maximum growth
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Kalsoom ◽  
Afshan Batool ◽  
Ghufranud Din ◽  
Salah Ud Din ◽  
Johar Jamil ◽  

Abstract Chromium (VI) a highly toxic metal, a major constituent of industrial waste. It is continuously release in soil and water, causes environmental and health related issues, which is increasing public concern in developing countries like Pakistan. The basic aim of this study was isolation and screening of chromium resistant bacteria from industrial waste collected from Korangi and Lyari, Karachi (24˚52ʹ46.0ʺN 66˚59ʹ25.7ʺE and 24˚48ʹ37.5ʺN 67˚06ʹ52.6ʺE). Among total of 53 isolated strains, seven bacterial strains were selected through selective enrichment and identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics. These strains were designated as S11, S13, S17, S18, S30, S35 and S48, resistance was determined against varying concentrations of chromium (100-1500 mg/l). Two bacterial strains S35 and S48 showed maximum resistance to chromium (1600 mg/l). Bacterial strains S35 and S48 were identified through 16S rRNA sequence and showed 99% similarity to Bacillus paranthracis and Bacillus paramycoides. Furthermore, growth condition including temperature and pH were optimized for both bacterial strains, showed maximum growth at temperature 30ºC and at optimum pH 7.5 and 6.5 respectively. It is concluded that indigenous bacterial strains isolated from metal contaminated industrial effluent use their innate ability to transform toxic heavy metals to less or nontoxic form and can offer an effective tool for monitoring heavy metal contamination in the environment.

2022 ◽  
Saglara Mandzhieva ◽  
Natalia Chernikova ◽  
Tamara Dudnikova ◽  
David Pinskii ◽  
Tatiana Bauer ◽  

The growth and development of plants is one of the criteria for assessing the degree of soil pollution with heavy metals. Morphological and anatomical changes in test plants affected by pollutants, such as growth retardation, shoot bending, and decreased root length and mass, indicate the worsening of environmental conditions. The effect of various ratios of soil and sand polluted with copper (Cu) on morphobiometric parameters of spring barley (Hordeum sativum distichum), Ratnik variety, was studied in a model vegetative experiment. Haplic calcic chernozem was used as a substrate with different ratios of soil/sand. It was determined that an addition of sand into the soil in the amounts of 25%, 50% and 75% of soil mass resulted in the alteration of the physical properties of the chernozem, which was reflected in the morphometric parameters of the plants. The most notable changes in the parameters were observed after pollution of soil-sand substrates with Cu(CH3COO)2 in the amounts of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg and 2000 mg/kg. The maximum growth and development retardation of the barley plants was found at the maximum content of sand and the maximum concentration of Cu. The pollutant reduced the root length and, to a lesser degree, the height of the aboveground components of the plant, which as a result, decreased the total plant biomass. Keywords: trace elements, soil, agricultural crops, particle size distribution

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xue-Jiao Zhu ◽  
Sheng-Nan Zhang ◽  
Kana Watanabe ◽  
Kako Kawakami ◽  
Noriko Kubota ◽  

The genus Platycerus (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) is a small stag beetle group, which is adapted to cool-temperate deciduous broad-leaved forests in East Asia. Ten Platycerus species in Japan form a monophyletic clade endemic to Japan and inhabit species-specific climatic zones. They are reported to have co-evolutionary associations with their yeast symbionts of the genus Sheffersomyces based on host cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and yeast intergenic spacer (IGS) phylogenies. Here we examined the heat tolerances of the yeast colonies isolated from the mycangia of 37 females belonging ten Japanese Platycerus species. The upper limits of growth and survival temperatures of each colony were decided by cultivating it at ten temperature levels between 17.5 and 40°C. Although both temperatures varied during 25.0–31.25°C, the maximum survival temperatures (MSTs) were a little higher than the maximum growth temperatures (MGTs) in 16 colonies. Pearson’s correlations between these temperatures and environmental factors (elevation and 19 bioclimatic variables from Worldclim database) of host beetle collection sites were calculated. These temperatures were significantly correlated with elevation negatively, the maximum temperature of the warmest month (Bio5) positively, and some precipitative variables, especially in the warm season (Bio12, 13, 16, 18) negatively. Sympatric Platycerus kawadai and Platycerus albisomni share the same lineage of yeast symbionts that exhibit the same heat tolerance, but the elevational lower range limit of P. kawadai is higher than that of P. albisomni. Based on the field survey in their sympatric site, the maximum temperature of host wood of P. kawadai larvae is higher about 2–3°C than that of P. albisomni larvae in the summer, which may restrict the elevational range of P. kawadai to higher area. In conclusion, it is suggested that the heat tolerance of yeast symbionts restricts the habitat range of their host Platycerus species or/and that the environmental condition that host Platycerus species prefers affect the heat tolerance of its yeast symbionts.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 161-168
Yohanes Jakri ◽  
Adelgonda Fitri Jeharut ◽  
Didiana Nurhayati ◽  
Fredheric Collin Brosnan ◽  
Nur Wahida

