Speed Flow
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2021 ◽  
Vol 62 (7) ◽  
D. I. Tatarenkova ◽  
E. Yu. Koroteeva ◽  
T. A. Kuli-zade ◽  
E. A. Karnozova ◽  
I. A. Znamenskaya ◽  

Yulia Usherenko ◽  
Viktors Mironovs ◽  
Leonids Pakrastiņš

The problem of protecting spacecraft from cosmic dust has recently come to the fore. There is still no enough data on the complex effect of short-term high-energy, dynamic loading on materials, including polymer materials and multilayer polymer-metal composites. The use of dynamic alloying in the super-deep penetration (SDP) mode by high-speed flows of powder particles allows assessing the effect on the material under dynamic action. Previous studies on steel and aluminum samples have shown a significant effect of high-speed flows of powder particles on the structure and properties of materials. As a result of a study of samples made of aliphatic polyurethane with steel reinforcement elements, it was found that there are traces of the penetration of high-speed particles into both metal and polymer layers. However, the number of flow elements detected in the polymeric part is significantly less than the number of elements in the metal reinforcing part. Thus, it is possible to assume that or the polymer material is a more effective barrier to the high-speed flow compared to the metal, or the “self-healing” effect is observed. 

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-14
X. H. Huang ◽  
X. L. Yao ◽  
Z. Y. Shi ◽  
W. Xiao

For some research vessels, a sonar is installed in the moonpool, and some acoustic detection equipment are installed on the ship bottom behind the moonpool, which helps to avoid the impact of the high-speed flow. The moonpool causes the ship bottom discontinued, forming a particular shear layer oscillation. The shear layer oscillation affects the bubble generation and motion in and behind the moonpool. The sonar and acoustic equipment will malfunction when surrounded by many bubbles. However, there is almost no research on the shear layer oscillation near the moonpool. So, in this paper, by measuring the pressure near the moonpool and monitoring the fluid motion in the moonpool and bubbles’ distribution along the ship bottom, the shear layer oscillation near the moonpool is studied experimentally under the action of the incident current and wave. Furthermore, the effects of the sonar and the moonpool shape are investigated. It can be seen that the shear layer oscillation excites the fluid motion in the moonpool. The sonar forms a complicated boundary in the moonpool, resulting in the increase in the frequency of the shear layer oscillation. The shear layer propagates along the ship bottom in the form of the ship bottom wave. Clarifying the oscillating characteristics of the shear layer along the ship bottom with a moonpool is conducive to the design of moonpools in the research ships, and the detection instruments are arranged in the right place along the ship bottom, so as to make sure the detection instruments work properly and detect the marine environment more accurately.

2021 ◽  
Vol 60 (6) ◽  
pp. 1615
Stephen W. Grib ◽  
Naibo Jiang ◽  
Paul S. Hsu ◽  
Hans U. Stauffer ◽  
Josef J. Felver ◽  

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 354
Wanying Zhao ◽  
Christopher Choi ◽  
Dapeng Li ◽  
Geqi Yan ◽  
Hao Li ◽  

At many modern dairy farms, calves raised in barns are kept in individual stalls separated by solid partitions, which act as barriers. Ventilation fans blowing air perpendicular to these stalls only provide the optimal airflow to the first few calves, while those further away receive a slower airflow. To ascertain whatever effects different airflow speeds may have on the health of animals kept in stalls located at increasing distances from ventilation fans, we divided a select group of 43 Holstein dairy calves into six subgroups based on age, and each subgroup was subjected to either a specified high-speed or low-speed airflow as follows: (1) Six 3-day-olds received high-speed airflow (D3-HA); (2) Six 3-day-olds received low-speed airflow (D3-LA); (3) Eight 19 (±3)-day-olds received high-speed airflow (D19-HA); (4) Eight 19 (± 3)-day-olds received low-speed airflow (D19-LA); (5) Eight 29 (±3)-day-olds received high-speed airflow (D29-HA); and (6) Seven 29 (±3)-day-olds received medium-speed airflow (D29-MA). These trials show that the rectal temperatures and respiratory rates of D19-LA (39.37 °C; 72.90 breaths/min) were significantly higher than those of D19-HA (39.14 °C; 61.57 breaths/min) (p ≤ 0.05), and those of D29-MA (39.40 °C; 75.52 breaths/min) were significantly higher than those of D29-HA (39.20 °C; 68.41 breaths/min) (p ≤ 0.05). At 33 (±3) days of age, those calves receiving high-speed airflow (p ≤ 0.05) registered significantly higher immunoglobulins A and M than calves receiving low-speed flow. Those calves subjected to a high-speed airflow also registered significantly lower tumor necrosis factor levels than those receiving low-speed flow (p ≤ 0.05). Among the 29 to 43-day-old calves, no significant differences in immunity parameters were found to exist between groups D29-HA and D29-MA. On the basis of these findings, we were able to conclude that in the warm season, when the calves were less than 0.5 months old, low-speed (0.17–0.18 m/s) airflows had no significant effect on calves; when the calves were 1 month old, low-speed airflow (0.20–0.21 m/s) may impair the immune functions; when the calves were 1 to 1.5 months old, the airflow velocity higher than 0.9 m/s can meet the needs of the calf without a negative impact on the calf.

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