design. These findings may pave the path for the design and development of various sensing devices capable of detecting gynecological problems pertaining to reproductive hormones in females. Thus, the simple design and excellent performance makes our design most efficient and suitable for sensing applications in industrial and biomedical fields.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document