stem cell markers
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2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Anna S. Nam ◽  
Neville Dusaj ◽  
Franco Izzo ◽  
Rekha Murali ◽  
Robert M. Myers ◽  
...  

Somatic mutations in cancer genes have been ubiquitously detected in clonal expansions across healthy human tissue, including in clonal hematopoiesis. However, mutated and wildtype cells are morphologically and phenotypically similar, limiting the ability to link genotypes with cellular phenotypes. To overcome this limitation, we leveraged multi-modality single-cell sequencing, capturing the mutation with transcriptomes and methylomes in stem and progenitors from individuals with DNMT3A R882 mutated clonal hematopoiesis. DNMT3A mutations resulted in myeloid over lymphoid bias, and in expansion of immature myeloid progenitors primed toward megakaryocytic-erythroid fate. We observed dysregulated expression of lineage and leukemia stem cell markers. DNMT3A R882 led to preferential hypomethylation of polycomb repressive complex 2 targets and a specific sequence motif. Notably, the hypomethylation motif is enriched in binding motifs of key hematopoietic transcription factors, serving as a potential mechanistic link between DNMT3A R882 mutations and aberrant transcriptional phenotypes. Thus, single-cell multi-omics pave the road to defining the downstream consequences of mutations that drive human clonal mosaicism.


2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. e0009889
Author(s):  
Shaoyun Cheng ◽  
Bingkuan Zhu ◽  
Fang Luo ◽  
Xiying Lin ◽  
Chengsong Sun ◽  
...  

Schistosoma japonicum is prevalent in Asia with a wide mammalian host range, which leads to highly harmful zoonotic parasitic diseases. Most previous transcriptomic studies have been performed on this parasite, but mainly focus on stages inside the mammalian host. Moreover, few larval transcriptomic data are available in public databases. Here we mapped the detailed transcriptome profiles of four S. japonicum larval stages including eggs, miracidia, sporocysts and cercariae, providing a comprehensive development picture outside of the mammalian host. By analyzing the stage-specific/enriched genes, we identified functional genes associated with the biological characteristic at each stage: e.g. we observed enrichment of genes necessary for DNA replication only in sporocysts, while those involved in proteolysis were upregulated in sporocysts and/or cercariae. This data indicated that miracidia might use leishmanolysin and neprilysin to penetrate the snail, while elastase (SjCE2b) and leishmanolysin might contribute to the cercariae invasion. The expression profile of stem cell markers revealed potential germinal cell conversion during larval development. Additionally, our analysis indicated that tandem duplications had driven the expansion of the papain family in S. japonicum. Notably, all the duplicated cathepsin B-like proteases were highly expressed in cercariae. Utilizing our 3rd version of S. japonicum genome, we further characterized the alternative splicing profiles throughout these four stages. Taken together, the present study provides compressive gene expression profiles of S. japonicum larval stages and identifies a set of genes that might be involved in intermediate and definitive host invasion.


2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Elham Kalantari ◽  
Tahereh Taheri ◽  
Saba Fata ◽  
Maryam Abolhasani ◽  
Mitra Mehrazma ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The crucial oncogenic role of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in tumor maintenance, progression, drug resistance, and relapse has been clarified in different cancers, particularly in colorectal cancer (CRC). The current study was conducted to evaluate the co-expression pattern and clinical significance of epithelial cell adhesion molecules (EpCAM) and activated leukocyte cell adhesion (CD166 or ALCAM) in CRC patients. Methods This study was carried out on 458 paraffin-embedded CRC specimens by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray (TMA) slides. Results Elevated expression of EpCAM and CD166 was observed in 61.5% (246/427) and 40.5% (164/405) of CRC cases. Our analysis showed a significant positive association of EpCAM expression with tumor size (P = 0.02), tumor stage (P = 0.007), tumor differentiate (P = 0.005), vascular (P = 0.01), neural (P = 0.01), and lymph node (P = 0.001) invasion. There were no significant differences between CD166 expression and clinicopathological parameters. Moreover, the combined analysis demonstrated a reciprocal significant correlation between EpCAM and CD166 expression (P = 0.02). Interestingly, there was a significant positive correlation between EpCAM/CD166 phenotypes expression and tumor stage (P = 0.03), tumor differentiation (P = 0.05), neural, and lymph node invasion (P =0.01). Conclusions The significant correlation of EpCAM and CD166 expression and their association with tumor progression and aggressive behavior is the reason for the suggestion of these two CSC markers as promising targets to promote novel effective targeted-therapy strategies for cancer treatment in the present study.


