historical review
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Author(s):  
Ilia Rochlin ◽  
Andrea Egizi ◽  
Anders Lindström

Abstract Amblyomma americanum L. is an important vector in North America originally described by Linnaeus based on Pehr Kalm’s 1754 report. While Kalm’s ‘Travels into North America’ is well known, his 1754 report remains obscure. Some authors were skeptical that Kalm referred to A. americanum because he encountered them at sites farther north outside of the species’ range. However, the details in 1754 report leave no doubt that Kalm described lone star ticks. In this historical review, we provide support for Kalm’s identification using a modern translation of his 1754 report and other sources. We also delineate distributional changes of lone star ticks from the pre-colonization era to the present and interpret them in the context of large-scale anthropogenic changes in the landscape. In this framework, the lone star tick’s current northward expansion is a recolonization of their former range. Extensive deforestation and extirpation of their principal host species, white-tailed deer, led to A. americanum’s disappearance from the northern parts of its range by the 20th century. Subsequent recolonization by second-growth forest and increases in white-tailed deer populations by the mid-20th century is now allowing A. americanum to reclaim its former range. These changes in the land appear to be the driving force behind A. americanum’s present expansion. Understanding this species’ history and the factors contributing to its current expansion will enable better predictions about its future distribution and potential to transmit human pathogens.


Universe ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 40
Author(s):  
Sergio Miguel-Tomé ◽  
Ángel L. Sánchez-Lázaro ◽  
Luis Alonso-Romero

The central goal of this manuscript is to survey the relationships between fundamental physics and computer science. We begin by providing a short historical review of how different concepts of computer science have entered the field of fundamental physics, highlighting the claim that the universe is a computer. Following the review, we explain why computational concepts have been embraced to interpret and describe physical phenomena. We then discuss seven arguments against the claim that the universe is a computational system and show that those arguments are wrong because of a misunderstanding of the extension of the concept of computation. Afterwards, we address a proposal to solve Hempel’s dilemma using the computability theory but conclude that it is incorrect. After that, we discuss the relationship between the proposals that the universe is a computational system and that our minds are a simulation. Analysing these issues leads us to proposing a new physical principle, called the principle of computability, which claims that the universe is a computational system (not restricted to digital computers) and that computational power and the computational complexity hierarchy are two fundamental physical constants. On the basis of this new principle, a scientific paradigm emerges to develop fundamental theories of physics: the computer-theoretic framework (CTF). The CTF brings to light different ideas already implicit in the work of several researchers and provides a new view on the universe based on computer theoretic concepts that expands the current view. We address different issues regarding the development of fundamental theories of physics in the new paradigm. Additionally, we discuss how the CTF brings new perspectives to different issues, such as the unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics and the foundations of cognitive science.


Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 304
Author(s):  
Akshay Nag Srinath ◽  
Álvaro Pena Pena López ◽  
Seyed Alireza Miran Miran Fashandi ◽  
Sylvain Lechat ◽  
Giampiero di di Legge ◽  
...  

The thermal management system architectures proposed for hydrogen-powered propulsion technologies are critically reviewed and assessed. The objectives of this paper are to determine the system-level shortcomings and to recognise the remaining challenges and research questions that need to be sorted out in order to enable this disruptive technology to be utilised by propulsion system manufacturers. Initially, a scientometrics based co-word analysis is conducted to identify the milestones for the literature review as well as to illustrate the connections between relevant ideas by considering the patterns of co-occurrence of words. Then, a historical review of the proposed embodiments and concepts dating back to 1995 is followed. Next, feasible thermal management system architectures are classified into three distinct classes and its components are discussed. These architectures are further extended and adapted for the application of hydrogen-powered fuel cells in aviation. This climaxes with the assessment of the available evidence to verify the reasons why no hydrogen-powered propulsion thermal management system architecture has yet been approved for commercial production. Finally, the remaining research challenges are identified through a systematic examination of the critical areas in thermal management systems for application to hydrogen-powered air vehicles’ engine cooling. The proposed solutions are discussed from weight, cost, complexity, and impact points of view by a system-level assessment of the critical areas in the field.


