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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 902
Magdalena Bryś ◽  
Karina Urbańska ◽  
Beata Olas

Genipin is an important monoterpene iridoid compound isolated from Gardenia jasminoides J.Ellis fruits and from Genipa americana fruits, or genipap. It is a precursor of a blue pigment which may be attractive alternative to existing food dyes and it possesses various potential therapeutic properties such as anti-cancer, anti-diabetic and hepatoprotective activity. Biomedical studies also show that genipin may act as a neuroprotective drug. This review describes new aspects of the bioactivity of genipin against various diseases, as well as its toxicity and industrial applications, and presents its potential mechanism of action.

Keagan Pokpas ◽  
Nazeem Jahed ◽  
Petrone Bezuidenhout ◽  
Suzanne Smith ◽  
Kevin Land ◽  

Electrochemical detection of metal cations at paper-based sensors has been suggested as an attractive alternative to current spectroscopic and chromatographic detection techniques due to the ease of fabrication, disposable nature, and low cost. Herein, a novel carbon black (CB), dimethylglyoxime (DMG) ink is designed as an electrode modifier in conjunction with 3-electrode inkjet-printed paper substrates for use in the adsorptive stripping voltammetric electroanalysis of nickel cations in water samples. The developed method provides a novel, low-cost, rapid, and portable adsorptive stripping detection approach towards metal analysis in the absence of the commonly used toxic metallic films. The study demonstrated a novel approach to nickel detection at paper-based sensors and builds on previous work in the field of paper-based metal analysis by limiting the use of toxic metal films. The device sensitivity is improved by increasing the active surface area, electron transfer kinetics, and catalytic effects associated with non-conductive dimethylglyoxime films through CB nanoparticles for the first time and confirmed by electroanalysis. The first use of the CB-DMG ink allows for the selective preconcentration of analyte at the electrode surface without the use of toxic Mercury or Bismuth metallic films. Compared to similarly reported paper-based sensors, improved limits of detection (48 µg L-1), selectivity, and intermetallic interferences were achieved. The method was applied to the detection of nickel in water samples well below World Health Organization (WHO) standards.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 926
Tymon Zielinski ◽  
Izabela Kotynska-Zielinska ◽  
Carlos Garcia-Soto

In this paper, we discuss the importance of the efficient communication of science results to citizens across the world. In order for people to absorb information, we need to understand the principles and apply the best available means to facilitate the process of increasing global awareness of the changes. This explicitly applies to the verification of how we appeal to people with respect to various environmental issues and, hence, how we can modernize the educational approaches to challenge the global change. We state that, in order to follow the philosophy of sustainable development goals with respect to ocean issues, we need an attractive alternative to the existing areas of consumption. We also state that the ocean issues are at the core of any process aiming to secure sustainability. New methods and tools of education and scientific communication, especially those which are offered by non-formal approaches, are necessary, and we present here some of the activities of the EU4Ocean coalition as best practice examples.

Metabolites ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 63
Monika Elżbieta Jach ◽  
Anna Serefko ◽  
Maria Ziaja ◽  
Marek Kieliszek

In recent years, the awareness and willingness of consumers to consume healthy food has grown significantly. In order to meet these needs, scientists are looking for innovative methods of food production, which is a source of easily digestible protein with a balanced amino acid composition. Yeast protein biomass (single cell protein, SPC) is a bioavailable product which is obtained when primarily using as a culture medium inexpensive various waste substrates including agricultural and industrial wastes. With the growing population, yeast protein seems to be an attractive alternative to traditional protein sources such as plants and meat. Moreover, yeast protein biomass also contains trace minerals and vitamins including B-group. Thus, using yeast in the production of protein provides both valuable nutrients and enhances purification of wastes. In conclusion, nutritional yeast protein biomass may be the best option for human and animal nutrition with a low environmental footprint. The rapidly evolving SCP production technology and discoveries from the world of biotechnology can make a huge difference in the future for the key improvement of hunger problems and the possibility of improving world food security. On the market of growing demand for cheap and environmentally clean SPC protein with practically unlimited scale of production, it may soon become one of the ingredients of our food. The review article presents the possibilities of protein production by yeast groups with the use of various substrates as well as the safety of yeast protein used as food.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 510
Olga Ławińska ◽  
Anna Korombel ◽  
Monika Zajemska

