screw placement
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 419
Takashi Yurube ◽  
Yutaro Kanda ◽  
Masaaki Ito ◽  
Yoshiki Takeoka ◽  
Teppei Suzuki ◽  

An electrical conductivity-measuring device (ECD) has recently been developed to support pedicle screw placement. However, no evidence exists regarding its efficacy for syndromic/neuromuscular scoliosis with extremely difficult screwing. We retrospectively reviewed 2010–2016 medical records of 21 consecutive syndromic/neuromuscular scoliosis patients undergoing free-hand segmental fixation surgery at our institution and compared the pedicle screw insertion accuracy and safety between 10 with a conventional non-ECD probe (2010–2013) and 11 with an ECD probe (2014–2016). We analyzed preoperative pedicle shape and postoperative screw placement in computed tomography. There were no significant differences between ECD and non-ECD groups in demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics including scoliosis severity and pedicle diameter. The abandonment rate due to liquorrhea or perforation was lower in ECD (12.3%) than in non-ECD (26.7%) (p < 0.01). Acceptable insertion without perforation or <2-mm lateral/cranial position was more frequent in ECD (67.1%) than in non-ECD (56.9%) (p = 0.02). Critical ≥5-mm medial/caudal malposition was not seen in ECD (0.0%) but in non-ECD (2.4%) (p = 0.02). The perforation distance was shorter in ECD (2.2 ± 1.1 mm) than in non-ECD (2.6 ± 1.7 mm) (p = 0.01). Results involve small sample size, selection, performance, and learning curve biases; nevertheless, ECD could be useful for more accurate and safer pedicle screw placement in severe syndromic/neuromuscular scoliosis.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 522
Henrik Frisk ◽  
Eliza Lindqvist ◽  
Oscar Persson ◽  
Juliane Weinzierl ◽  
Linda K. Bruetzel ◽  

Background: To investigate the accuracy of augmented reality (AR) navigation using the Magic Leap head mounted device (HMD), pedicle screws were minimally invasively placed in four spine phantoms. Methods: AR navigation provided by a combination of a conventional navigation system integrated with the Magic Leap head mounted device (AR-HMD) was used. Forty-eight screws were planned and inserted into Th11-L4 of the phantoms using the AR-HMD and navigated instruments. Postprocedural CT scans were used to grade the technical (deviation from the plan) and clinical (Gertzbein grade) accuracy of the screws. The time for each screw placement was recorded. Results: The mean deviation between navigation plan and screw position was 1.9 ± 0.7 mm (1.9 [0.3–4.1] mm) at the entry point and 1.4 ± 0.8 mm (1.2 [0.1–3.9] mm) at the screw tip. The angular deviation was 3.0 ± 1.4° (2.7 [0.4–6.2]°) and the mean time for screw placement was 130 ± 55 s (108 [58–437] s). The clinical accuracy was 94% according to the Gertzbein grading scale. Conclusion: The combination of an AR-HMD with a conventional navigation system for accurate minimally invasive screw placement is feasible and can exploit the benefits of AR in the perspective of the surgeon with the reliability of a conventional navigation system.

