Mushroom Poisoning
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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Nan Wang ◽  
Zhiyong Zhao ◽  
Jie Gao ◽  
Enjing Tian ◽  
Wenjie Yu ◽  

Chlorophyllum molybdites is a kind of common poisonous mushroom in China that is widely distributed in different areas. Food poisoning caused by accidentally eating C. molybdites has become more frequent in recent years. In 2019, there were 55 food poisoning incidents caused by eating this mushroom in China. Mushroom poisoning continues to be a common health issue of global concern. When mushroom poisoning occurs, an effective, simple, and rapid detection method is required for accurate clinical treatment or forensic analysis. For the first time, we established a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the visual detection of C. molybdites. A set of specific LAMP primers was designed, and the specificity was confirmed against 43 different mushroom species. The LAMP method could detect as low as 1 pg of genomic DNA. Boiled mushrooms and artificial gastric-digested mushroom samples were prepared to test the applicability of the method, and the results showed that as low as 1% C. molybdites in boiled and digested samples could be successfully detected. The LAMP method can also be completed within 45 min, and the reaction results could be directly observed based on a color change under daylight by the naked eye. Therefore, the LAMP assay established in this study provides an accurate, sensitive, rapid, and low-cost method for the detection of C. molybdites.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 186-194
Ivan Permana Putra

Wild edible mushrooms are one the germplasms which consumed by some people in Indonesia. However, due to the similar morpholgical appearance from one mushroom to another, cases of wild mushroom poisoning might be occurred as the result of the misidentification at foraging time. One of the common poisonous mushrooms which easily found around residence area is Chlorophyllum molybdites. To date, there is no database of mushroom poisoning cases in Indonesia. The aims of this research was to provide the information regarding C. molybdites poisoning cases in Indonesia. This is a literature-based quantitative research. During the last 10 years, it is suspected that there have been 4 cases of Chlorophyllum cf. molybdites poisoning in Indonesia with a total of 34 victims and none has died. This mushroom is known to contain toxic compounds, namely polymeric protein. The main constraint related to determining the taxonomic identity of poisonous mushroom, is the lack of information and documentation of samples that cause poisoning in Indonesia. This research explained how to recognize the character of C. molybdites, information on its distribution, and its toxicity aspects. With the complete information as a medium for disseminating mycology knowledge, it is hoped that cases of wild mushroom poisoning can be prevented in the future in Indonesia.

Zainul Ikhwan Ahmad Khusairi ◽  
Rizz Fazali ◽  
Chung WM ◽  
Azmir Anuar ◽  
Afendi Ghazali

Introduction: Since time immemorial, mushrooms have been used as a part of human diet, some of them are very well known for their nutritive and medicinal properties and some are known to cause poisoning to the human body. A number of post ingestion fatalities due to poisonous mushrooms has been reported worldwide. These poisonous mushrooms are often misidentified as edible ones, which accounts for accidental poisoning.Objective: The main objective of this report was to describe the clinical manifestations of mushroom poisoning cases presented at the Emergency Department (ED), Taiping Hospital.Case Presentation: There were two cases presented, who suffered from moderate dehydration due to acute gastroenteritis after taking 'delicious mushrooms', also known as Chlorophyllum Molybdites. This study found that both cases had complaints of abdominal cramping, diarrhoea and vomiting more than twenty times a day. There was no history of numbness or weakness noted, and no chest pain or shortness of breath. On arrival, both cases presented signs of moderate dehydration with coated tongue and normal blood pressure, with slightly increased in temperature (37.30C). Abdomen was soft but discomfort upon palpation and described as bloated. Both cases were resuscitated with 20ml/kg normal saline. Charcoal, antiemetic, proton pump inhibitor and ceftriaxone antibiotic were given at the ED. Both survived and were treated as infectious acute gastroenteritis. Nausea and vomiting were the most common early symptoms of intoxication and should be considered as a medical emergency. Alpha Amanitin levels should be checked where possible if amanita poisoning is suspected. An early diagnosis and immediate treatment are required for a successful outcome.Conclusion: All patients with the history of mushroom ingestion should be admitted. If laboratory detection of toxin is not available, history of mushroom ingestion, clinical manifestation and their trends could define mushroom poisoning.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Supplementary Issue: 2021 Page: S17

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (4) ◽  
pp. 2218
Jiri Patocka ◽  
Ran Wu ◽  
Eugenie Nepovimova ◽  
Martin Valis ◽  
Wenda Wu ◽  

Mushroom poisoning has always been a threat to human health. There are a large number of reports about ingestion of poisonous mushrooms every year around the world. It attracts the attention of researchers, especially in the aspects of toxin composition, toxic mechanism and toxin application in poisonous mushroom. Inocybe is a large genus of mushrooms and contains toxic substances including muscarine, psilocybin, psilocin, aeruginascin, lectins and baeocystin. In order to prevent and remedy mushroom poisoning, it is significant to clarify the toxic effects and mechanisms of these bioactive substances. In this review article, we summarize the chemistry, most known toxic effects and mechanisms of major toxic substances in Inocybe mushrooms, especially muscarine, psilocybin and psilocin. Their available toxicity data (different species, different administration routes) published formerly are also summarized. In addition, the treatment and medical application of these toxic substances in Inocybe mushrooms are also discussed. We hope that this review will help understanding of the chemistry and toxicology of Inocybe mushrooms as well as the potential clinical application of its bioactive substances to benefit human beings.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (24) ◽  
pp. 518-522
Weiwei Li ◽  
Sara M. Pires ◽  
Zhitao Liu ◽  
Jinjun Liang ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 233 ◽  
pp. 02022
Xiaochen Liang ◽  
Tianxu Wang

Mushroom, as a popular kind of wild edible fungi, has raised the attention of many scientists around the globe, due to the fact that increasing numbers of fatal mushroom poisoning cases worldwide have been reported each year. Therefore, to overcome the issue of fatality of mushrooms with an attempt to help people prevent mushroom poisoning, studying mushroom toxicology has become a significant topic to many biochemists; a growing number of researches are conducted focusing on mushroom toxins as well as their chemical properties and toxicity mechanism. In this review, properties and mechanisms of three major toxins (amatoxin, antamanide, muscarine) are chosen as the research focus. The three major toxins, which are extracted from wild mushrooms, will be summarized and studied based on past research findings. Our goals are trying to find possible treatments of each toxin as well as their potential usage in the pharmaceutical industry, which can be especially beneficial towards research of mushroom-extracted drug and food-poisoning toxicity treatment for further investigation and academic references.

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