Author(s):  
Thokchom Shitarjit Singh ◽  
O.R. Sathyamoorthy ◽  
Soundian Eswari ◽  
Sabiha Hayath Basha ◽  
M. Parthiban

Background: Mesenchymal stem cells are well known for their self-renewal capacity and ability to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. The aim of the study was to develop a simple technique for isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from porcine adipose tissue and to study the morphometric characteristics of porcine mesenchymal stem cells. Methods: Porcine adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells were isolated in vitro by using collagenase type II enzyme. Cell yield and viability of the cells were calculated by using trypan blue exclusion method using Neubauer’s chamber. Characterization of MSCs were done by using specific cell markers. The morphological changes, morphometry were analysed in culture using Leishman’s stain. The cell doubling (CD) and Population doubling time (PDT) were also calculated. Result: The isolated adherent cells start forming colony and demonstrated an elongated, round and spindle like fibroblastic morphology by day 1. Almost 80-90 per cent confluency was attained on day 8-9 after the initial seeding and was reduced to day 3-4 in the subsequent passages. RT-PCR reactions revealed positive expression of mesenchymal stem cell markers CD44, CD73 and negative expression of CD34, a hematopoietic cell surface marker. Immunocytochemistry also revealed positive expression for CD44 and negative for CD34. In morphometric studies, the cell length, nucleus length, cell width and nucleus width were increased between 24 and 48 hours in both P2 and P3.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Chien-Liang Ho ◽  
Lynn L H Huang ◽  
Shyh-Jou Shieh

Abstract Autologous chondrocytes are effective sources of cell therapy for engineering cartilage tissue to repair chondral defects, such as degenerative arthritis. The expansion of cells with chondrocyte characteristics has become a major challenge due to inadequate donor sites and poor proliferation of mature chondrocytes. The perichondrial progenitor cells (P cells) from the cambium layer of the perichondrium possessed significantly higher mesenchymal stem cell markers than chondrocytes (C cells). In the transwell co-culture system, P cells increased the passaging capacity of C cells from P6 to P9, and the cell number increased 128 times. This system increased the percentage of Alcian blue-positive chondrocytes from 40% in P6 to 62% in P9, contributing about 198 times more Alcian blue-positive chondrocytes than the control group. C cells co-cultured with P cells also exhibited higher proliferation than C cells cultured with P cell-conditioned medium. Similar results were obtained in nude mice that were subcutaneously implanted with C cells, P cells, or a mixture of the two cell types, in which the presence of both cells enhanced neocartilage formation in vivo. In aggregate, P cells enhanced the proliferation of C cells in a dose-dependent manner and prolonged the longevity of mature chondrocytes for clinical applications.


2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (3) ◽  
pp. 094-099
Author(s):  
Khalida I. Noel ◽  
Rana M. Raoof ◽  
Nibras H. Khamees

Background: In the previous theories of cancer, they considered that cancer was a homogeneous which mean that the tumor had only tumor cells and for this reason the treatment for any tumor directed to kill these tumor cells. But, with rising of the metastatic cases of cancer patients, another theory have been raised, that the cancer is a heterogeneous disease which composed of tumor cells that previously the chemotherapy and other cancer therapies directed toward them, in addition there is another group of cells, called cancer stem cells (CSCs), these are more aggressive than the tumor cells that can force the poor microenvironment of the cancer tissue and survive and also they are undifferentiated cells so can undergo mitosis to produce more tumor cells and another group of cancer stem cells in contrast to the tumor cells, which considered a post mitotic and not divided. Objective: Demonstrate some of cancer stem cell markers that considered an important indicators of early cancer development and lately to detect cases of metastasis. Conclusion: The theory of the presence of cancer stem cells is more acceptable and applicable and so the cancer therapy must be directed to these groups of cancer stem cells.


Morphologia ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 79-87
Author(s):  
N.V. Stanishevska

