cation binding
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Chemosensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 34
Marta Košćak ◽  
Ivona Krošl ◽  
Biserka Žinić ◽  
Ivo Piantanida

Four novel peptidoids, derived from the Phe-Arg-His (FRH) peptide motif, were prepared by replacing the histidine heterocycle with triazole and consequent triazole-fluorophore (coumarin) extension and also replacing arginine with less voluminous lysine. So the constructed Phe-Lys-Ala(triazole) (FKA(triazole)) peptidoids bind Cu2+ cations in water with a strong, nanomolar affinity comparable to the parent FRH and its known analogs, demonstrating that triazole can coordinate copper similarly as histidine. Moreover, even short KA(triazole)coumarin showed submicromolar affinity to Cu2+. Only FKA(triazole)coumarin with free amino groups and its shorter analog KA(triazole)coumarin showed strong induced CD spectra upon Cu2+ cation binding. Thus, KA(triazole)coumarin can be considered as the shortest peptidoid sequence with highly sensitive fluorescent and chiral CD response for Cu2+ cation, encouraging further studies with other metal cations. The FKA(triazole) coumarin peptidoids show biorelevant, 10 µM affinity to ds-DNA and ds-RNA, binding within DNA/RNA grooves. Intriguingly, only peptidoid complexes with Cu2+ strongly stabilize ds-DNA and ds-RNA against thermal denaturation, suggesting significant interactions of Cu2+ cation within the DNA/RNA binding site.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Natalie G. K. Wong ◽  
Caroline E. H. Dessent

Sunscreens are essential for protecting the skin from UV radiation, but significant questions remain about the fundamental molecular-level processes by which they operate. In this mini review, we provide an overview of recent advanced laser spectroscopic studies that have probed how the local, chemical environment of an organic sunscreen affects its performance. We highlight experiments where UV laser spectroscopy has been performed on isolated gas-phase sunscreen molecules and complexes. These experiments reveal how pH, alkali metal cation binding, and solvation perturb the geometric and hence electronic structures of sunscreen molecules, and hence their non-radiative decay pathways. A better understanding of how these interactions impact on the performance of individual sunscreens will inform the rational design of future sunscreens and their optimum formulations.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 470
Josip Požar ◽  
Marija Cvetnić ◽  
Andrea Usenik ◽  
Nikola Cindro ◽  
Gordan Horvat ◽  

The binding of alkali metal cations with two tertiary-amide lower-rim calix[4]arenes was studied in methanol, N,N-dimethylformamide, and acetonitrile in order to explore the role of triazole and glucose functionalities in the coordination reactions. The standard thermodynamic complexation parameters were determined microcalorimetrically and spectrophotometrically. On the basis of receptor dissolution enthalpies and the literature data, the enthalpies for transfer of reactants and products between the solvents were calculated. The solvent inclusion within a calixarene hydrophobic basket was explored by means of 1H NMR spectroscopy. Classical molecular dynamics of the calixarene ligands and their complexes were carried out as well. The affinity of receptors for cations in methanol and N,N-dimethylformamide was quite similar, irrespective of whether they contained glucose subunits or not. This indicated that sugar moieties did not participate or influence the cation binding. All studied reactions were enthalpically controlled. The peak affinity of receptors for sodium cation was noticed in all complexation media. The complex stabilities were the highest in acetonitrile, followed by methanol and N,N-dimethylformamide. The solubilities of receptors were greatly affected by the presence of sugar subunits. The medium effect on the affinities of calixarene derivatives towards cations was thoroughly discussed regarding the structural properties and solvation abilities of the investigated solvents.

Amol P. Jadhav ◽  
Sang Yeon Park ◽  
Ji-Woong Lee ◽  
Hailong Yan ◽  
Choong Eui Song

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Kazuhiro Abe ◽  
Kenta Yamamoto ◽  
Katsumasa Irie ◽  
Tomohiro Nishizawa ◽  
Atsunori Oshima

AbstractThe gastric H+,K+-ATPase mediates electroneutral exchange of 1H+/1K+ per ATP hydrolysed across the membrane. Previous structural analysis of the K+-occluded E2-P transition state of H+,K+-ATPase showed a single bound K+ at cation-binding site II, in marked contrast to the two K+ ions occluded at sites I and II of the closely-related Na+,K+-ATPase which mediates electrogenic 3Na+/2K+ translocation across the membrane. The molecular basis of the different K+ stoichiometry between these K+-counter-transporting pumps is elusive. We show a series of crystal structures and a cryo-EM structure of H+,K+-ATPase mutants with changes in the vicinity of site I, based on the structure of the sodium pump. Our step-wise and tailored construction of the mutants finally gave a two-K+ bound H+,K+-ATPase, achieved by five mutations, including amino acids directly coordinating K+ (Lys791Ser, Glu820Asp), indirectly contributing to cation-binding site formation (Tyr340Asn, Glu936Val), and allosterically stabilizing K+-occluded conformation (Tyr799Trp). This quintuple mutant in the K+-occluded E2-P state unambiguously shows two separate densities at the cation-binding site in its 2.6 Å resolution cryo-EM structure. These results offer new insights into how two closely-related cation pumps specify the number of K+ accommodated at their cation-binding site.

