human pathogens
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
S. Hussain ◽  
X. Li ◽  
S. M. Bukhari ◽  
M. Zhou ◽  
S. Ahmad ◽  

Abstract The protozoans include many intracellular human pathogens. Accurate detection of these pathogens is necessary to treat the diseases. In clinical epidemiology, molecular identification of protozoan is considered a more reliable and rapid method for identification than microscopy. Among these protozoans, Cryptosporidium considered being one of the important water-borne zoonotic pathogens and a major cause of a diarrheal disease named cryptosporidiosis in humans, domestic animals, and wild animals. This study was aimed to identify Cryptosporidium in zoo felids (N= 56) belonging to different zoo of China, but accidentlly Colpodella was encountered in the zoo felids sample and phylogenetic data confirmed this unexpected amplification from fecal samples using two-step nested-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the fact about the specific primers used previously by many researchers and cross-genera amplification. We came to know that genetically sequenced amplicon gives more accurate identification of species. This study suggests more investigation on Colpodella which has been neglected previously but gains the attention of researchers after identified from humans and animals and has been known to correlate with neurological symptoms in patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 923
Giulia Pesce ◽  
Frank Gondelaud ◽  
Denis Ptchelkine ◽  
Juliet F. Nilsson ◽  
Christophe Bignon ◽  

Henipaviruses are severe human pathogens within the Paramyxoviridae family. Beyond the P protein, the Henipavirus P gene also encodes the V and W proteins which share with P their N-terminal, intrinsically disordered domain (NTD) and possess a unique C-terminal domain. Henipavirus W proteins antagonize interferon (IFN) signaling through NTD-mediated binding to STAT1 and STAT4, and prevent type I IFN expression and production of chemokines. Structural and molecular information on Henipavirus W proteins is lacking. By combining various bioinformatic approaches, we herein show that the Henipaviruses W proteins are predicted to be prevalently disordered and yet to contain short order-prone segments. Using limited proteolysis, differential scanning fluorimetry, analytical size exclusion chromatography, far-UV circular dichroism and small-angle X-ray scattering, we experimentally confirmed their overall disordered nature. In addition, using Congo red and Thioflavin T binding assays and negative-staining transmission electron microscopy, we show that the W proteins phase separate to form amyloid-like fibrils. The present study provides an additional example, among the few reported so far, of a viral protein forming amyloid-like fibrils, therefore significantly contributing to enlarge our currently limited knowledge of viral amyloids. In light of the critical role of the Henipavirus W proteins in evading the host innate immune response and of the functional role of phase separation in biology, these studies provide a conceptual asset to further investigate the functional impact of the phase separation abilities of the W proteins.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Dominik Weixler ◽  
Max Berghoff ◽  
Kirill V. Ovchinnikov ◽  
Sebastian Reich ◽  
Oliver Goldbeck ◽  

Abstract Background The bacteriocin nisin is naturally produced by Lactococcus lactis as an inactive prepeptide that is modified posttranslationally resulting in five (methyl-)lanthionine rings characteristic for class Ia bacteriocins. Export and proteolytic cleavage of the leader peptide results in release of active nisin. By targeting the universal peptidoglycan precursor lipid II, nisin has a broad target spectrum including important human pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. Industrial nisin production is currently performed using natural producer strains resulting in rather low product purity and limiting its application to preservation of dairy food products. Results We established heterologous nisin production using the biotechnological workhorse organism Corynebacterium glutamicum in a two-step process. We demonstrate successful biosynthesis and export of fully modified prenisin and its activation to mature nisin by a purified, soluble variant of the nisin protease NisP (sNisP) produced in Escherichia coli. Active nisin was detected by a L. lactis sensor strain with strictly nisin-dependent expression of the fluorescent protein mCherry. Following activation by sNisP, supernatants of the recombinant C. glutamicum producer strain cultivated in standard batch fermentations contained at least 1.25 mg/l active nisin. Conclusions We demonstrate successful implementation of a two-step process for recombinant production of active nisin with C. glutamicum. This extends the spectrum of bioactive compounds that may be produced using C. glutamicum to a bacteriocin harboring complex posttranslational modifications. Our results provide a basis for further studies to optimize product yields, transfer production to sustainable substrates and purification of pharmaceutical grade nisin.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 109
Alexander Lammers ◽  
Michael Lalk ◽  
Paolina Garbeva

