industrial wastes
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
S. Masood ◽  
A. Hussain ◽  
A. Javid ◽  
S. M. Bukahri ◽  
W. Ali ◽  

Abstract Poultry industry is expanding rapidly and producing million tons of feather waste annually. Massive production of keratinaceous byproducts in the form of industrial wastes throughout the world necessitates its justified utilization. Chemical treatment of keratin waste is proclaimed as an eco-destructive approach by various researchers since it generates secondary pollutants. Keratinase released by a variety of microbes (bacteria and fungi) can be used for the effective treatment of keratin waste. Microbial degradation of keratin waste is an emerging and eco-friendly approach and offers dual benefits, i.e., treatment of recalcitrant pollutant (keratin) and procurement of a commercially important enzyme (keratinase). This study involves the isolation, characterization, and potential utility of fungal species for the degradation of chicken-feather waste through submerged and solid-state fermentation. The isolated fungus was identified and characterized as Aspergillus (A.) flavus. In a trial of 30 days, it was appeared that 74 and 8% feather weight was reduced through sub-merged and solid-state fermentation, respectively by A. flavus. The pH of the growth media in submerged fermentation was changed from 4.8 to 8.35. The exploited application of keratinolytic microbes is, therefore, recommended for the treatment of keratinaceous wastes to achieve dual benefits of remediation.

2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
F. Awan ◽  
M. M. Ali ◽  
I. Q. Afridi ◽  
S. Kalsoom ◽  
S. Firyal ◽  

Abstract The present study involves the chemical and bacteriological analysis of water from different sources i.e., bore, wells, bottle, and tap, from Peshawar, Mardan, Swat and Kohat districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province, Pakistan. From each district, 50 water samples (10 samples from each source), regardless of urban and rural status, were collected from these sources and analysed for sulphates, nitrates, nitrites, chlorides, total soluble solids and coliforms (E. coli). Results indicated that majority of the water sources had unacceptable E. coli count i.e.> 34 CFU/100mL. E. coli positive samples were high in Mardan District, followed by Kohat, Swat and Peshawar district. Besides this, the some water sources were also chemically contaminated by different inorganic fertilizers (nitrates/nitrites of sodium, potassium) but under safe levels whereas agricultural and industrial wastes (chloride and sulphate compounds) were in unsafe range. Among all districts, the water quality was found comparatively more deteriorated in Kohat and Mardan districts than Peshawar and Swat districts. Such chemically and bacteriologically unfit water sources for drinking and can cause human health problems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-10
Panigrahi M.K ◽  

The aim of the work is to use industrial waste as resource materials for formulating useful product for society. Materials are prepared using Fly ash as main ingredient through sintered process via solid state route. Different materials are prepared using various sintering temperature. The crystal structural and phases are explored by XRD analysis. Mulite phase are investigated, which is indicated the insulating properties of the materials. Surface topography of the prepared materials is analyzed by FESEM characterization. EDS analysis is also done during the FESEM characterization and is assessed the various chemical compositions. Identification of different chemical groups in the processed Fly Ash is carried out by FTIR analysis. Highest electrical resistivity is estimated and is found to be 35.1 MΩ, which indicates the very good insulating property.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
pp. 100040
Afonso R. G. de Azevedo ◽  
Mohamed Amin ◽  
Marijana Hadzima-Nyarko ◽  
Ibrahim Saad Agwa ◽  
Abdullah M. Zeyad ◽  

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
S. A. Bano ◽  
S. Naz ◽  
B. Uzair ◽  
M. Hussain ◽  
M. M. Khan ◽  

Abstract Many soil microorganisms’ i.e., bacteria and fungi produce secondary metabolites called antibiotics. These are used for the treatment of some of the bacterial, fungal and protozoal diseases of humans. There is a need for isolation of a broad spectrum of antibiotics from microorganisms due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In the present study two antibiotic producing bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry of Hattar, Haripur Pakistan. Total 10 waste samples were collected from different industries (Marble, Ghee, Soap, Mineral, Steel, Poultry Feed, Pharmaceutical, Qarshi, Cosmetic and Glass). Thirty-three bacterial strains were isolated from industrial wastes of these ten different industries. Fourteen out of thirty-three bacterial strains exhibited antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test microbes considered in this study including Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The bacteria were isolated by standard serial dilution spread plate technique. Morphological characterization of the isolates was done by Gram staining. Nine bacterial isolates out of fourteen were initially identified as B. cereus and five as K. pneumoniae through biochemical characterization. The antibacterial activities were tested by well diffusion method. Maximum number of antibiotic producing bacteria were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry based on the results of primary screening, the most potential isolates S9, S19, S20, S22 and S23 were selected for secondary screening. The maximum activity against E. coli and S. aureus was recorded by bacterial isolate S19 i.e zones of inhibition of 6.5mm and 9mm while S20 showed 7.5mm and 6mm zones respectively. Molecular identification was carried out on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Finally, the isolates were identified as B. cereus accession number LC538271and K. pneumoniae accession number MT078679. Analysis of bacterial extract S20 through GC-MS indicated the presence of 8 compounds of diverse nature and structure. Present study suggests that wastes of pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry may have antibiotic producing bacteria. These bacteria could be utilized for the production of antibiotics. B. cereus and K. pneumoniae isolated from wastes of poultry feed and pharmaceutical industries have the potential to produce antibiotics and could be used to control the microbial growth.

