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2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Ali Alkhaibary ◽  
Noura Alsubaie ◽  
Ahoud Alharbi ◽  
Noor Alghanim ◽  
Laila Baydhi ◽  

Background. Hypothalamic lipomas are benign developmental lesions that tend to be discovered incidentally. This article describes the radiological features, outcome, and the postulated theories behind hypothalamic lipomas development. Methods. The electronic archive of neurosurgery was retrospectively reviewed. All patients with a neuroradiological diagnosis of hypothalamic lipoma, between 2005 and 2020, were included. Results. Out of 246 patients with intracranial lipomas, a total of six patients with hypothalamic lipomas have been identified. On computed tomography images, one of the hypothalamic lipomas demonstrated calcification. On magnetic resonance imaging, peripheral enhancement after contrast administration was noted in one of the lesions. Considering the benign nature of the lesions, neurosurgical intervention was not indicated. Conclusion. The majority of patients with hypothalamic lipomas are asymptomatic and undergo brain imaging for other indications. Although uncommon, such developmental lesions can be identified in the general population, especially with the advancement of neuroimaging techniques.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Natalia Zubarovskaya ◽  
Irene Hofer-Popow ◽  
Marco Idzko ◽  
Oskar A. Haas ◽  
Anita Lawitschka

Graft-vs. -host disease (GvHD) is a serious and complex immunological complication of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and is associated with prolonged immunodeficiency and non-relapse mortality. Standard treatment of chronic GvHD comprises steroids in combination with other immunosuppressive agents. Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP), with its immunomodulatory mechanism, is applied as part of steroid-sparing regimens for chronic GvHD. Immunocompromised, chronically ill patients are at particular risk of severe disease courses of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. T-cell immunity in SARS-CoV-2 infection is well-described but the role of the humoral immune responses is not fully understood. This case report describes a moderate course of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a patient <9 months after HSCT who was suffering from active, severe, chronic GvHD treated with prednisone and ECP. Following HSCT from a matched unrelated donor to cure acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, the 25-year-old male patient experienced multiple infectious complications associated with cytopenia, B-cell dyshomeostasis and autoantibody production followed by development of severe chronic GvHD thereafter at day +212. The steroid-sparing treatment plan consisted of supportive care, topical treatment, prednisone and ECP. He was diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection at day +252, experiencing loss of smell and taste as well as a cough. The patient's oxygen saturation was between 94 and 97% on room air, and computed tomography images showed evolution of typical of SARS-CoV-2 infiltrates. In addition to cytopenia and immune dyshomeostasis, laboratory tests confirmed macrophage activating syndrome, transaminitis and Epstein-Barr virus viraemia. At that time, anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies were not available in Austria and remdesivir seemed contraindicated. Surprisingly, despite severe lymphopenia the patient developed SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies within 15 days, which was followed by clearance of SARS-CoV-2 and EBV with resolution of symptoms. Thereafter, parameters of immune dysregulation such as lymphopenia and B-cell dyshomeostasis, the latter characterised by elevated CD21low B cells and autoantibody expression, normalised. Moreover, we observed complete response of active chronic GvHD to treatment.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 576
Yen-Wen Shen ◽  
Yuen-Shan Tsai ◽  
Jui-Ting Hsu ◽  
Ming-You Shie ◽  
Heng-Li Huang ◽  

Clinically, a reconstruction plate can be used for the facial repair of patients with mandibular segmental defects, but it cannot restore their chewing function. The main purpose of this research is to design a new three-dimensionally (3D) printed porous titanium mandibular implant with both facial restoration and oral chewing function reconstruction. Its biomechanical properties were examined using both finite element analysis (FEA) and in vitro experiments. Cone beam computed tomography images of the mandible of a patient with oral cancer were selected as a reference to create 3D computational models of the bone and of the 3D-printed porous implant. The pores of the porous implant were circles or hexagons of 1 or 2 mm in size. A nonporous implant was fabricated as a control model. For the FEA, two chewing modes, namely right unilateral molar clench and right group function, were set as loading conditions. Regarding the boundary condition, the displacement of both condyles was fixed in all directions. For the in vitro experiments, an occlusal force (100 N) was applied to the abutment of the 3D-printed mandibular implants with and without porous designs as the loading condition. The porous mandibular implants withstood higher stress and strain than the nonporous mandibular implant, but all stress values were lower than the yield strength of Ti-6Al-4V (800 MPa). The strain value of the bone surrounding the mandibular implant was affected not only by the shape and size of the pores but also by the chewing mode. According to Frost’s mechanostat theory of bone, higher bone strain under the porous implants might help maintain or improve bone quality and bone strength. The findings of this study serve as a biomechanical reference for the design of 3D-printed titanium mandibular implants and require confirmation through clinical investigations.

