Lightweight Concrete
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2022 ◽  
Vol 319 ◽  
pp. 126061
Muhammad Faisal Junaid ◽  
Zia ur Rehman ◽  
Michal Kuruc ◽  
Igor Medveď ◽  
Darius Bačinskas ◽  

Barkha Verma

Abstract: Aggregates provide volume at low cost, comprising 66% to 78% of the concrete. With increasing concern over the excessive exploitation of natural and quality aggregates, the aggregate produced from industrial wastes and agricultural wastes is the viable new source for building material. This study was carried out to determine the possibilities of using coconut shells as aggregate in concrete. Utilizing coconut shells as aggregate in concrete production not only solves the problem of disposing of this solid waste but also helps conserve natural resources. In this paper, the physical properties of crushed coconut shell aggregate were presented. The fresh concrete properties such as the density and slump and 28 days compressive strength of lightweight concrete made with coconut shell as coarse aggregate were also presented. The findings indicate that water absorption of the coconut shell aggregate was high about 24% but crushing value and impact value were comparable to that of other lightweight aggregates. The average fresh concrete density and 28days cube compressive strength of the concrete using coconut shell aggregate 1975kg/m3 and 19.1 N/mm2 respectively. It is concluded that crushed coconut shell is suitable when it is used as a substitute for conventional aggregates in lightweight concrete production. Keywords: Coarse Aggregate, Cement, Concrete, Fly Ash, Coconut shell Aggregate, Water, Compressive Strength, Workability, Fine Aggregate.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Irindu Upasiri ◽  
Chaminda Konthesingha ◽  
Anura Nanayakkara ◽  
Keerthan Poologanathan ◽  
Gatheeshgar Perampalam ◽  

PurposeLight-Gauge Steel Frame (LSF) structures are popular in building construction due to their lightweight, easy erecting and constructability characteristics. However, due to steel lipped channel sections negative fire performance, cavity insulation materials are utilized in the LSF configuration to enhance its fire performance. The applicability of lightweight concrete filling as cavity insulation in LSF and its effect on the fire performance of LSF are investigated under realistic design fire exposure, and results are compared with standard fire exposure.Design/methodology/approachA Finite Element model (FEM) was developed to simulate the fire performance of Light Gauge Steel Frame (LSF) walls exposed to realistic design fires. The model was developed utilising Abaqus subroutine to incorporate temperature-dependent properties of the material based on the heating and cooling phases of the realistic design fire temperature. The developed model was validated with the available experimental results and incorporated into a parametric study to evaluate the fire performance of conventional LSF walls compared to LSF walls with lightweight concrete filling under standard and realistic fire exposures.FindingsNovel FEM was developed incorporating temperature and phase (heating and cooling) dependent material properties in simulating the fire performance of structures exposed to realistic design fires. The validated FEM was utilised in the parametric study, and results exhibited that the LSF walls with lightweight concrete have shown better fire performance under insulation and load-bearing criteria in Eurocode parametric fire exposure. Foamed Concrete (FC) of 1,000 kg/m3 density showed best fire performance among lightweight concrete filling, followed by FC of 650 kg/m3 and Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) 600 kg/m3.Research limitations/implicationsThe developed FEM is capable of investigating the insulation and load-bearing fire ratings of LSF walls. However, with the availability of the elevated temperature mechanical properties of the LSF wall, materials developed model could be further extended to simulate the complete fire behaviour.Practical implicationsLSF structures are popular in building construction due to their lightweight, easy erecting and constructability characteristics. However, due to steel-lipped channel sections negative fire performance, cavity insulation materials are utilised in the LSF configuration to enhance its fire performance. The lightweight concrete filling in LSF is a novel idea that could be practically implemented in the construction, which would enhance both fire performance and the mechanical performance of LSF walls.Originality/valueLimited studies have investigated the fire performance of structural elements exposed to realistic design fires. Numerical models developed in those studies have considered a similar approach as models developed to simulate standard fire exposure. However, due to the heating phase and the cooling phase of the realistic design fires, the numerical model should incorporate both temperature and phase (heating and cooling phase) dependent properties, which was incorporated in this study and validated with the experimental results. Further lightweight concrete filling in LSF is a novel technique in which fire performance was investigated in this study.

Yingguang Fang ◽  
Yafei Xu ◽  
Renguo Gu

AbstractRecent years have witnessed that the prefabricated concrete structure is in the widespread use of building structures. This structure, however, still has some weaknesses, such as excessive weight of components, high requirements for construction equipment, difficult alignment of nodes, and poor installation accuracy. In order to handle the problems mentioned above, the prefabricated component made of lightweight concrete is adopted. At the same time, this prefabricated component is beneficial to reducing the load of the building structure itself and improving the safety and economy of the building structure. Nevertheless, it is rarely found that the researches and applications of lightweight concrete for stressed members are conducted. In this context, this paper replaces ordinary coarse aggregate with lightweight ceramsite or foam based on the C60 concrete mix ratio so as to obtain a mix ratio of C40 lightweight concrete that meets the engineering standards. Besides, ceramsite concrete beams and foamed concrete beams are fabricated. Moreover, through three-point bending tests, this paper further explores the mechanical properties of lightweight concrete beams and plain concrete beams during normal use conditions. As demonstrated in the results, the mechanical properties of the foamed concrete beam are similar to those of the plain concrete beam. Compared to plain concrete beams, the density of foamed concrete beams was lower by 23.4%; moreover, the ductility and toughness of foamed concrete were higher by 13% and 3%, respectively. However, in comparison with the plain concrete beam, the mechanical properties of the ceramsite concrete beam have some differences, with relatively large dispersion and obvious brittle failure characteristics. Moreover, in consideration of the nonlinear deformation characteristics of reinforced concrete beams, the theoretical calculation value of beam deflection was given in this paper based on the assumption of flat section and the principle of virtual work. The theoretically calculated deflection values of ordinary concrete beams and foamed concrete beams are in good agreement with the experimental values under normal use conditions, verifying the rationality and effectiveness of the calculation method. The research results of this paper can be taken as a reference for similar engineering designs.

2022 ◽  
pp. 345-367
Soner Top ◽  
Mahmut Altıner ◽  
Hüseyin Vapur

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 155-166
Ali I. Salahaldin ◽  
Muyasser M. Jomaa’h ◽  
Nazar A. Oukaili ◽  
Diyaree J. Ghaidan

This research presents an experimental investigation of the rehabilitation efficiency of the damaged hybrid reinforced concrete beams with openings in the shear region. The study investigates the difference in retrofitting ability of hybrid beams compared to traditional beams and the effect of two openings compared with one opening equalized to two holes in the area. Five RC beams classified into two groups, A and B, were primarily tested to full-failure under two-point loads. The first group (A) contained beams with normal weight concrete. The second group (hybrid) included beams with lightweight concrete for web and bottom flange, whereas the top flange was made from normal concrete. Two types of openings were considered in this study, rectangular, with dimensions of 100×200 mm, and two square openings with a side dimension of 100 mm. A full wrapping configuration system for the shear region (failure zone) was adopted in this research. Based on the test results, the repaired beams managed to recover their load carrying capacity, stiffness, and structural performance in different degrees. The normal concrete beam regains its total capacity for all types of openings, while the hybrid beams gain 84% of their strength. The strength of hybrid concrete members compared with normal concrete is 81 and 88% for beams of one opening and two openings, respectively. Doi: 10.28991/CEJ-2022-08-01-012 Full Text: PDF

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