We are currently facing an antimicrobial resistance crisis, which means that a lot of bacterial pathogens have developed resistance to common antibiotics. Hence, novel and innovative solutions are urgently needed to combat resistant human pathogens. A new source of antimicrobial compounds could be bacterial volatiles. Volatiles are ubiquitous produced, chemically divers and playing essential roles in intra- and interspecies interactions like communication and antimicrobial defense. In the last years, an increasing number of studies showed bioactivities of bacterial volatiles, including antibacterial, antifungal and anti-oomycete activities, indicating bacterial volatiles as an exciting source for novel antimicrobial compounds. In this review we introduce the chemical diversity of bacterial volatiles, their antimicrobial activities and methods for testing this activity. Concluding, we discuss the possibility of using antimicrobial volatiles to antagonize the antimicrobial resistance crisis.

Andrea Mancusi ◽  
Federico Capuano ◽  
Santa Girardi ◽  
Orlandina Di Maro ◽  
Elisabetta Suffredini ◽  

Bivalve shellfish are readily contaminated by human pathogens present in waters impacted by municipal sewage, and the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in feces of infected patients and in wastewater has drawn attention to the possible presence of the virus in bivalves. The aim of this study was to collect data on SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in bivalve mollusks from harvesting areas of Campania region. A total of 179 samples were collected between September 2019 and April 2021 and were tested using droplet digital RT-PCR (dd RT-PCR) and real-time RT-PCR. Combining results obtained with different assays, SARS-CoV-2 presence was detected in 27/179 (15.1%) of samples. A median viral concentration of 1.1 × 102 and 1.4 × 102 g.c./g was obtained using either Orf1b nsp14 or RdRp/gene E, respectively. Positive results were unevenly distributed among harvesting areas and over time, positive samples being more frequent after January 2021. Partial sequencing of the spike region was achieved for five samples, one of which displaying mutations characteristic of the Alpha variant (lineage B.1.1.7). This study confirms that bivalve mollusks may bioaccumulate SARS-CoV-2 to detectable levels and that they may represent a valuable approach to track SARS-CoV-2 in water bodies and to monitor outbreak trends and viral diversity.

2022 ◽  
William P Robins ◽  
John J Mekalanos

SARS-CoV-2 is one of three recognized coronaviruses (CoVs) that have caused epidemics or pandemics in the 21st century and that likely emerged from animal reservoirs. Differences in nucleotide and protein sequence composition within related lower case Greek beta-coronaviruses are often used to better understand CoV evolution, host adaptation, and their emergence as human pathogens. Here we report the comprehensive analysis of amino acid residue changes that have occurred in lineage B lower case Greek betacoronaviruses (sarbecoviruses) that show covariance with each other. This analysis revealed patterns of covariance within conserved viral proteins that potentially define conserved interactions within and between core proteins encoded by SARS-CoV-2 related lower case Greek beta-coranaviruses. We identified not only individual pairs but also networks of amino acid residues that exhibited statistically high frequencies of covariance with each other using an independent pair model followed by a tandem model approach. Using 149 different CoV genomes that vary in their relatedness, we identified networks of unique combinations of alleles that can be incrementally traced genome by genome within different phylogenic lineages. Remarkably, covariant residues and their respective regions most abundantly represented are implicated in the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and are also enriched in dominant SARS-CoV-2 variants.

Janette Chammas ◽  
Mallika Iyer ◽  
George Minasov ◽  
Ludmilla Shuvalova ◽  
Wayne Anderson ◽  

Pathogenic bacteria attack their host by secreting virulence factors that in various ways interrupt host defenses and damage their cells. Functions of many virulence factors, even from well-studied pathogens, are still unknown. Francisella tularensis is a class A pathogen and a causative agent of tularemia, a disease that is lethal without proper treatment. Here we report the three-dimensional structure and preliminary analysis of the potential virulence factor identified by the transcriptomic analysis of the F. tularensis disease models that is encoded by the FTT_1539 gene. The structure of the FTT_1539 protein contains two sets of three stranded antiparallel beta sheets, with a helix placed between the first and the second beta strand in each sheet. This structural motif, previously seen in virulence factors from other pathogens, was named the SHS2 motif and identified to play a role in protein-protein interactions and small molecule recognition. Sequence and structure analysis identified FTT_1539 as a member of a large family of secreted proteins from a broad range of pathogenic bacteria, such as Helicobacter pylori and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. While the specific function of the proteins from this class is still unknown, their similarity to the H. pylori Tip-α protein that induces TNF-a and other chemokines through NF-kB activation suggests the existence of a common pathogen-host interference mechanism shared by multiple human pathogens.