2022 ◽  
Tingguang Wang ◽  
Bei Zhao ◽  
Jun Yan ◽  
Jia Wang ◽  
Chong Chen ◽  

Abstract Purpose To rebuild a model of the pelvis and effectively simulate the trajectory of modified sacroiliac screws, we measured the parameters of each screw and screw channel and assessed the safety and feasibility of the parameters in adults.Method and materials One hundred (50 males and 50 females) normal adult pelvic CT (computed tomography) images were randomly selected and imported into Mimics software to rebuild the three-dimensional pelvis model. In these models, each ideal channel of modified screws was simulated, and then we obtained the precise parameters of screws and channels using Mimics and Three-matic software.Results The results of the comparison (right vs. left) showed that there were no significant differences in any of the angles, radius or M1SI parameters (the first modified sacroiliac). However, one parameter (BS) of M2SI (the second modified sacroiliac), two parameters (AP and BS) of M3SI (the third modified sacroiliac), and three parameters (AP、BS、L) of M4SI (the fourth modified sacroiliac) were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The result of comparison (between genders) showed that there were no significant differences in M1SI and M2SI; in contrast, the radius, length and the α angle of M3SI and M4SI were significantly different between genders (P < 0.05), and the radius of M4SI required special attention. If the radius of the limiting screw channel was >3.50 mm, 52 cases (52%, 24 males and 28 females) could not complete the M4SI screw placement among 100 samples. If the radius of the limiting screw channel was >3.0 mm, a total of 10 cases (10%, 2 males and 8 females) could not complete the M4SI screw placement.Conclusion Through the measurement of 100 healthy adult real three-dimensional pelvic models, we obtained the parameters of each modified sacroiliac screw and measured the three angles of each screw based on international coordinates for the first time, which can instruct clinical application.

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (1) ◽  
pp. E11

OBJECTIVE The application of robots in the field of pedicle screw placement has achieved great success. However, decompressive laminectomy, a step that is just as critical as pedicle screw placement, does not have a mature robot-assisted system. To address this lack, the authors designed a collaborative spine robot system to assist with laminectomy. In this study, they aimed to investigate the reliability of this novel collaborative spinal robot system and compare it with manual laminectomy (ML). METHODS Thirty in vitro porcine lumbar vertebral specimens were obtained as experimental bone specimens. Robot-assisted laminectomy (RAL) was performed on the left side of the lamina (n = 30) and ML was performed on the right side (n = 30). The time required for laminectomy on one side, whether the lamina was penetrated, and the remaining thickness of the lamina were compared between the two groups. RESULTS The time required for laminectomy on one side was longer in the RAL group than in the ML group (median 326 seconds [IQR 133 seconds] vs 108.5 seconds [IQR 43 seconds], p < 0.001). In the RAL group, complete lamina penetration occurred twice (6.7%), while in the ML group, it occurred 9 times (30%); the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.045). There was no statistically significant difference in the remaining lamina thickness between the two groups (median 1.035 mm [IQR 0.419 mm] vs 1.084 mm [IQR 0.383 mm], p = 0.842). CONCLUSIONS The results of this study confirm the safety of this novel spinal robot system for laminectomy. However, its efficiency requires further improvement.

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (1) ◽  
pp. E10

OBJECTIVE Several approaches have been studied for internal fixation of the spine using pedicle screws (PSs), including CT navigation, 2D and 3D fluoroscopy, freehand, and robotic assistance. Robot-assisted PS placement has been controversial because training requirements, cost, and previously unclear benefits. This meta-analysis compares screw placement accuracy, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and overall complications of PS insertion using traditional freehand, navigated, and robot-assisted methods. METHODS A systematic review was performed of peer-reviewed articles indexed in several databases between January 2000 and August 2021 comparing ≥ 2 PS insertion methods with ≥ 10 screws per treatment arm. Data were extracted for patient outcomes, including PS placement, misplacement, and accuracy; operative time, overall complications, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative hospital length of stay, postoperative Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score, and postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) score for back pain. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa score and Cochrane tool. A network meta-analysis (NMA) was performed to estimate PS placement accuracy as the primary outcome. RESULTS Overall, 78 studies consisting of 6262 patients and > 31,909 PSs were included. NMA results showed that robot-assisted and 3D-fluoroscopy PS insertion had the greatest accuracy compared with freehand (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively), CT navigation (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively), and 2D fluoroscopy (p < 0.01 and p < 0.01, respectively). The surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) curve method further demonstrated that robot-assisted PS insertion accuracy was superior (S = 0.937). Optimal screw placement was greatest in robot-assisted (S = 0.995) placement, and misplacement was greatest with freehand (S = 0.069) approaches. Robot-assisted placement was favorable for minimizing complications (S = 0.876), while freehand placement had greater odds of complication than robot-assisted (OR 2.49, p < 0.01) and CT-navigation (OR 2.15, p = 0.03) placement. CONCLUSIONS The results of this NMA suggest that robot-assisted PS insertion has advantages, including improved accuracy, optimal placement, and minimized surgical complications, compared with other PS insertion methods. Limitations included overgeneralization of categories and time-dependent effects.