Drug Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Amrita Banerjee ◽  
Mehak Kanwar ◽  
Smarajit Maiti

Abstract Background Replication of SARS-CoV-2 depends on viral RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp). Remdesivir, the broad-spectrum RdRp inhibitor acts as nucleoside-analogues (NAs). Remdesivir has initially been repurposed as a promising drug against SARS-CoV-2 infection with some health hazards like liver damage, allergic reaction, low blood-pressure, and breathing-shortness, throat-swelling. In comparison, theaflavin-3’-O-gallate (TFMG), the abundant black tea component has gained importance in controlling viral infection. TFMG is a non-toxic, non-invasive, antioxidant, anticancer and antiviral molecule. Results Here, we analyzed the inhibitory effect of theaflavin-3’-O-gallate on SARS CoV-2 RdRp in comparison with remdesivir by molecular-docking study. TFMG has been shown more potent in terms of lower Atomic-Contact-Energy (ACE) and higher occupancy of surface area; −393.97 Kcal/mol and 771.90 respectively, favoured with lower desolvation-energy; −9.2 Kcal/mol. TFMG forms more rigid electrostatic and H-bond than remdesivir. TFMG showed strong affinity to RNA primer and template and RNA passage-site of RdRp. Conclusions TFMG can block the catalytic residue, NTP entry site, cation binding site, nsp7-nsp12 junction with binding energy of −6. 72 Kcal/mol with Ki value of 11.79, and interface domain with binding energy of −7.72 and −6.16 Kcal/mol with Ki value of 2.21 and 30.71 µM. And most importantly, TFMG shows antioxidant/anti-inflammatory/antiviral effect on human studies.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (9) ◽  
pp. e0257026
Oliver J. Hills ◽  
James Smith ◽  
Andrew J. Scott ◽  
Deirdre A. Devine ◽  
Helen F. Chappell

Mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a prevalent cystic fibrosis (CF) lung colonizer, producing an extracellular matrix (ECM) composed predominantly of the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) alginate. The ECM limits antimicrobial penetration and, consequently, CF sufferers are prone to chronic mucoid P. aeruginosa lung infections. Interactions between cations with elevated concentrations in the CF lung and the anionic EPS, enhance the structural rigidity of the biofilm and exacerbates virulence. In this work, two large mucoid P. aeruginosa EPS models, based on β-D-mannuronate (M) and β-D-mannuronate-α-L-guluronate systems (M-G), and encompassing thermodynamically stable acetylation configurations–a structural motif unique to mucoid P. aeruginosa–were created. Using highly accurate first principles calculations, stable coordination environments adopted by the cations have been identified and thermodynamic stability quantified. These models show the weak cross-linking capability of Na+ and Mg2+ ions relative to Ca2+ ions and indicate a preference for cation binding within M-G blocks due to the smaller torsional rearrangements needed to reveal stable binding sites. The geometry of the chelation site influences the stability of the resulting complexes more than electrostatic interactions, and the results show nuanced chemical insight into previous experimental observations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Lan Guan ◽  
Parameswaran Hariharan

AbstractMajor facilitator superfamily_2 transporters are widely found from bacteria to mammals. The melibiose transporter MelB, which catalyzes melibiose symport with either Na+, Li+, or H+, is a prototype of the Na+-coupled MFS transporters, but its sugar recognition mechanism has been a long-unsolved puzzle. Two high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of a Salmonella typhimurium MelB mutant with a bound ligand, either nitrophenyl-α-d-galactoside or dodecyl-β-d-melibioside, were refined to a resolution of 3.05 or 3.15 Å, respectively. In the substrate-binding site, the interaction of both galactosyl moieties on the two ligands with MelBSt are virturally same, so the sugar specificity determinant pocket can be recognized, and hence the molecular recognition mechanism for sugar binding in MelB has been deciphered. The conserved cation-binding pocket is also proposed, which directly connects to the sugar specificity pocket. These key structural findings have laid a solid foundation for our understanding of the cooperative binding and symport mechanisms in Na+-coupled MFS transporters, including eukaryotic transporters such as MFSD2A.

Muntahi Mourin ◽  
Arittra Bhattacharjee ◽  
Alvan Wai ◽  
Georg Hausner ◽  
Joe O'Neil ◽  

Structural and mutational analysis of Vc-NhaP2 identified a putative cation binding pocket formed by antiparallel extended regions of two transmembrane segments (TMSs V/XII) along with TMS VI. Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations suggested that the flexibility of TMS-V/XII is crucial for the intra-molecular conformational events in Vc-NhaP2. In this study, we developed some putative Vc-NhaP2 inhibitors from Amiloride analogs (AAs). Molecular docking of the modified AAs revealed promising binding. The four selected drugs potentially interacted with functionally important amino acid residues located on the cytoplasmic side of TMS VI, the extended chain region of TMS V and TMS XII and the loop region between TMSs VIIII and IX. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that binding of the selected drugs can potentially destabilize the Vc-NhaP2 and alters the flexibility of the functionally important TMS VI. The work presents the utility of in silico approaches for the rational identification of potential targets and drugs that could target NhaP2 cation proton antiporter to control Vibrio cholerae. The goal is to identify potential drugs that can be validated in future experiments.

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