Ilia Rochlin ◽  
Andrea Egizi ◽  
Anders Lindström

Abstract Amblyomma americanum L. is an important vector in North America originally described by Linnaeus based on Pehr Kalm’s 1754 report. While Kalm’s ‘Travels into North America’ is well known, his 1754 report remains obscure. Some authors were skeptical that Kalm referred to A. americanum because he encountered them at sites farther north outside of the species’ range. However, the details in 1754 report leave no doubt that Kalm described lone star ticks. In this historical review, we provide support for Kalm’s identification using a modern translation of his 1754 report and other sources. We also delineate distributional changes of lone star ticks from the pre-colonization era to the present and interpret them in the context of large-scale anthropogenic changes in the landscape. In this framework, the lone star tick’s current northward expansion is a recolonization of their former range. Extensive deforestation and extirpation of their principal host species, white-tailed deer, led to A. americanum’s disappearance from the northern parts of its range by the 20th century. Subsequent recolonization by second-growth forest and increases in white-tailed deer populations by the mid-20th century is now allowing A. americanum to reclaim its former range. These changes in the land appear to be the driving force behind A. americanum’s present expansion. Understanding this species’ history and the factors contributing to its current expansion will enable better predictions about its future distribution and potential to transmit human pathogens.

mBio ◽  
2022 ◽  
Victoria L. Jeter ◽  
Jorge C. Escalante-Semerena

E. coli is the best-studied prokaryote, and some strains of this bacterium are human pathogens. We show that when the level of the enzyme that catalyzes the penultimate step of vitamin B 12 biosynthesis is elevated, the viability of E. coli decreases.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 79
Kamal A. Qureshi ◽  
Mahrukh Imtiaz ◽  
Adil Parvez ◽  
Pankaj K. Rai ◽  
Mariusz Jaremko ◽  

Thymoquinone (2-methyl-5-propan-2-ylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione; TQ), a principal bioactive phytoconstituent of Nigella sativa essential oil, has been reported to have high antimicrobial potential. Thus, the current study evaluated TQ’s antimicrobial potential against a range of selected human pathogens using in vitro assays, including time-kill kinetics and anti-biofilm activity. In silico molecular docking of TQ against several antimicrobial target proteins and a detailed intermolecular interaction analysis was performed, including binding energies and docking feasibility. Of the tested bacteria and fungi, S. epidermidis ATCC 12228 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 were the most susceptible to TQ, with 50.3 ± 0.3 mm and 21.1 ± 0.1 mm zones of inhibition, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of TQ are in the range of 12.5–50 µg/mL, while minimum biocidal concentration (MBC) values are in the range of 25–100 µg/mL against the tested organisms. Time-kill kinetics of TQ revealed that the killing time for the tested bacteria is in the range of 1–6 h with the MBC of TQ. Anti-biofilm activity results demonstrate that the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) values of TQ are in the range of 25–50 µg/mL, while the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) values are in the range of 25–100 µg/mL, for the tested bacteria. In silico molecular docking studies revealed four preferred antibacterial and antifungal target proteins for TQ: D-alanyl-D-alanine synthetase (Ddl) from Thermus thermophilus, transcriptional regulator qacR from Staphylococcus aureus, N-myristoyltransferase from Candida albicans, and NADPH-dependent D-xylose reductase from Candida tenuis. In contrast, the nitroreductase family protein from Bacillus cereus and spore coat polysaccharide biosynthesis protein from Bacillus subtilis and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase from Aspergillus fumigatus are the least preferred antibacterial and antifungal target proteins for TQ, respectively. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations revealed that TQ could bind to all four target proteins, with Ddl and NADPH-dependent D-xylose reductase being the most efficient. Our findings corroborate TQ’s high antimicrobial potential, suggesting it may be a promising drug candidate for multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens, notably Gram-positive bacteria and Candida albicans.

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