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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 854-861
Jing Li ◽  
Bo Xie ◽  
Hu Wang ◽  
Chengsong Chen ◽  
Chengwu Pan ◽  

Certain progress has been made in the therapeutic method against gastric cancer such as surgical operation combined with chemotherapy and radiation therapy in recent years. But the therapeutic efficacy and prognosis on gastric cancer was still not satisfactory. The function of exosome of miR-328–3p secreted by bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) on restraining the gastric cancer was studied in the present study. The BMSCs with highly-expressed miR-328-3p was established. The exosome in cell supernatant was collected. The exosome of BMSCs and MSCs with highlyexpressed miR-328-3p was added into SGC-7901 cells followed by analysis of miR-328-3p level by Real-time PCR and TFF3 (Trefoil Factor 3) level in exosome by Western blot, cell proliferation, expression of E-cadherin, Vimentin and Caspase-3. miR-328-39 expression was reduced and TFF3 was elevated in gastric cancer tissue (P < 0.05). miR-328-3p was upregulated and TFF3 was downregulated after addition of BMSCs exosomes along with increased cell proliferation and reduced E-cadherin and Caspase3 expression (P < 0.05). In conclusion, exosome of BMSCs could be regulated by miR-328-3p and TFF3 expression is restrained so as to regulate the biological behaviors of gastric cancer cell.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 920-925
He Bai ◽  
Jian He

The BMSCs are one of the components of tumor micro-environment and participate in tumor evolution. Our study aimed to discuss the effect of exosome derived from BMSC on gastric cancer cells. Tumor and para-tumor tissues were isolated to measure miR-206 level by RT-PCR. Gastric cancer cell behaviors were analyzed using MTT assay and scratch test. Gastric cancer model was established and treated TIGIT inhibitor to assess its role in the tumor growth in vivo. The miR-206 in exosome from BMSCs in cancer tissue was detected. CD8 expression excreted by DC could be induced after miR-206 treatment possibly through regulating the signaling pathway of TIGIT/PVR. Inhibition of TIGIT decreased tumor growth, development and reversed tumor phenotype. In conclusion, miR-206 derived from BMSCs induces CD8 expression in gastric cancer through regulating the signaling pathway of TIGIT/PVR, indicating that it might be a novel target for the treatment of gastric cancer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 953-957
Ting Ding ◽  
Qian Song ◽  
Yanjun Xu ◽  
Qiya Liu

Chemokines and immunomodulatory factors involve in tumor development. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is considered to start from dendritic cell infiltration and then produce immunomodulatory factors. In this study, CXCR4 and PD-L1 biomarkers were used to explore their prognostic role in PTC survival. Confocal microscopy detected the transfection efficiency in tumor cells. 42 PTC patients and thyroiditis patients (control) were enrolled to measure the expressions of CXCR4 and PD-L1. Multi-factor analysis analyzed the effect of combined CXCR4 and PD-L1 expression on ROC. The two groups had no differences in the baseline characteristics. CTXCR4 and PD-L1 level in PTC patients was significantly higher than control. CXCR4 was lowly expressed in thyroid cancer tissue and PD-L1 was highly expressed in serological samples. Compared with single measurement, the combined detection of CXCR4 and PD-L1 showed more ROC area. In conclusion, reduced CXCR4 and increased PD-L1 level is found in thyroid cancer and their level might be used as predictive markers for PTC to improve the curative effect.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Keiichi Tamai ◽  
Haruna Fujimori ◽  
Mai Mochizuki ◽  
Kennichi Satoh

Cancer tissue consists of heterogenous cell types, and cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of the tissue which possess therapy resistance, tumor reconstruction capability, and are responsible for metastasis. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is one of the most common type of liver cancer that is highly aggressive with poor prognosis. Since no target therapy is efficient in improving patient outcomes, new therapeutic approaches need to be developed. CSC is thought to be a promising therapeutic target because of its resistance to therapy. Accumulating evidences suggests that there are many factors (surface marker, stemness-related genes, etc.) and mechanisms (epithelial-mesenchymal transition, mitochondria activity, etc.) which are linked to CSC-like phenotypes. Nevertheless, limited studies are reported about the application of therapy using these mechanisms, suggesting that more precise understandings are still needed. In this review, we overview the molecular mechanisms which modulate CSC-like phenotypes, and discuss the future perspective for targeting CSC in iCCA.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 ◽  
Wei Shi ◽  
Lu Qi ◽  
Xiong-Bin You ◽  
Yu-Chi Chen ◽  
Yu-Lian Xu ◽  