Background Stellate pancreatocytes, being cells - producers of stromal components, actively interact with cancer cells, determine the formation of a stromal barrier between the latter and thereby provide tumor chemoresistance. Objective The review is devoted to the analysis of recent data on the role of stellate pancreatocytes in the formation of the stromal microenvironment of pancreatic tumors, molecular mechanisms through which the regulation and realization of stellate cell functions is carried out. Methods Data processing was carried out by the method of complex material analysis. Results. Stellate pancreatocytes (PSC) exhibit phenotypically and functionally two states: inactive and active. PSC activation is carried out by cells of the developing tumor through a variety of molecular mediators. Activation triggers for PSC are Yes-associated protein, TGF-β1, miRNA let-7d, IL-8, MCP1, TGF-β2, IGFBP2, and others. 10 actively expressed genes were identified: TP53, SRC, IL6, JUN, ISG15, CAD, STAT1, OAS3, OAS1, VIM during co-cultivation of a cancer cell line (PCC) with PSC. PSC deactivation is associated with speckle-type mediator POZ (SPOP) acting through nuclear factor-kappaB, transretinoic acid (ATRA). Exhibiting their activity, PSCs express several stem cell markers, α-SMA (α-actin of smooth muscle cells), vimentin, α ITGA 11 (collagen type I receptor), α5 integrin receptor ITGA5 (fibronectin receptor), hyaluronic acid, hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), hyaluronidase 1 (HYAL1), BAG3 , matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP2), Nodal protein, miR-1246 and miR-1290, miR-210, CCN2 (connective tissue growth factor), TRPV1, SP and CGRP (Calcitonin gene-related peptide) and many other factors. Сonclusion. Stellate pancreatocytes, being producers of the interacinar stroma, are activated by various factors (TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, ATP, and HMGB1, etc.), including factors produced by tumor cells of the pancreas, and act as regulators of proliferation, migration, and suppression apoptosis of the latter. An increase in the expression of α ITGA 11 (type I collagen receptor), α5 integrin receptor ITGA5 (fibronectin receptor), metallopeptidases, Nodal protein, miR-1246, miR-1290, and miR-210 is observed in tumor tissue, that indicates the activation of these cells. The maintenance of the active state of PSC is provided by tumor cells, for which stellate pancreatocytes are partners in the progression of the neoplastic process. Further study of the mechanisms of interaction in the PSC-tumor cell system creates the prospect of revealing levers of influence on the pathogenesis of pancreatic tumors.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jinpu Wei ◽  
Xiuxiu Dong ◽  
Bo Wang ◽  
Yajiang Wu ◽  
Wu Chen ◽  
...  

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells and can be isolated from many tissues of the body. Due to their potentials to treat various diseases and be applied in animal breeding, MSCs have been isolated and identified regarding their biological properties. Common hippos (Hippopotamus amphibius) are a vulnerable species and yet the cryopreservation of their genetic materials is scare. In this study, we successfully established two MSC lines (UC-MSCs and AT-MSCs) from the umbilical cord and adipose tissue of a neonatal common hippo and comparatively described their features. Both UC-MSCs and AT-MSCs showed fibroblastoid morphology and could be continuously passaged for over 17 passages without dramatic signs of senescence. The cell cultures had normal chromosome composition, say, 17 pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of X chromosomes. UC-MSCs and AT-MSCs displayed similar gene expression profiles. They were positive for CD45, CD73, CD90 and CD105 and negative for HLA-DR. They demonstrated stemness maintenance by expression of classical stem cell markers. UC-MSCs and AT-MSCs manifested different differentiation potentials into other cell lineages. In summary, these two cell lines demonstrated the essential properties of mesenchymal stem cells and might play a role in the future research.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yuan-Tsan Tseng ◽  
Nabil F. Grace ◽  
Heba Aguib ◽  
Padmini Sarathchandra ◽  
Ann McCormack ◽  
...  

The success of tissue-engineered heart valves rely on a balance between polymer degradation, appropriate cell repopulation, and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, in order for the valves to continue their vital function. However, the process of remodeling is highly dynamic and species dependent. The carbon fibers have been well used in the construction industry for their high tensile strength and flexibility and, therefore, might be relevant to support tissue-engineered hearts valve during this transition in the mechanically demanding environment of the circulation. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of the carbon fibers to be incorporated into tissue-engineered heart valves, with respect to optimizing their cellular interaction and mechanical flexibility during valve opening and closure. The morphology and surface oxidation of the carbon fibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Their ability to interact with human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) was assessed with respect to cell attachment and phenotypic changes. hADSCs attached and maintained their expression of stem cell markers with negligible differentiation to other lineages. Incorporation of the carbon fibers into a stand-alone tissue-engineered aortic root, comprised of jet-sprayed polycaprolactone aligned carbon fibers, had no negative effects on the opening and closure characteristics of the valve when simulated in a pulsatile bioreactor. In conclusion, the carbon fibers were found to be conducive to hADSC attachment and maintaining their phenotype. The carbon fibers were sufficiently flexible for full motion of valvular opening and closure. This study provides a proof-of-concept for the incorporation of the carbon fibers into tissue-engineered heart valves to continue their vital function during scaffold degradation.


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