ABSTRAKUsia 5-10 tahun merupakan usia pertumbuhan maksimal. Pada masa ini anak mengalami masa pertumbuhan dan perkembangan yang membutuhkan konsumsi pangan dengan gizi seimbang. Hasil Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas) 2018 menunjukan bahwa Proporsi Konsumsi Buah/Sayur per Hari dalam Seminggu pada Penduduk Umur ≥ 5 Tahun ≥ 5 porsi di Propinsi NTT adalah 7,61 % dan secara spesifik pada Kabupaten Manggarai lebih renda yakni 4,49%. Hasil tersebut berbeda jauh dengan rekomendasi yang dikeluarkan oleh WHO, bahwa konsumsi buah dan sayur adalah 400 g (5 porsi) per hari untuk semua kelompok usia. Permasalahan utama yang dialami oleh anak-anak adalah kurangnya minat anak untuk mengkonmsumsi sayuran. Tujuan dari pembuatan Kripik bayam dicampur dengan gula aren (Amaranthus Gengeticus Arenga Pinuata), adalah menghasilkan inovasi cemilan yang berbahan dasar sayur bayam sebagai alternative pemenuhan gizi pada anak. Kegiatan ini sudah dilakukan di Kecamatan Wae Rii Kabupaten Manggarai, NTT pada bulan Juli 2021. Hasinya 90% anak mengatakan Kripik ini enak dikonsumsi dan menjadi alternative cemilan bergizi untuk mereka. Kata Kunci: Sayur, Kripik Bayam, Gula Aren  ABSTRACTThe age of 5-10 years is the age of maximum growth. At this time children experience a period of growth and development that requires food consumption with balanced nutrition. The results of the 2018 Basic Health Research (Riskesdas) show that the proportion of fruit/vegetable consumption per day of the week in the population aged 5 years 5 portions in NTT Province is 7.61% and specifically in Manggarai Regency it is lower at 4.49%. These results differ greatly from the recommendations issued by WHO, that consumption of fruit and vegetables is 400 g (5 servings) per day for all age groups. The main problem experienced by children is their lack of interest in consuming vegetables. The purpose of making spinach chips mixed with palm sugar (Amaranthus Gengeticus Arenga Pinuata), is to produce an innovative snack made from spinach as an alternative for nutritional fulfillment in children. This activity was carried out in Wae Rii Subdistrict, Manggarai Regency, NTT in July 2021. As a result, 90% of children said these chips were delicious to eat and became an alternative nutritious snack for them. Keywords: Vegetables, Spinach Chips, Palm Sugar

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (3) ◽  
Fernanda Carlini Cunha dos Santos ◽  
Bruna da Rosa Curcio ◽  
Carlos Eduardo Wayne Nogueira