Background: Shenling Baizhu Powder (SBP), a famous Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formulation, has been widely used in the adjuvant treatment of cancers, including breast cancer. This study aims to identify potential new targets for breast cancer treatment based on the network pharmacology of SBP. Methods: By analyzing the relationship between herbs and target proteins, potential targets of multiple herbs in SBP were identified by network pharmacology analysis. Besides, by comparing the data of breast cancer tissue with normal tissue, upregulated genes in two breast cancer expression profiles were found. Thereafter, the expression level and prognosis of activator of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) ATPase activity 1 (AHSA1) were further analyzed in breast cancer by bioinformatics analysis, and the network module of AHSA1 binding protein was constructed. Furthermore, the effect of knocking down AHSA1 on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of breast cancer cells was verified by MTT, clone formation assay, and transwell assay. Results: Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8), AHSA1, and serpin family E member 1 (SERPINE1) were associated with multiple herbs in SBP. AHSA1 was remarkably upregulated in breast cancer tissues and positively correlated with poor overall survival and disease metastasis-free survival. Furthermore, knockdown of AHSA1 significantly inhibited the migration and invasion in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells but had no obvious effect on proliferation. In addition, among the proteins that bind to AHSAl, the network composed of proteasome, chaperonin, and heat shock proteins is closely connected, and these proteins are associated with poor prognosis in a variety of cancers. Conclusion: AHSA1 is positively correlated with breast cancer progression and might act as a novel therapeutic target for breast cancer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Emily Kaczmarek ◽  
Jina Nanayakkara ◽  
Alireza Sedghi ◽  
Mehran Pesteie ◽  
Thomas Tuschl ◽  

Abstract Background Accurate cancer classification is essential for correct treatment selection and better prognostication. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression, and their dyresgulation is a common disease mechanism in many cancers. Through a clearer understanding of miRNA dysregulation in cancer, improved mechanistic knowledge and better treatments can be sought. Results We present a topology-preserving deep learning framework to study miRNA dysregulation in cancer. Our study comprises miRNA expression profiles from 3685 cancer and non-cancer tissue samples and hierarchical annotations on organ and neoplasticity status. Using unsupervised learning, a two-dimensional topological map is trained to cluster similar tissue samples. Labelled samples are used after training to identify clustering accuracy in terms of tissue-of-origin and neoplasticity status. In addition, an approach using activation gradients is developed to determine the attention of the networks to miRNAs that drive the clustering. Using this deep learning framework, we classify the neoplasticity status of held-out test samples with an accuracy of 91.07%, the tissue-of-origin with 86.36%, and combined neoplasticity status and tissue-of-origin with an accuracy of 84.28%. The topological maps display the ability of miRNAs to recognize tissue types and neoplasticity status. Importantly, when our approach identifies samples that do not cluster well with their respective classes, activation gradients provide further insight in cancer subtypes or grades. Conclusions An unsupervised deep learning approach is developed for cancer classification and interpretation. This work provides an intuitive approach for understanding molecular properties of cancer and has significant potential for cancer classification and treatment selection.

2022 ◽  
Yasemin SAYGIDEGER ◽  
Alper AVCI ◽  
Emine BAGIR ◽  
Aycan SEZAN Ms ◽  

Abstract Objective: Lung cancer displays heterogeneity both in the tumor itself and in its metastatic regions. One interesting behavior of the tumor is known as Skip N2 metastasis, which N2 lymph nodes contain tumor cells while N1 are clean. In this study, mRNA levels of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) related genes in skip N2 and normal N2 involvements of non-small cell lung cancer tissues were investigated to evaluate the possible molecular background that may contribute to the pathogenesis of Skip N2 metastasis. Materials and Methods: Eighty-three surgically resected and paraffin embedded lymph node samples of lung cancer patients were analyzed in this study, which 40 of them were Skip N2. N2 tissues were sampled from 50% tumor containing areas and total RNA was extracted. mRNA levels for 18S, E-cadherin, Vimentin, ZEB1 and SLUG were analyzed via qPCR and E-cadherin and vimentin protein levels via immunohistochemistry (IHC). Bioinformatic analysis were adopted using online datasets to evaluate significantly co-expressed genes with SLUG in lung cancer tissue samples.Results: Skip-N2 patients who had adenocarcinoma subtype had better survival rates. Comparative analysis of PCR results indicated that Skip N2 tumor tissues had increased E-Cadherin/Vimentin ratio and ZEB1 mRNA expression, and significantly decreased levels of SLUG. E-cadherin IHC staining were higher in Skip N2 and Vimentin were in Non-Skip N2. TP63 had a strong correlation with SLUG expression in the bioinformatics analyses.Conclusion: The results indicate that, at molecular level, Skip N2 pathogenesis has different molecular background and regulation of SLUG expression may orchestrate the process.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 312
Paulina Zofia Goryńska ◽  
Kamila Chmara ◽  
Bogumiła Kupcewicz ◽  
Krzysztof Goryński ◽  
Karol Jaroch ◽  

