peak inspiratory pressure
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Jun Honda ◽  
Keisuke Kuwana ◽  
Saori Kase ◽  
Shinju Obara ◽  
Satoki Inoue

Abstract Background Pneumoperitoneum is a common complication of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). We report a case of circulatory and respiratory depression due to pneumoperitoneum caused by PEG dislodgement during endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) surgery. Case presentation A 46-year-old man with PEG for dysphagia underwent ESD for esophageal cancer under general anesthesia. The patient developed a gradual increase in peak inspiratory pressure, followed by a decrease in peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and blood pressure, as well as an increase in heart rate (HR) during endoscopic submucosal ESD for esophageal cancer. We suspected mediastinal emphysema due to esophageal perforation, but the surgery was successfully completed. Postoperative computed tomography (CT) revealed that the abdominal and gastric walls, which had been fixed by PEG, were detached, resulting in a large amount of intra-abdominal gas and mediastinal emphysema. Conclusions ESD in patients with PEG should be performed carefully because of the possibility of intraoperative PEG dislodgement and pneumoperitoneum caused by insufflation gas leakage.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (12) ◽  
pp. 3485-3487
Amber Naseer ◽  
Riffat Farrukh ◽  
Shaheen Masood ◽  
Sarwat Sultana ◽  
Qamar Rizvi

Background: Assisted ventilation has turn out to be an essential part of the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). It is one of the main methods of support in the ICU and undoubtedly influences the survival of sick newborns. Aims: 1. To investigate common indications for mechanical ventilation in newborns 2. To investigate factors influencing the outcome. Method: It is a descriptive study of 60 infants admitted to the Department of Pediatric Medicine in the ICU over a one-year period in the department of Paediatrics, Abbasi Shaheed Hospital. The information was gathered and analysed in a pre-designed format. Results: Of a total of 60 infants, 46 survived, 14 died, and one infant was discharged despite medical advice. 36 children were born vaginally, 20 were born via LSCS, and 4 via assisted delivery. Postnatal asphyxia was the most common ventilation indication in full-term newborns, while HMD was present in preterm infants. The best results were obtained in ventilated infants with MAS, with 100% survival, followed by apnoea in premature infants, perinatal asphyxia, and HMD. Pulmonary haemorrhage (48.3%) was the most common complication among deceased infants, followed by sepsis (28.3%) and shock (23.4%) with a significant p <0.05. There were no complications in 76.7% of the surviving infants. Conclusions: Among the many widely available variables studied in this study, maximum and mean peak inspiratory pressure (PIP or (PEEP), maximum respiratory rate, maximum mean airway pressure (MAP) and average ventilation demand was much greater among non-survivals in comparison to the survivors. Bicarbonate, PH and excess base have been found to be important determinants of mortality in ventilated newborns. Keywords: Indications, mechanical ventilation and Results

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (6) ◽  
pp. 33-41
B. Küçüköztaş ◽  
L. İyilikçi ◽  
S. Ozbilgin ◽  
M. Ozbilgin ◽  
T. Ünek ◽  

Objectives. Inspiratory, hemodynamic and metabolic changes occur in laparoscopic surgery depending on pneumoperitoneum and patient position. This study aims to evaluate the effects of intra-abdominal pressure increase based on CO2 pneumoperitoneum in laparoscopic operations on hemodynamic parameters and respiratory dynamics and satisfaction of surgeon and operative view.Materials and Methods. A total of 116 consecutive, prospective, ASA class I–III cases aged 18–70 years undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled in this study. Data of 104 patients were analysed. Patients were divided into two groups as the group Low Pressure (<12 mmHg) (Group LP) (n=53) and the group Standard Pressure (>13 mmHg) (Group SP) (n=51). In this study administration of general anesthesia used total intravenous anaesthesia in both groups. All groups had standard and TOF monitorization applied. The anaesthesia methods used in both groups were recorded. Before, during and after peritoneal insufflation, the peroperative ventilation parameters and hemodynamic parameters were recorded. The adequacy of pneumoperitoneum, gastric and the operative view were evaluated by the operating surgeon and recorded.Results. The peripheral oxygen saturation showed no significant difference between the low and standard pressure pneumoperitoneum in view of tidal volume, respiratory rate, end tidal CO2, mean and peak inspiratory pressure, and minute ventilation values. In terms of hemodynamics, when values just after intubation and before extubation were compared, it was observed that in the LP group systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure values were higher. In terms of heart rate, no significant difference was observed in determined periods between groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of surgical satisfaction and vision.Conclusion. Low pressure pneumoperitoneum provides effective respiratory mechanics and stable hemodynamics for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. It also provides the surgeon with sufficient space for hand manipulations. Anaesthetic method, TIVA and neuromuscular blockage provided good surgery vision with low pressure pneumoperitoneum.