2022 ◽  
Rikuto Yoshimizu ◽  
Junsuke Nakase ◽  
Takafumi Mochizuki ◽  
Yasushi Takata ◽  
Kengo Shimozaki ◽  

Abstract Background: This study investigated the whole-body skeletal muscle activity pattern of hang power clean (HPC), a major weight training exercise, using positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: Twelve college weightlifting athletes performed three sets of HPC 20 times with a barbell set to 40 kg both before and after an intravenous injection of 37 MBq 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). PET-computed tomography images were obtained 50 min after FDG injection. Regions of interest were defined within 71 muscles. The standardized uptake value was calculated to examine the FDG uptake of muscle tissue per unit volume, and FDG accumulation was compared to the control group. The Mann–Whitney U-test was used to evaluate the differences in the mean SUV between groups. The difference between SUVs of the right and left muscles was evaluated by a paired t-test. A P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: FDG accumulation within the vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, and vastus medialis was higher than that of the rectus femoris. FDG accumulation within the triceps surae muscle was significantly higher only in the soleus. In the trunk and hip muscles, FDG accumulation of only the erector spinae was significantly increased. In all skeletal muscles, there was no difference between SUVs of the right and left muscles.Conclusions: The monoarticular muscles in the lower limbs were active in HPC. In contrast, deep muscles in the trunk and hip were not active during HPC. HPC is not suitable for core training and needs to be supplemented with other training.

2022 ◽  
Tingguang Wang ◽  
Bei Zhao ◽  
Jun Yan ◽  
Jia Wang ◽  
Chong Chen ◽  

Abstract Purpose To rebuild a model of the pelvis and effectively simulate the trajectory of modified sacroiliac screws, we measured the parameters of each screw and screw channel and assessed the safety and feasibility of the parameters in adults.Method and materials One hundred (50 males and 50 females) normal adult pelvic CT (computed tomography) images were randomly selected and imported into Mimics software to rebuild the three-dimensional pelvis model. In these models, each ideal channel of modified screws was simulated, and then we obtained the precise parameters of screws and channels using Mimics and Three-matic software.Results The results of the comparison (right vs. left) showed that there were no significant differences in any of the angles, radius or M1SI parameters (the first modified sacroiliac). However, one parameter (BS) of M2SI (the second modified sacroiliac), two parameters (AP and BS) of M3SI (the third modified sacroiliac), and three parameters (AP、BS、L) of M4SI (the fourth modified sacroiliac) were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The result of comparison (between genders) showed that there were no significant differences in M1SI and M2SI; in contrast, the radius, length and the α angle of M3SI and M4SI were significantly different between genders (P < 0.05), and the radius of M4SI required special attention. If the radius of the limiting screw channel was >3.50 mm, 52 cases (52%, 24 males and 28 females) could not complete the M4SI screw placement among 100 samples. If the radius of the limiting screw channel was >3.0 mm, a total of 10 cases (10%, 2 males and 8 females) could not complete the M4SI screw placement.Conclusion Through the measurement of 100 healthy adult real three-dimensional pelvic models, we obtained the parameters of each modified sacroiliac screw and measured the three angles of each screw based on international coordinates for the first time, which can instruct clinical application.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 506
Yu-Jin Seol ◽  
Young-Jae Kim ◽  
Yoon-Sang Kim ◽  
Young-Woo Cheon ◽  
Kwang-Gi Kim