Glioblastoma multiforme is one of the most malignant neoplasms among humans in their third and fourth decades of life, which is evidenced by short patient survival times and rapid tumor-cell proliferation after radiation and chemotherapy. At present, the diagnosis of gliomas and decisions related to therapeutic strategies are based on genetic testing and histological analysis of the tumor, with molecular biomarkers still being sought to complement the diagnostic panel. This work aims to enable the metabolomic characterization of cancer tissue and the discovery of potential biomarkers via high-resolution mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography and a solvent-free sampling protocol that uses a microprobe to extract metabolites directly from intact tumors. The metabolomic analyses were performed independently from genetic and histological testing and at a later time. Despite the small cohort analyzed in this study, the results indicated that the proposed method is able to identify metabolites associated with different malignancy grades of glioma, as well as IDH and 1p19q codeletion mutations. A comparison of the constellation of identified metabolites and the results of standard tests indicated the validity of using the characterization of one comprehensive tumor phenotype as a reflection of all diagnostically meaningful information. Due to its simplicity, the proposed analytical approach was verified as being compatible with a surgical environment and applicable for large-scale studies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Chia-Sheng Chu ◽  
Chi-Ying Yang ◽  
Chun-Chieh Yeh ◽  
Ro-Ting Lin ◽  
Chi-Ching Chen ◽  

AbstractA new approach by investigating the intra-tumoral microbiome raised great interest because they may influence the host immune response and natural history of the disease. However, previous studies on the intra-tumoral microbiome of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) were mostly based on examining the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor specimens. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of using endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) as a complementary procedure of surgical biopsy to obtain adequate fresh pancreatic cancer tissue for intra-tumoral microbial research. This was a prospective pilot study performed at a single tertiary referral center. We obtained pancreatic cancer tissue by EUS-FNB and surgical biopsy, respectively. We amplified the V3-V4 hyper-variable region of bacterial 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) genes, constructed a pair-end library, and performed high-throughput sequencing. From August 2020 to November 2020, nine eligible patients with PDAC were enrolled in this study. The intra-tumoral microbiome profile was successfully generated from the PDAC cancer tissue obtained by EUS-FNB as well as by surgical biopsy. There was no significant difference in intra-tumoral alpha-diversity or bacterial taxonomic composition between tissues obtained by EUS-FNB and by surgical biopsy. EUS-FNB can collect sufficient fresh cancer tissue for microbiome analyses without complication. The intra-tumoral microbiome profile in tissues obtained by EUS-FNB had similar alpha-diversity and taxonomic profiles with those obtained by surgical biopsy. It implicated, except for surgical biopsy, EUS-FNB can be another valid and valuable tool for studying intra-tumoral microbiome in patients with resectable and unresectable PDAC.

2022 ◽  
Nicholas Cheng ◽  
Kimberly Skead ◽  
Tom Ouellette ◽  
Scott Bratman ◽  
Daniel De Carvalho ◽  

Abstract Limited studies to date have investigated the detectability of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) markers in asymptomatic individuals prior to a cancer diagnosis. Here, we performed cfDNA methylation profiling in blood of individuals up to seven years prior to a breast cancer diagnosis in addition to matched cancer-free controls (n=150). We identified cfDNA differentially methylated signatures that discriminated cancer-free controls from pre-diagnosis breast cancer cases over five years prior to diagnosis and demonstrate that these markers were reflective of methylation profiles in breast cancer tissue. We report classification of a range of pre-diagnosis breast cancer cases detected at Stage I (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.771), and in cases with a negative mammogram screening within a year of blood collection (AUC of 0.852). This study provides evidence that cfDNA methylation markers indicative of breast cancers can be detected in blood among asymptomatic individuals prior to clinical detection.

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