Circulation ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 144 (Suppl_2) ◽  
Joseph Tonna ◽  
Craig Selzman ◽  
Jason Bartos ◽  
Zhining Ou ◽  
Yeonjung Jo ◽  

Introduction: Gas exchange during ECMO can occur independent of the lungs through ECMO, enabling a wider range of ventilator settings and blood gas values. Yet it is not known if potentially modifiable mechanical ventilation parameters or blood gas values are associated with survival for patients who receive ECPR. Hypothesis: To determine associations between ventilation parameters, blood gas values, and survival. Methods: Cohort analysis among 7,488 ECPR patients ≥18yrs of age from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) Registry from 2008 - 2019. We examined the association between mechanical ventilation parameters on-ECMO with case-mix adjusted hospital survival. We used generalized estimating equation logistic regression, accounting for center level variation. Results: Case-mix adjusted patient-level mechanical ventilation parameters and blood gas values on-ECMO varied across individual hospitals, including arterial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2), and changes in these values from pre-ECMO to on-ECMO. Increasing absolute on-ECMO PaO2 (OR 0.88 [95% CI 0.86, 0.9]; p<0.001), and relative increases in PaO2 from pre- to on-ECMO (OR 0.91 [0.89,0.93]; p<0.001) were both associated with decreased survival. Relative increases in pre- to on-ECMO PaCO2 (OR 1.31 [1.14, 1.1.54]; p<0.001) were associated with improved survival. Decreasing peak inspiratory pressure (OR 0.77, per 5 centimeters of water (cmH2O) [0.72, 0.81]; p<0.001) and fraction of inspired oxygen (OR 0.94, per 5% [0.92, 0.96]; p<0.001) were both associated with improved survival. Conclusions: Mechanical ventilation parameters of ECPR patients varies across hospitals. Potentially modifiable parameters and blood gas values are associated with survival and should be the focus of future research.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (21) ◽  
pp. 5090
Chang-Hoon Koo ◽  
Insun Park ◽  
Sungmin Ahn ◽  
Sangchul Lee ◽  
Jung-Hee Ryu

The aim of this study was to investigate whether deep neuromuscular blockade (NMB) may affect intraoperative respiratory mechanics, surgical condition, and recovery profiles in patients undergoing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Patients were randomly assigned to the moderate or deep NMB groups. Pneumoperitoneum was maintained with carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation at 15 mmHg during surgery. The primary outcome was peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) after CO2 insufflation. Mean airway pressure (Pmean) and dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn) were also recorded. The surgeon rated the surgical condition and surgical difficulty on a five-point scale (1 = extremely poor; 2 = poor; 3 = acceptable; 4 = good; 5 = optimal). Recovery profiles, such as pulmonary complications, pain scores, and recovery time, were recorded. We included 58 patients in this study. No significant differences were observed regarding intraoperative respiratory mechanics including PIP, Pmean and Cdyn, between the two groups. The number of patients with optimal surgical conditions was significantly higher in the deep than in the moderate NMB group (29 vs. 20, p = 0.014). We found no differences in recovery profiles. In conclusion, deep NMB had no significant effect on the intraoperative respiratory mechanics but resulted in optimal endoscopic surgical conditions during RARP compared with moderate NMB.

Tawatchai Luadsri ◽  
Jaturon Boonpitak ◽  
Kultida Pongdech-Udom ◽  
Patnuch Sukpom ◽  
Weerapong Chidnok

Background: In developing countries, lower respiratory tract infection is a major cause of death in children, with severely ill patients being admitted to the critical-care unit. While physical therapists commonly use the manual hyperinflation (MHI) technique for secretion mass clearance in critical-care patients, its efficacy has not been determined in pediatric patients. Objective:This study investigated the effects of MHI on secretion mass clearance and cardiorespiratory responses in pediatric patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Methods:A total of 12 intubated and mechanically ventilated pediatric patients were included in this study. At the same time of the day, the patients received two randomly ordered physical therapy treatments (MHI with suction and suction alone) from a trained physical therapist, with a washout period of 4[Formula: see text]h provided between interventions. Results:The MHI treatment increased the tidal volume [[Formula: see text]; 1.2[Formula: see text]mL/kg (95% CI, 0.8–1.5)] and static lung compliance [[Formula: see text]; 3.7[Formula: see text]mL/cmH2O (95% CI, 2.6–4.8)] immediately post-intervention compared with the baseline ([Formula: see text]). Moreover, the MHI with suction induced higher [Formula: see text] [1.4[Formula: see text]mL/kg (95% CI, 0.8–2.1)] and [Formula: see text] [3.4[Formula: see text]mL/cmH2O (95% CI, 2.1–4.7)] compared with the suction-alone intervention. In addition, the secretion mass [0.7[Formula: see text]g (95% CI, 0.6–0.8)] was greater in MHI with suction compared with suction alone ([Formula: see text]). However, there was no difference in peak inspiratory pressure, mean airway pressure, respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure or oxygen saturation ([Formula: see text]) between interventions. Conclusions:MHI can improve [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and secretion mass without inducing adverse hemodynamic effects upon the pediatric patients requiring mechanical ventilation.