Poland’s management of municipal waste, which amounts to over 13 million tons/year, is not efficient—about 60% of the waste is subjected to recovery processes, about 20% of all municipal waste is converted into energy, and almost 40% is landfilled. The authors of this article recognize the potential of pyrolysis as a method of the thermal processing of waste allowing the potential of the energy contained in the waste to be utilized. Pyrolysis is an economically attractive alternative to incineration, with a significantly lower environmental impact, allowing efficient waste management and the use of pyrolysis by-products in the energy sector (pyrolysis gas), or in the building materials sector (biochar). Despite so many advantages, this method is not employed in Poland. The aim of the paper is to indicate a recommended strategy for the application of pyrolysis in Poland as a method of the thermal processing of municipal solid waste. SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis was used as a research method. In the first step, on the basis of the literature review, the factors which may affect the use of pyrolysis in Poland were identified. In the second step, five experts evaluated the weights of those factors and the interactions between them. The products of the weights and interactions allowed, in accordance with SWOT analysis methodology, the most desirable strategy of pyrolysis application in Poland to be determined, which turned out to be an aggressive one. This means that pyrolysis as a thermal waste processing method should be implemented on a large scale in Poland to improve the indicators of municipal waste management.

2022 ◽  
Harikrishnan Ravichandran ◽  
Yikai Zheng ◽  
Thomas Schranghamer ◽  
Nicholas Trainor ◽  
Joan Redwing ◽  

Abstract As the energy and hardware investments necessary for conventional high-precision digital computing continues to explode in the emerging era of artificial intelligence, deep learning, and Big-data [1-4], a change in paradigm that can trade precision for energy and resource efficiency is being sought for many computing applications. Stochastic computing (SC) is an attractive alternative since unlike digital computers, which require many logic gates and a high transistor volume to perform basic arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, sorting etc., SC can implement the same using simple logic gates [5, 6]. While it is possible to accelerate SC using traditional silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) [7, 8] technology, the need for extensive hardware investment to generate stochastic bits (s-bit), the fundamental computing primitive for SC, makes it less attractive. Memristor [9-11] and spin-based devices [12-15] offer natural randomness but depend on hybrid designs involving CMOS peripherals for accelerating SC, which increases area and energy burden. Here we overcome the limitations of existing and emerging technologies and experimentally demonstrate a standalone SC architecture embedded in memory based on two-dimensional (2D) memtransistors. Our monolithic and non-von Neumann SC architecture consumes a miniscule amount of energy < 1 nano Joules for s-bit generation and to perform arithmetic operations and occupy small hardware footprint highlighting the benefits of SC.

Li Xu ◽  
Fangyun Cheng ◽  
Yuan Zhong

AbstractTree peony (Paeonia sect. Moutan) is an economically important multipurpose woody plant in terms of its medical, ornamental and oil values, but its breeding and industrial development are severely limited due to inefficient traditional propagation methods and existing in vitro regeneration systems. Meristematic nodules (MNs) are an attractive alternative to solve this problem. This study first presented a protocol for in vitro regeneration of P. ostii ‘Feng Dan’ via MN culture with four consecutive steps, including embryogenic callus (EC) formation, MN induction and leaf cluster differentiation, shoot elongation, rooting and acclimatization. The highest EC induction rate (81.25%) was achieved when cotyledons were cultured on modified Murashige and Skoog (mMS) medium with 4.04 µM N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N-phenylurea (CPPU) + 5.37 µM α-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) for 30 days. The optimal MN induction rate (100%) and leaf cluster differentiation rate (45.83%) were obtained when ECs were cultured on modified woody plant medium (mWPM) supplemented with 2.02 µM CPPU + 2.27 µM thidiazuron (TDZ) for a subculture time of 10 days. The combination of 1.29 µM 6-benzyladenine (BA) + 0.58 µM gibberellin (GA3) yielded the best shoot elongation (13.40 shoots per nodule), rooting rate (43.33%) and consequently survival rate (45.83%). The study will be beneficial to the mass propagation, breeding and genetic improvement of tree peony.