ABSTRACT: Brazilian Association of Crioulo Horse Breeders (ABCCC) establishes minimal and maximal body biometrics evaluation; although, nothing is mentioned about testicular measurements. Body and testicular growth are associated and related to age. We described data regarding body and testicular biometry of Crioulo stallions, with a comparative study between young and adult categories. Evaluation was performed in 56 stallions, Crioulo breed, split in: youngsters (3 and 4 years-old, n=16) and adults (above 5 years-old, n=40). Body biometry included weight, height, cannon bone and chest circumference, body score condition and neck fat accumulation. Testicular biometry included height, length, width, volume, combined volume and daily sperm output (DSO). Statistical analyses included descriptive statistic, Pearson correlation, comparison between means by Kruskal Wallis, being P < 0.05 considered significant. There was no significant difference between the parameters of body and testicular biometrics between categories young and adult. In relation to height, the average was very close to the lower limit established, while chest and cannon bone circumference were above the minimum recommended by ABCCC. Cannon bone circumference presented a positive correlation with height. Most of stallions presented excessive body fat, with a body score condition above 8 (scale 1-9). Neck fat accumulation presented a positive correlation with body score condition. Testicular height, length, width and volume presented a positive correlation between the ipsi and contralateral testicle, total testicular volume and DSO. In conclusion, no difference in the body and testicular biometric evaluation was observed between young and adult Crioulo stallions. Testicular and body growth are associated and also related to age, so our finding suggested that after 3-4 years-old most of Crioulo stallions have already reached maximum growth.

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (4) ◽  
pp. 505-512
Khajista Jabeen ◽  
Zara Naeem ◽  
Sumera Iqbal ◽  
Muhammad Khalid Saeed

Ochratoxigenic fungal species are a major cause of various infections in plants and posed a serious threat to their consumers,including humans and animals. In the current study the objective was to examine the in vitro efficacy of different concentrations of leaves methanolic extract of S. helepense L. (Pers.) against target pathogenic ochratoxin producing fungal species (Trichoderma viride Pers., Trichoderma harzianum Rifai. and Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fresen.) G.A. de Vries).For this purpose, different concentrations viz. 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% of leaf methanolic extract were prepared and tested for antifungal potential in a completely randomized design (CRD). Results revealed that all the applied concentrations of S. helepense inhibited the growth of all the tested fungal strain. Maximum growth inhibition was observed in 2% of concentration of methanolic extract of S. helepense in case of C. cladosporoides i.e. 84%. On the other hand minimum reduction was observed in 4% of concentration of methanolic extract of S. helepense against T. viride as compared to control. The phytochemical analysis was also conducted to evaluate that which chemical entities were present that account for antifungal potency of methanolic extract of S. helepense. Results of phytochemical analysis revealed the occurrence of saponins, alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids and tannins while the plant is devoid of terpenoids, phlobatanins and glycosides respectively. Hence it can be concluded that the methanolic leaf extract of the tested plant proved to be beneficial for inhibiting the growth of test ochratoxigenic fungi.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 8-12
A.J. Sufyan ◽  
S. Ibrahim ◽  
A. Babandi ◽  
Hafeez Muhammad Yakasai

Butachlor is a chloroacetanilide herbicide that is selective in action and commonly used for pre-emergence control of weeds. It is believed to have range of toxicity from acute to chronic and also can cause DNA strand breaks and chromosomal aberrations in humans. This study was aimed at characterizing the potential of previously isolated bacteria for butachlor degradation. The isolates from culture collection, labelled A-F were screened for butachlor degradation on Bushnell Hass agar media with butachlor as a sole carbon source. Isolate A (molybdenum-reducing and aniline-degrading Pseudomonas sp.) was observed to grow best and tolerated the highest concentration of butachlor supplemented in the media after 72 h of incubation at 37 ℃. Characterization study revealed that the Pseudomonas sp. can utilize and grow with butachlor at optimum pH between 6.0 - 6.5, temperature between 30 – 37 ℃ and can tolerate up to 600 mg/L butachlor concentration with increase in growth as inoculum size increases. Additionally, this bacterial strain shows no lag phase regardless of the concentration of the herbicide used and reach its maximum growth after 24 h of incubation. The ability of this isolate to tolerate and utilize butachlor as sole carbon source makes it suitable for future bioremediation of this toxicant.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 27-41
Juliana Maia ◽  
Abdul Qadir ◽  
Eny Widajati ◽  
Yohannes Aris Purwanto ◽  