Author(s):  
Tiffany M. Stewart ◽  
Corby K. Martin ◽  
Donald A. Williamson

The origins of theories specifying dietary restraint as a cause of eating disorders can be traced to the 1970s. This paper will present an overview of the origins of dietary restraint theories and a brief historical review of evidence will be summarized. Recent research will be presented, including the results from the CALERIE Phase 1 study, as well as CALERIE Phase 2, which were NIH-sponsored randomized controlled trials. CALERIE 2 provided a test of the effect of two years of caloric restriction (CR) on the development of eating disorder syndromes and symptoms in comparison to a control group that did not alter eating behavior or body weight. The intervention was effective for inducing a chronic (two-year) reduction in total energy expenditure and increased dietary restraint but did not increase symptoms of eating disorders. The results of this recent investigation and other studies have not provided experimental support for conventional dietary restraint theories of eating disorders. These findings are discussed in terms of potential revisions of dietary restraint theory, as well as the implications for a paradigm shift in public health messaging related to dieting.


Aggregate ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Qiming Xia ◽  
Yiyin Zhang ◽  
Yiling Li ◽  
Yirun Li ◽  
Yixuan Li ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
pp. 137-150
Author(s):  
Hatem Cheikh M'hamed ◽  
Haithem Bahri ◽  
Mohamed Annabi ◽  
Aymen Frija ◽  
Zied Idoudi

Abstract In Tunisia, rainfed agriculture is facing the major challenges of low and irregular rainfall, as well as natural resources degradation. These are further accentuated by climate change. Changes in technical and management paradigms are needed to boost agricultural productivity. Since the early 1990s in Tunisia, a Conservation Agriculture (CA) system has been proposed as an adapted set of management principles to ensure more efficient and resilient agricultural production systems. In the last 20 years several research and development (R&D) projects have been implemented. Research findings in Tunisia show that the long-term adoption of CA allows increased crop yields and water use efficiency of cereals, enhanced soil biological life and soil organic carbon and reduced energy costs at farm level. Despite promising research results, adoption and up-scaling of CA in Tunisia has been rather modest (currently some 16,000 ha are managed under CA systems). The purpose of this book chapter is to summarize the previous R&D projects dealing with CA in Tunisia. It also aims to provide better insights into the complexity and potential ongoing solutions for integrating crops and livestock into CA systems. Crop-livestock systems dominate a large part of northern and central Tunisia where most of the rainfed field crops are produced.


Author(s):  
Eric J. Blown ◽  
Tom G. K. Bryce

AbstractThis paper provides a historical review of the interview research that has been used by science educators to investigate children’s basic astronomy knowledge. A wide range of strategies have been developed over the last 120 years or so as successive teams of researchers have endeavoured to overcome the methodological difficulties that have arisen. Hence, it looks critically at the techniques that have been developed to tackle the problems associated with interviews, questionnaires and tests used to research cognitive development and knowledge acquisition. We examine those methodologies which seem to yield surer indications of how young people (at different ages) understand everyday astronomical phenomena—the field often referred to as children’s cosmologies. Theoretical ideas from cognitive psychology, educational instruction and neuroscience are examined in depth and utilised to critique matters such as the importance of subject mastery and pedagogical content knowledge on the part of interviewers; the merits of multi-media techniques; the roles of open-ended vs. structured methods of interviewing; and the need always to recognise the dynamism of memory in interviewees. With illustrations and protocol excerpts drawn from recent studies, the paper points to what researchers might usefully tackle in the years ahead and the pitfalls to be avoided.


Author(s):  
Steven D. Taff ◽  
Lauren Putnam

ABSTRACT In this article, the authors conduct a historical review of recent philosophies influencing the Occupational Therapy profession in the United States (analytic philosophy and Continental varieties such as neopragmatism). Four philosophical categories are explored: epistemology, axiology, ontology, and praxis. The dominant strand of analytic philosophy is characterized by reductionist views of knowledge and reality, with little sustained attention to ethics and practical action. Competing but lesser recognized Continentally-inspired philosophies offer a critical and more phenomenological approach which values human subjectivities, narratives, and social agency. The authors argue that the dominance of analytic philosophy has created the intellectual foundations for neoliberalism to thrive and permeate the profession of Occupational Therapy in its curricula, practice models, reimbursement systems, and research agenda. As this Northern (United States) version of Occupational Therapy expands globally, the danger exists for professional neocolonialism to occur which can negatively influence or contradict more local ways of knowing and doing. The article concludes by offering strategies to unmask, disentangle, and dismantle Occupational Therapy from its Northern roots towards wider acceptance of Southern epistemologies, ethics, and collective action.


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