diagnostic biomarkers
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2022 ◽  
Vol 44 (2) ◽  
pp. 127-132
Hagar L. Mowafy ◽  
Maha M. Kotb ◽  
Kamal M. Hanna ◽  
Fatema T. Elgengehy ◽  
Lamiaa A. Madkour

2022 ◽  
Vol 146 ◽  
pp. 112488
Mintu Pal ◽  
Thingreila Muinao ◽  
Hari Prasanna Deka Boruah ◽  
Neeraj Mahindroo

Trasias Mukama ◽  
Renée Turzanski Fortner ◽  
Verena Katzke ◽  
Lucas Cory Hynes ◽  
Agnese Petrera ◽  

Abstract Background CA125 is the best available yet insufficiently sensitive biomarker for early detection of ovarian cancer. There is a need to identify novel biomarkers, which individually or in combination with CA125 can achieve adequate sensitivity and specificity for the detection of earlier-stage ovarian cancer. Methods In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, we measured serum levels of 92 preselected proteins for 91 women who had blood sampled ≤18 months prior to ovarian cancer diagnosis, and 182 matched controls. We evaluated the discriminatory performance of the proteins as potential early diagnostic biomarkers of ovarian cancer. Results Nine of the 92 markers; CA125, HE4, FOLR1, KLK11, WISP1, MDK, CXCL13, MSLN and ADAM8 showed an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of ≥0.70 for discriminating between women diagnosed with ovarian cancer and women who remained cancer-free. All, except ADAM8, had shown at least equal discrimination in previous case-control comparisons. The discrimination of the biomarkers, however, was low for the lag-time of >9–18 months and paired combinations of CA125 with any of the 8 markers did not improve discrimination compared to CA125 alone. Conclusion Using pre-diagnostic serum samples, this study identified markers with good discrimination for the lag-time of 0–9 months. However, the discrimination was low in blood samples collected more than 9 months prior to diagnosis, and none of the markers showed major improvement in discrimination when added to CA125.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 852
Aneta L. Zygulska ◽  
Piotr Pierzchalski

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is still a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Less than half of cases are diagnosed when the cancer is locally advanced. CRC is a heterogenous disease associated with a number of genetic or somatic mutations. Diagnostic markers are used for risk stratification and early detection, which might prolong overall survival. Nowadays, the widespread use of semi-invasive endoscopic methods and feacal blood tests characterised by suboptimal accuracy of diagnostic results has led to the detection of cases at later stages. New molecular noninvasive tests based on the detection of CRC alterations seem to be more sensitive and specific then the current methods. Therefore, research aiming at identifying molecular markers, such as DNA, RNA and proteins, would improve survival rates and contribute to the development of personalized medicine. The identification of “ideal” diagnostic biomarkers, having high sensitivity and specificity, being safe, cheap and easy to measure, remains a challenge. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent advances in novel diagnostic biomarkers for tumor tissue, blood and stool samples in CRC patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Nik Nur Syazana Nik Mohamed Kamal ◽  
Wan Nazatul Shima Shahidan

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory condition that causes tooth loss by destroying the supporting components of the teeth. In most cases, it is difficult to diagnose early and results in severe phases of the disease. Given their endogenous origins, exosomes, which are rich in peptides, lipids, and nucleic acids, have emerged as a cell-free therapeutic approach with low immunogenicity and increased safety. Because the constituents of exosomes can be reprogrammed depending on disease states, exosomes are increasingly being evaluated to act as potential diagnostic biomarkers for dental disease, including periodontitis. Exosomes also have been demonstrated to be involved in inflammatory signal transmission and periodontitis progression in vitro, indicating that they could be used as therapeutic targets for periodontal regeneration. Nevertheless, a review on the involvement of salivary exosomes in periodontitis in impacting the successful diagnosis and treatment of periodontitis is still lacking in the literature. Thus, this review is intended to scrutinize recent advancements of salivary exosomes in periodontitis treatment. We summarize recent research reports on the emerging roles and characteristics of salivary exosomes, emphasizing the different expressions and changed biological roles of exosomes in periodontitis.

Weronika Kraczkowska ◽  
Lucyna Stachowiak ◽  
Andrzej Pławski ◽  
Paweł Piotr Jagodziński

Abstract microRNAs are non-coding molecules, approximately 22 nucleotides in length, that regulate various cellular processes. A growing body of evidence has suggested that their dysregulated expression is involved in the pathogenesis of diverse diseases, including diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). Early onset of this chronic and complex metabolic disorder is frequently undiagnosed, leading to the development of severe diabetic complications. Notably, DM2 prevalence is rising globally and an increasing number of articles demonstrate that DM2 susceptibility, development, and progression differ between males and females. Therefore, this paper discusses the role of microRNAs as a source of novel diagnostic biomarkers for DM2 and aims to underline the importance of sex disparity in biomarkers research. Taking into account an urgent need for the development of sex-specific diagnostic strategies in DM2, recent results have shown that circulating miRNAs are promising candidates for sex-biased biomarkers.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Lushan Peng ◽  
Dan Wang ◽  
Yingying Han ◽  
Tao Huang ◽  
Xiaoyun He ◽  

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the most important component of the stromal cell population in the tumor microenvironment and play an irreplaceable role in oncogenesis and cancer progression. Exosomes, a class of small extracellular vesicles, can transfer biological information (e.g., proteins, nucleic acids, and metabolites as messengers) from secreting cells to target recipient cells, thereby affecting the progression of human diseases, including cancers. Recent studies revealed that CAF-derived exosomes play a crucial part in tumorigenesis, tumor cell proliferation, metastasis, drug resistance, and the immune response. Moreover, aberrant expression of CAF-derived exosomal noncoding RNAs and proteins strongly correlates with clinical pathological characterizations of cancer patients. Gaining deeper insight into the participation of CAF-derived exosomes in tumorigenesis may lead to novel diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets in human cancers.

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