Sandalwood seed has two types of dormancy, namely physical dormancy and physiological dormancy which is a combination of the Two-part is called morphophysiological dormancy. There is for breaks dormancy in sandalwood for earlier embryo maturation and elongation also it has hard and impermeable skin. Its structure consists of layers of thick-walled palisade-like cells especially on the outermost surface and the inside has a waxy coating and curse material. The objective of this study was to break of seed dormancy with technology Ultrafine Bubbles (UFB) on the morphophysiological dormancy on sandalwood seeds. The experiments used a randomized complete block designed (RCBD) with 3 replications. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and will be continued using the DMRT test at the 5% level. The research was conducted from February - March 0f 2020. The results showed that immersion using UFB water with oxygen 20 ppm or either UFB free oxygen for 24 and 48 hours combined with physical scarification and chemical scarification could accelerate germination in 13 days after germination (appeared radicle), percentage of growth speed (GS) is 4.67%, maximum growth (MG) in 21 days after sowing is 66.67% with normal sprouts 2-4 leaves have grown.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 51-61
Clemente Michael Vui Ling Wong ◽  
Xin Jie Ching ◽  
Yoke Kqueen Cheah ◽  
Nazalan Najimuddin

Parageobacillus caldoxylosilyticus is a rod-shaped thermophilic bacterium that can grow optimally at high temperatures. The thermophilicity of the bacterium is expected to be largely accounted for by the production of thermostable enzymes which has valuable applications in many fields. However, the species is poorly studied, hence, the growth conditions at high temperatures remained unclear until today. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the growth characterization of P. caldoxylosilyticus, including growth media preferences, optimal growth temperature, as well as minimum and maximum growth temperature. P. caldoxylosilyticus strain ER4B isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunch compost was used in this study. The bacterial strain was first identified using 16S rRNA sequencing, and the subsequent BLAST result showed that it is closest to P. caldoxylosilyticus strain UTM6. It is found that ER4B grew best in LB as compared to R2A, TSB, and NB medium. Further temperature tests determined the optimum growth temperature of the strain to be at 64°C Besides, the bacterium forms mucoid circular punctiform colonies that are yellowish in color on an agar plate, and the colony is usually 2 mm to 4 mm in diameter. The microscopic analysis also revealed that strain ER4B is a Gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium that has a length ranging from 3 µm to 6 µm, with a diameter of around 0.5 µm.

Maneesha Singh ◽  
Deeksha Chauhan ◽  
Babita Bharti

Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) belongs to family Linaceae, is the second most important rabi oilseed crop and stands next to rapeseed – mustard in area of cultivation and seed production in India. Flaxseed is grown as either oil crop or a fibre crop with fibre linen derived from the stem of fibre varieties and oil from the seed of linseed varieties. Several studies have been conducted on effect of fertilizers on growth and yield of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) varieties which revealed their enhancing role on the quality and quantity of flax cultivars. In this regards, a present study was planned and conducted during the Rabi season of 2020-2021 in the Agricultural field of School of Agricultural Sciences, Shri Guru Ram Rai University, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India to investigate the effect of organic and biofertilizer and integrated treatment on the growth and yield of Linseed. The findings were reported on important growth and yield attributed parameters such as plant height, total fresh weight, total yield, 1000- seed weight (g), and number of seed / capsules. The maximum growth and yield was reported in T6 treatment where biofertilizer have been applied in consortium form followed by vermicompost. Thus, the findings revealed that all the microbial strains in consortia used as bio fertilizers showed enhanced tern of vegetative growth of plants, total herbage yield and total seed yield at various stages. This may be due to sustained release of nutrients to supply the required elements in microbial strains. The biofertilizers exhibited beneficial effects on plant growth and development either through producing growth hormones like IAA, kinetin and gibberellins, synthesizing atmospheric nitrogen and its increased availability to greater protein synthesis as well as increasing Phosphorus availability to plant communities. Thus, it was concluded that the enhanced expression of yield and its related attributes will have beneficial impact in production of nutraceutical products of commercial importance.

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