Concrete Production
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Author(s):  
Doddipati Srinath ◽  
◽  
Gomasa Ramesh ◽  

Concrete is a commonly used construction material all over the globe. Environmentally conscious construction is essential in today’s society. By using the proper materials, we may achieve long-term construction. RHA is often used as a cementitious product replacement, and in such cases, we may mix RHA with hydrated lime. Many research has been conducted on RHA, and they all indicate that it outperforms other kinds of concrete. The importance of rice husk ash in construction and its applications are the subject of this essay. Many studies have been undertaken to identify appropriate replacements for cement in concrete mixes to reduce our over-reliance on cement as a component in concrete production owing to its contribution to CO2 emissions. This article examined the research on the usage of fly ash and rice husk ash as partial concrete replacements and the chemical composition of these materials, and their impact on concrete compressive strength. The mix was created using a logical approach in which solid components were set, and water and superplasticizer content were modified to get the best viscosity and flowability. Rice husk ash (RHA) is a rice milling byproduct. Its usage as a soil stabilizer provides an environmentally friendly alternative to ultimate disposal. Because RHA is not self-cementitious, a hydraulic binder, such as lime, must be added to create cement types to strengthen the soil. In sandy soils, studies on stabilization using RHA and lime mixtures were carried out. RHA of rice husk incineration in ordinary ovens with no temperature control and laboratory burning at regulated temperatures were utilized. In soil mixes with varying RHA and lime concentrations, cementitious compounds were found to develop. Soils treated with RHA and lime underwent unconfined compression strength testing. All RHA and lime concentrations and periods tested showed strength gains, and all materials created were changed rather than stabilized. The use of RHA to improve sandy soils offers environmental, social, and economic advantages as an alternative to ultimate disposal.


2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (3) ◽  
pp. 8-11
Author(s):  
Doddipati Srinath ◽  
◽  
Gomasa Ramesh ◽  

Concrete is a commonly used construction material all over the globe. Environmentally conscious construction is essential in today's society. By using the proper materials, we may achieve long-term construction. RHA is often used as a cementitious product replacement, and in such cases, we may mix RHA with hydrated lime. Many research has been conducted on RHA, and they all indicate that it outperforms other kinds of concrete. The importance of rice husk ash in construction and its applications are the subject of this essay. Many studies have been undertaken to identify appropriate replacements for cement in concrete mixes to reduce our over-reliance on cement as a component in concrete production owing to its contribution to CO2 emissions. This article examined the research on the usage of fly ash and rice husk ash as partial concrete replacements and the chemical composition of these materials, and their impact on concrete compressive strength. The mix was created using a logical approach in which solid components were set, and water and superplasticizer content were modified to get the best viscosity and flowability. Rice husk ash (RHA) is a rice milling byproduct. Its usage as a soil stabilizer provides an environmentally friendly alternative to ultimate disposal. Because RHA is not self-cementitious, a hydraulic binder, such as lime, must be added to create cement types to strengthen the soil. In sandy soils, studies on stabilization using RHA and lime mixtures were carried out. RHA of rice husk incineration in ordinary ovens with no temperature control and laboratory burning at regulated temperatures were utilized. In soil mixes with varying RHA and lime concentrations, cementitious compounds were found to develop. Soils treated with RHA and lime underwent unconfined compression strength testing. All RHA and lime concentrations and periods tested showed strength gains, and all materials created were changed rather than stabilized. The use of RHA to improve sandy soils offers environmental, social, and economic advantages as an alternative to ultimate disposal


Author(s):  
Barkha Verma

Abstract: Aggregates provide volume at low cost, comprising 66% to 78% of the concrete. With increasing concern over the excessive exploitation of natural and quality aggregates, the aggregate produced from industrial wastes and agricultural wastes is the viable new source for building material. This study was carried out to determine the possibilities of using coconut shells as aggregate in concrete. Utilizing coconut shells as aggregate in concrete production not only solves the problem of disposing of this solid waste but also helps conserve natural resources. In this paper, the physical properties of crushed coconut shell aggregate were presented. The fresh concrete properties such as the density and slump and 28 days compressive strength of lightweight concrete made with coconut shell as coarse aggregate were also presented. The findings indicate that water absorption of the coconut shell aggregate was high about 24% but crushing value and impact value were comparable to that of other lightweight aggregates. The average fresh concrete density and 28days cube compressive strength of the concrete using coconut shell aggregate 1975kg/m3 and 19.1 N/mm2 respectively. It is concluded that crushed coconut shell is suitable when it is used as a substitute for conventional aggregates in lightweight concrete production. Keywords: Coarse Aggregate, Cement, Concrete, Fly Ash, Coconut shell Aggregate, Water, Compressive Strength, Workability, Fine Aggregate.


Author(s):  
Vidhi Sharma

Abstract: This research paper represents the experimental study on use of ceramic waste material as an aggregate in concrete. To reach the goal of sustainable development utilization of waste materials in concrete production is very much useful. The ceramic aggregate used in this study was recycled from industrial ceramic tile waste in India. From the results it can be seen that it is possible to produce a concrete with good strength by using ceramic waste as an aggregate in .It is also seen from the results that the compressive strength characteristics of ceramic aggregate concrete met the required criteria set by various international standards and codes, which shows the ability of ceramic waste to be used as a substitute to the conventional aggregates in concrete. We replaced the coarse aggregate in concrete by 100% to thewaste ceramic aggregate of size 10mm. The water cementratio taken was 0.30 for concrete production and compared it with normal aggregate concrete of M20 grade. By the decrease in water/cement ratio, high strength concrete canbe obtained. But it is found that the workability will be very low. In our project the required workability was achieved by the use of maximum water-cement ratio .To overcome this use of several admixtures like super-plasticizers and silica fume are recommended to add in the mixing so that the workability can be improved. Keywords: Sustainable development, Ceramic waste as aggregate