This paper reported a study on the 3-dimensional deep-learning-based automatic diagnosis of nasal fractures. (1) Background: The nasal bone is the most protuberant feature of the face; therefore, it is highly vulnerable to facial trauma and its fractures are known as the most common facial fractures worldwide. In addition, its adhesion causes rapid deformation, so a clear diagnosis is needed early after fracture onset. (2) Methods: The collected computed tomography images were reconstructed to isotropic voxel data including the whole region of the nasal bone, which are represented in a fixed cubic volume. The configured 3-dimensional input data were then automatically classified by the deep learning of residual neural networks (3D-ResNet34 and ResNet50) with the spatial context information using a single network, whose performance was evaluated by 5-fold cross-validation. (3) Results: The classification of nasal fractures with simple 3D-ResNet34 and ResNet50 networks achieved areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 94.5% and 93.4% for binary classification, respectively, both indicating unprecedented high performance in the task. (4) Conclusions: In this paper, it is presented the possibility of automatic nasal bone fracture diagnosis using a 3-dimensional Resnet-based single classification network and it will improve the diagnostic environment with future research.

2022 ◽  
Joo-Hee Chun ◽  
Amanda Cunha Regal Castro ◽  
Sunmee Oh ◽  
Kyung-Ho Kim ◽  
Sung-Hwan Choi ◽  

Abstract Background: This prospective randomized clinical trial aimed to evaluate the short-term effects of rapid palatal expansion (RPE) and miniscrew-assisted RPE (MARPE) on skeletal, dentoalveolar, and periodontal structures in adolescent and young adult patients. Methods: Thirty-six patients (12 men and 24 women) requiring maxillary expansion were randomly allocated to RPE (n=17) or MARPE (n=19) groups. Upon identical (35 turns) amount of expansion, low-dose cone-beam computed tomography images were taken before treatment (T0), immediately after expansion (T1), and after a 3-month consolidation period (T2). Skeletal, dentoalveolar, and periodontal measurements were performed at each time point. Results: A greater increase in nasal width in the molar region (M-NW) and greater palatine foramen (GPF) was observed immediately after expansion (T1-T0) and consolidation periods (T2-T0) in MARPE group (P<0.05). MARPE and RPE groups showed similar dentoalveolar changes except for the maxillary width (PM-MW, M-MW) (P<0.05). Through the expansion and consolidation periods (T2-T0), lesser buccal displacement of the anchor teeth was observed in the MARPE group (PM-BBPT, PM-PBPT, M-BBPT [mesial and distal roots], and M-PBPT) (P<0.05).Conclusions: Both RPE and MARPE groups exhibited significant triangular basal bone expansion and skeletal relapse during consolidation. Under identical amounts of expansion, the MARPE group showed lower decrease in the skeletal, dentoalveolar and periodontal variables after consolidation. The reinforcement of RPE with miniscrews contributes to the maintenance of the basal bone during consolidation period. This evidence can help clinicians decide the appliance design for maxillary expansion, while preventing periodontal side effects, such as buccal bone dehiscence Trial registration: WHO Institutional Clinical Trials Registry Platform (IRB No. KCT0006871 / Registration Date 27/12/2021)

Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 122
Syu-Jyun Peng ◽  
Yu-Wei Chen ◽  
Jing-Yu Yang ◽  
Kuo-Wei Wang ◽  
Jang-Zern Tsai

The limited accuracy of cerebral infarct detection on CT images caused by the low contrast of CT hinders the desirable application of CT as a first-line diagnostic modality for screening of cerebral infarct. This research was aimed at utilizing convolutional neural network to enhance the accuracy of automated cerebral infarct detection on CT images. The CT images underwent a series of preprocessing steps mainly to enhance the contrast inside the parenchyma, adjust the orientation, spatially normalize the images to the CT template, and create a t-score map for each patient. The input format of the convolutional neural network was the t-score matrix of a 16 × 16-pixel patch. Non-infarcted and infarcted patches were selected from the t-score maps, on which data augmentation was conducted to generate more patches for training and testing the proposed convolutional neural network. The convolutional neural network attained a 93.9% patch-wise detection accuracy in the test set. The proposed method offers prompt and accurate cerebral infarct detection on CT images. It renders a frontline detection modality of ischemic stroke on an emergent or regular basis.

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