2022 ◽  
Vol 158 ◽  
pp. 112054
Oisik Das ◽  
Karthik Babu ◽  
Vigneshwaran Shanmugam ◽  
Kesavarao Sykam ◽  
Mike Tebyetekerwa ◽  

Barkha Verma

Abstract: Aggregates provide volume at low cost, comprising 66% to 78% of the concrete. With increasing concern over the excessive exploitation of natural and quality aggregates, the aggregate produced from industrial wastes and agricultural wastes is the viable new source for building material. This study was carried out to determine the possibilities of using coconut shells as aggregate in concrete. Utilizing coconut shells as aggregate in concrete production not only solves the problem of disposing of this solid waste but also helps conserve natural resources. In this paper, the physical properties of crushed coconut shell aggregate were presented. The fresh concrete properties such as the density and slump and 28 days compressive strength of lightweight concrete made with coconut shell as coarse aggregate were also presented. The findings indicate that water absorption of the coconut shell aggregate was high about 24% but crushing value and impact value were comparable to that of other lightweight aggregates. The average fresh concrete density and 28days cube compressive strength of the concrete using coconut shell aggregate 1975kg/m3 and 19.1 N/mm2 respectively. It is concluded that crushed coconut shell is suitable when it is used as a substitute for conventional aggregates in lightweight concrete production. Keywords: Coarse Aggregate, Cement, Concrete, Fly Ash, Coconut shell Aggregate, Water, Compressive Strength, Workability, Fine Aggregate.

Conservation ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 68-79
Nahida Islam ◽  
Dinesh Chandra Shaha ◽  
Jahid Hasan ◽  
Md. Hafij Al Asad ◽  
Mohammad Abdus Salam ◽  

The Belai beel serves as an important aquatic resource for the livelihood of the local community of the Gazipur district in Bangladesh. However, water pollution in recent times, mainly from industrial wastes and sewage effluents, may disrupt its aquatic environment. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to assess the potential area of pen fish culture in the Belai beel. The study was performed in the Rajbagan (L1), Kamaria (L2) and Rewla (L3) areas of the Belai beel. Grass carp, silver carp, common carp, catla and rui of 20–30 cm in size were stocked at a rate of 15,000 fish/ha and reared for 150 days in pens installed in the L1, L2 and L3 areas, respectively. The fishes were fed with mustard oil cake and rice bran. Maximum fish production was found in Rewla (12.97 ton/ha/150 days) compared to Rajbagan (8.85 ton/ha/150 days) and Kamaria (10.67 ton/ha/150 days) due to it having comparatively good quality water. There were significant differences in metal ion concentrations (p < 0.05) among the three fish pens. In the Rajbagan area, concentrations of Cd and Cu in the water coming from the industrial effluent canal exceeded the acceptable limit. Results indicated that the Rewla area was better than Rajbagan and Kamaria due to it having relatively good quality water for pen fish culture.

Gels ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 53
Rayed Alyousef ◽  
Ahmed Abdel Khalek Ebid ◽  
Ghasan Fahim Huseien ◽  
Hossein Mohammadhosseini ◽  
Hisham Alabduljabbar ◽  

Various geopolymer mortars (GPMs) as concrete repairing materials have become effective owing to their eco-friendly properties. Geopolymer binders designed from agricultural and industrial wastes display interesting and useful mechanical performance. Based on this fact, this research (experimental) focuses on the feasibility of achieving a new GPM with improved mechanical properties and enhanced durability performance against the aggressive sulfuric acid and sulfate attacks. This new ternary blend of GPMs can be achieved by combining waste ceramic tiles (WCT), fly ash (FA) and ground blast furnace slag (GBFS) with appropriate proportions. These GPMs were designed from a high volume of WCT, FA, and GBFS to repair the damaged concretes existing in the construction sectors. Flexural strength, slant shear bond strength, and compatibility of the obtained GPMs were compared with the base or normal concrete (NC) before and after exposure to the aggressive environments. Tests including flexural four-point loading and thermal expansion coefficient were performed. These GPMs were prepared using a low concentration of alkaline activator solution with increasing levels of GBFS and FA replaced by WCT. The results showed that substitution of GBFS and FA by WCT in the GPMs could enhance their bond strength, mechanical characteristics, and durability performance when exposed to aggressive environments. In addition, with the increase in WCT contents from 50 to 70%, the bond strength performance of the GPMs was considerably enhanced under sulfuric acid and sulfate attack. The achieved GPMs were shown to be highly compatible with the concrete substrate and excellent binders for various civil engineering construction applications. It is affirmed that the proposed GPMs can efficiently be used as high-performance materials to repair damaged concrete surfaces.

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