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (1) ◽  
pp. E4

OBJECTIVE The accuracy of percutaneous pedicle screw placement has increased with the advent of robotic and surgical navigation technologies. However, the effect of robotic intraoperative screw size and trajectory templating remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare pedicle screw sizes and accuracy of placement using robotic navigation (RN) versus skin-based intraoperative navigation (ION) alone in minimally invasive lumbar fusion procedures. METHODS A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a single-institution registry of spine procedures performed over a 4-year period. Patients who underwent 1- or 2-level primary or revision minimally invasive surgery (MIS)–transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) with pedicle screw placement, via either robotic assistance or surgical navigation alone, were included. Demographic, surgical, and radiographic data were collected. Pedicle screw type, quantity, length, diameter, and the presence of endplate breach or facet joint violation were assessed. Statistical analysis using the Student t-test and chi-square test was performed to evaluate the differences in pedicle screw sizes and the accuracy of placement between both groups. RESULTS Overall, 222 patients were included, of whom 92 underwent RN and 130 underwent ION MIS-TLIF. A total of 403 and 534 pedicle screws were placed with RN and ION, respectively. The mean screw diameters were 7.25 ± 0.81 mm and 6.72 ± 0.49 mm (p < 0.001) for the RN and ION groups, respectively. The mean screw length was 48.4 ± 4.48 mm in the RN group and 45.6 ± 3.46 mm in the ION group (p < 0.001). The rates of “ideal” pedicle screws in the RN and ION groups were comparable at 88.5% and 88.4% (p = 0.969), respectively. The overall screw placement was also similar. The RN cohort had 63.7% screws rated as good and 31.4% as acceptable, while 66.1% of ION-placed screws had good placement and 28.7% had acceptable placement (p = 0.661 and p = 0.595, respectively). There was a significant reduction in high-grade breaches in the RN group (0%, n = 0) compared with the ION group (1.2%, n = 17, p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS The results of this study suggest that robotic assistance allows for placement of screws with greater screw diameter and length compared with surgical navigation alone, although with similarly high accuracy. These findings have implied that robotic platforms may allow for safe placement of the “optimal screw,” maximizing construct stability and, thus, the ability to obtain a successful fusion.

Neurospine ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (4) ◽  
pp. 839-844
Qi Zhang ◽  
Ming-Xing Fan ◽  
Xiao-Guang Han ◽  
Ya-Jun Liu ◽  
Da He ◽  

Objective: To identify potential risk factors of unsatisfactory screw position during robot-assisted pedicle screw fixation.Methods: A retrospective analysis of robot-assisted pedicle screw fixation performed in Beijing Jishuitan Hospital from March 2018 to March 2019 was conducted. Research data was collected from the medical record and imaging systems. Univariate tests were performed on the potential risk factors (patient’s characteristics and surgical factors) of unsatisfactory screw position during robot-assisted pedicle screw fixation. For statistically significant variables in univariate tests, a logistic regression test was used to identify independent risk factors for unsatisfactory screw position.Results: A total of 780 pedicle screws placed in 163 robot-assisted surgeries were analyzed. The rate of perfect screw positions was 93.08%, and the unsatisfactory rate was 6.92%. In patients with severe obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m<sup>2</sup>) (odds ratio [OR], 2.459; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.199–5.044; p = 0.014), osteoporosis (T ≤ -2.5) (OR, 1.857; 95% CI, 1.046–3.295; p = 0.034), and the segments 3 levels away from the tracker (OR, 2.216; 95% CI, 1.119–4.387; p = 0.022), robot-assisted pedicle screw placement has a higher risk of screw malposition.Conclusion: During robot-assisted pedicle screw placement for patients with severe obesity, osteoporosis, and segments 3 levels away from the tracker, vigilance should be maintained during surgery to avoid postoperative complications due to unsatisfactory screw position.

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