Arts ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 17
Author(s):  
Jerzy Ilkosz ◽  
Ryszard Wójtowicz ◽  
Jadwiga Urbanik

The aim of the article is to present the remarkable changes in architecture that took place in the 20th century. They can easily be called a revolution regarding the architectural form and the color scheme. Progress was being made through the development of reinforced concrete production methods. In the German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich), this material quickly found applications in more and more interesting solutions in architectural structures. In Wrocław (formerly Breslau), then located in the eastern German Empire, exceptional architectural works were realized before and after the First World War using new technology. In 1913, an unusual building was erected—the Centennial Hall, designed by Max Berg (inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2006). Berg’s work was inspired by the works of both Hans Poelzig and Bruno Taut. On the one hand, it was a delight with the new material (the Upper Silesian Tower at the exhibition in Poznań, designed by H. Poelzig) and, on the other hand, with the colorful architecture of light and glass by B. Taut (a glass pavilion at the Werkbund exhibition in Cologne). Max Berg left the concrete in an almost “pure” form, not hiding the texture of the formwork under the plaster layer. However, stratigraphic studies of paint coatings and archival inquiries reveal a new face of this building. The research was carried out as part of the CMP (Conservation Management Plan—prepared by the authors of the article, among others) grant from The Getty Foundation Keeping It Modern program. According to the source materials, the architect intended to leave the exposed concrete outside of the building, while the interior was to be decorated with painting, stained glass, and sculpture. The stratigraphic tests showed that the external walls were covered with a translucent yellowish color coating. Thus, the Centennial Hall shows a different face of reinforced concrete architecture.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 708
Author(s):  
Miren Etxeberria ◽  
Mikhail Konoiko ◽  
Carles Garcia ◽  
Miguel Ángel Perez

The use of recycled aggregate to reduce the over-exploitation of raw aggregates is necessary. This study analysed and categorised the properties of water-washed, fine and coarse, recycled aggregates following European Normalization (EN) specification. Because of their adequate properties, zero impurities and chemical soluble salts, plain recycled concrete was produced using 100% recycled concrete aggregates. Two experimental phases were conducted. Firstly, a laboratory phase, and secondly, an on-site work consisting of a real-scale pavement-base layer. The workability of the produced concretes was validated using two types of admixtures. In addition, the compressive and flexural strength, physical properties, drying shrinkage and depth of penetration of water under pressure validated the concrete design. The authors concluded that the worksite-produced concrete properties were similar to those obtained in the laboratory. Consequently, the laboratory results could be validated for large-scale production. An extended slump value was achieved using 2.5–3% of a multifunctional admixture plus 1–1.2% of superplasticiser in concrete production. In addition, all the produced concretes obtained the required a strength of 20 MPa. Although the pavement-base was produced using 300 kg of cement, the concrete made with 270 kg of cement per m3 and water/cement ratio of 0.53 achieved the best properties with the lowest environmental impact.


Environments ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 8
Author(s):  
Joseph J. Assaad ◽  
Jamal M. Khatib ◽  
Rawan Ghanem

The use of post-consumer plastics in concrete production is an ideal alternative to dispose of such wastes while reducing the environmental impacts in terms of pollution and consumption of natural resources and energy. This paper investigates different approaches (i.e., reducing water-to-cement ratio and incorporating steel fibers or polymeric latexes) that compensate for the detrimental effect of waste plastics on the drop in concrete mechanical properties including the bond to embedded steel bars. The polyethylene terephthalate (PET) wastes used in this study were derived from plastic bottles that were shredded into small pieces and added during concrete batching at 1.5% to 4.5%, by total volume. Test results showed that the concrete properties are degraded with PET additions, given their lightweight nature and poor characteristic strength compared to aggregate particles. The threshold PET volumetric rates are 4.5% and 3% for concrete made using natural or recycled aggregates, respectively. The reduction of w/c from 0.55 to 0.46 proved efficient to refine the matrix porosity and reinstate the concrete performance. The incorporation of 0.8% steel fibers (by volume) or 15% polymers (by mixing water) were appropriate to enhance the bridging phenomena and reduce the propagation of cracks during the pullout loading of steel bars.


2022 ◽  
Vol 1048 ◽  
pp. 412-419
Author(s):  
B. Vijaya Prasad ◽  
Arun P. Kumar ◽  
N. Anand ◽  
Paul Daniel Arumairaj ◽  
T. Dhilip ◽  
...  

The most important cause of the climate changes in the past few decades are due to the emission of CO2.It may be due to human or natural processes such as disposal of waste material from the thermal power plant, consuming natural resources or production of cement etc. Due to increase in infrastructure created the demand of more construction industries. Increasing importance of environmental protection and energy storage has led to the investigation of alternative binders to replace the cement. Geopolymers are an alternative binder for cement concrete production because of their superior mechanical properties. In the present investigation, for developing the Geopolymer concrete (GPC), high calcium fly ash is used as an alternative binder with Na2SiO3 and NaOH as alkaline liquids. Fresh and hardened properties of GPC are examined by appropriate experiments. Alkaline liquid to High calcium Fly ash ratio (AL: HCF) of 0.45, 0.55,0.6 and 0.65 are used with 8M of NaOH and the developed GPC is kept in ambient curing for 7 days, 28 days, and 56 days. It was observed that with an increase of AL to HCF ratio in the fresh GPC increased the workability of GPC. Increase of AL to HCF ratio in GPC mix increased the compressive strength, tensile strength and flexural strength up to a certain limit.


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