2022 ◽  
Karol Al-Ayed ◽  
Ross D. Ballantine ◽  
Michael Hoekstra ◽  
Samantha Bann ◽  
Charlotte Wesseling ◽  

Brevicidine and laterocidine are two recently discovered lipopeptide antibiotics with promising antibacterial activity. Possessing a macrocyclic core, multiple positive charges, and a lipidated N-terminus, these lipopeptides exhibit potent and selective activity against Gram-negative pathogens, including polymyxin-resistant isolates. Given the low amounts of brevicidine and laterocidine accessible by fermentation of the producing microorganisms, synthetic routes to these lipopeptides present an attractive alternative. We here report the convenient solid-phase syntheses of both brevicidine and laterocidine and confirm their potent anti-Gram-negative activities. The synthetic routes developed also provide convenient access to novel structural analogues of both brevicidine and laterocidine that display improved hydrolytic stability while maintaining potent antibacterial activity in both in vitro assay and in vivo infection models.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (3) ◽  
pp. 1435-1442
Erwin Sukandi ◽  
Yudhie Tanta ◽  
Taufik Indrajaya ◽  
Ali Ghanie ◽  
Muhammad Irsan Saleh ◽  

Coronary Slow Flow Phenomenon (CSFP) is characterized by the slow flow of contrast in one or more epicardial coronary vessels without evidence of coronary artery stenosis during coronary angiography procedures. CSFP is fairly common at the time of elective angiography with an incidence of around 7% and accounts for about 4% of hospitalized unstable angina cases. Coronary angiography is currently still the only effective way to detect CSFP, but this procedure is an invasive procedure with high costs, there is a risk of allergy to contrast. Electrocardiography (ECG), as a widely available, inexpensive, and simple modality is felt to be an attractive alternative in early detection of this abnormality. The ECG parameters on CSFP discussed in this study include; p-wave dispersion, QT interval dispersion, QRS intrinsic (Tpeak-Tenddeflection duration), and QRS fragmentation. Further studies are needed on the ECG image in CSFP so that in the future ECG can be a cheaper and non-invasive diagnostic modality for CSFP compared to coronary angiography.

Weronika Augustyn ◽  
Arkadiusz Chruściel ◽  
Wiesław Hreczuch ◽  
Joanna Kalka ◽  
Patryk Tarka ◽  

Clostridioides difficile infections (CDIs) are the most common cause of acquired diseases in hospitalized patients. Effective surface disinfection, focused on the inactivation of the spores of this pathogen, is a decisive factor in reducing the number of nosocomial cases of CDI infections. An efficient disinfection procedure is the result of both the properties of the biocidal agent used and the technology of its implementation as well as a reliable, experimental methodology for assessing the activity of the biocidal active substance based on laboratory models that adequately represent real clinical conditions. This study reviews the state of knowledge regarding the properties and biochemical basis of the action mechanisms of sporicidal substances, with emphasis on chlorine dioxide (ClO2). Among the analyzed biocides, in addition to ClO2, active chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, and glutaraldehyde were characterized. Due to the relatively high sporicidal effectiveness and effective control of bacterial biofilm, as well as safety in a health and environmental context, the use of ClO2 is an attractive alternative in the control of nosocomial infections of CD etiology. In terms of the methods of assessing the biocidal effectiveness, suspension and carrier standards are discussed.

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