Matthew H. Park ◽  
Yuanjia Zhu ◽  
Hanjay Wang ◽  
Nicholas A. Tran ◽  
Jinsuh Jung ◽  

AbstractResource-scarce regions with serious COVID-19 outbreaks do not have enough ventilators to support critically ill patients, and these shortages are especially devastating in developing countries. To help alleviate this strain, we have designed and tested the accessible low-barrier in vivo-validated economical ventilator (ALIVE Vent), a COVID-19-inspired, cost-effective, open-source, in vivo-validated solution made from commercially available components. The ALIVE Vent operates using compressed oxygen and air to drive inspiration, while two solenoid valves ensure one-way flow and precise cycle timing. The device was functionally tested and profiled using a variable resistance and compliance artificial lung and validated in anesthetized large animals. Our functional test results revealed its effective operation under a wide variety of ventilation conditions defined by the American Association of Respiratory Care guidelines for ventilator stockpiling. The large animal test showed that our ventilator performed similarly if not better than a standard ventilator in maintaining optimal ventilation status. The FiO2, respiratory rate, inspiratory to expiratory time ratio, positive-end expiratory pressure, and peak inspiratory pressure were successfully maintained within normal, clinically validated ranges, and the animals were recovered without any complications. In regions with limited access to ventilators, the ALIVE Vent can help alleviate shortages, and we have ensured that all used materials are publicly available. While this pandemic has elucidated enormous global inequalities in healthcare, innovative, cost-effective solutions aimed at reducing socio-economic barriers, such as the ALIVE Vent, can help enable access to prompt healthcare and life saving technology on a global scale and beyond COVID-19.

Naoya Kobayashi ◽  
Masanori Yamauchi

Introduction: Supra-laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is widely accepted as an alternative to the tracheal tube. However, compared to the use of a tracheal tube, it may take longer to identify the many different causes of sudden respiratory distress. In particular, heat and moisture exchange filters are one of the most overlooked causes. Case presentation: The case was that of a 76-year-old male Japanese patient (161.9 cm, 66.5 kg) who underwent an open renal biopsy. He presented with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, with a Hugh–Jones dyspnea score of 2. The patient did not discontinue smoking prior to the operation. Anesthesia was induced using propofol (100 mg), fentanyl (100 ?g), and remifentanil (0.3 ?g/kg/min). I-gel™ #4 was inserted following neuromuscular blockade with rocuronium (40 mg). Anesthesia was maintained with 3–6% desflurane under positive pressure ventilation. After induction in the left lateral and jackknife positions, the following ventilator settings were used: volume-controlled ventilation with tidal volumes of 450 mL, respiratory rate of 12 breaths per minute, an inspiratory: expiratory ratio of 1:2, and a positive end expiratory pressure of 5 cmH2O. With these settings, the peak inspiratory pressure was 16 cmH2O. Five minutes after initiating the operation, the peak inspiratory pressure steadily increased to 30 cmH2O. Although we administered rocuronium, the peak inspiratory pressure and end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration increased over time. When we disconnected the heat and moisture exchange filter and LMA, we noticed a large quantity of sputa. A suction catheter was passed down the LMA and the sputa was removed, but the LMA was not obstructed. The peak inspiratory pressure continued to increase with tidal volumes of only 20–30 mL. Despite a normal external appearance of the heat and moisture exchange filter, we replaced it with a new one. The ability to ventilate improved immediately and the SpO2 recovered from 92% to 100%. Conclusions

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Natalia Neumann-Klimasińska ◽  
T. Allen Merritt ◽  
Jennifer Beck ◽  
Izabela Miechowicz ◽  
Marta Szymankiewicz-Bręborowicz ◽  

AbstractDue to its unique properties, helium–oxygen (heliox) mixtures may provide benefits during non-invasive ventilation, however, knowledge regarding the effects of such therapy in premature infants is limited. This is the first report of heliox non-invasive neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NIV-NAVA) ventilation applied in neonates born ≤ 32 weeks gestational age. After baseline NIV-NAVA ventilation with a standard mixture of air and oxygen, heliox was introduced for 3 h, followed by 3 h of air-oxygen. Heart rate, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation, cerebral oxygenation, electrical activity of the diaphragm (Edi) and selected ventilatory parameters (e.g., respiratory rate, peak inspiratory pressure) were continuously monitored. We found that application of heliox NIV-NAVA in preterm infants was feasible and associated with a prompt and significant decrease of Edi suggesting reduced respiratory effort, while all other parameters were stable throughout the study, and had similar values during heliox and air-oxygen ventilation. This therapy may potentially enhance the efficacy of non-invasive respiratory support in preterm neonates and reduce the number of infants progressing to ventilatory failure.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document