modified electrodes
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Biosensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 39
Elena A. Chiticaru ◽  
Luisa Pilan ◽  
Mariana Ioniţă

In this paper, we propose an improved electrochemical platform based on graphene for the detection of DNA hybridization. Commercial screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) were used for this purpose due to their ease of functionalization and miniaturization opportunities. SPCEs were modified with reduced graphene oxide (RGO), offering a suitable surface for further functionalization. Therefore, aryl-carboxyl groups were integrated onto RGO-modified electrodes by electrochemical reduction of the corresponding diazonium salt to provide enough reaction sites for the covalent immobilization of amino-modified DNA probes. Our final goal was to determine the optimum conditions needed to fabricate a simple, label-free RGO-based electrochemical platform to detect the hybridization between two complementary single-stranded DNA molecules. Each modification step in the fabrication process was monitored by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using [Fe(CN)6]3−/4− as a redox reporter. Although, the diazonium electrografted layer displayed the expected blocking effect of the charge transfer, the next steps in the modification procedure resulted in enhanced electron transfer properties of the electrode interface. We suggest that the improvement in the charge transfer after the DNA hybridization process could be exploited as a prospective sensing feature. The morphological and structural characterization of the modified electrodes performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy, respectively, were used to validate different modification steps in the platform fabrication process.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 191
Danuta Tomczyk ◽  
Wiktor Bukowski ◽  
Karol Bester ◽  
Michalina Kaczmarek

Platinum electrodes were modified with polymers of the (±)-trans-N,N′-bis(salicylidene)-1,2-cyclohexanediaminenickel(II) ([Ni(salcn)]) and (±)-trans-N,N′-bis(3,3′-tert-Bu-salicylidene)-1,2-cyclohexanediaminenickel(II) ([Ni(salcn(Bu))]) complexes to study their electrocatalytic and electroanalytical properties. Poly[Ni(salcn)] and poly[Ni(salcn(Bu))]) modified electrodes catalyze the oxidation of catechol, aspartic acid and NO2−. In the case of poly[Ni(salcn)] modified electrodes, the electrocatalysis process depends on the electroactive surface coverage. The films with low electroactive surface coverage are only a barrier in the path of the reducer to the electrode surface. The films with more electroactive surface coverage ensure both electrocatalysis inside the film and oxidation of the reducer directly on the electrode surface. In the films with the most electroactive surface coverage, electrocatalysis occurs only at the polymer–solution interface. The analysis was based on cyclic voltammetry, EQCM (electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance) and rotating disc electrode method.

Polimery ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 66 (11-12) ◽  
pp. 589-601
Sachin Kumar ◽  
Sushil K. Sindhu ◽  
Praveen Kumar ◽  
Amit Sharma ◽  
Suresh Sagadevan

Three different carbon paste (CP), silk-screen (SP) and poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) modified electrodes were obtained to verify the reliability of AVELOX, the generic name of which is Moxifloxacin HCl (AV-MOXH). The sensing membranes were containing AVELOX ion associated complexes with sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB), phosphomolybdic acid (PMA), phosphotungstic acid (PTA), and ammonium reineckate (RN) as electroactive materials. All three electrodes gave fast, viable, and near-Nernstian linear responses over a relative wide concentration range that ranged from 1.010-6 to 1.010-2 mol / L AV-MOXH at 25° C with a monovalent cationic decrease. The sensors demonstrated a good discernment of AV-MOXH from numerous inorganic and organic compounds such as glucose, sucrose, Na+, Ca+, etc. Additionally, the isothermal coefficients along with selectivity coefficients were calculated. The modified Screen Printed Electrode sensor appeared to be highly sensitive for the determination of AV-MOXH. The electrode response was observed in pH range 2--6 for ISPE electrodes and IPVC electrodes and 3--7 for ICPE electrodes under various temperature conditions. The short response time, lifetime validity, recovery, and all the methods of validation such as limit of detection and limit of quantification were estimated. The potentiometric method turned out to be suitable for determining AV-MOXH in pharmacological formulations, and the findings obtained are comparable to the “HPLC official method” in terms of the agreement. As a result, the postulated potentiometric approach was verified in accordance with IUPAC guidelines.

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 99
Kosin Teeparuksapun ◽  
Martin Hedström ◽  
Bo Mattiasson

A capacitive biosensor for the detection of protein A was developed. Gold electrodes were fabricated by thermal evaporation and patterned by photoresist photolithography. A layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of thiourea (TU) and HAuCl4 and chemical reduction was utilized to prepare a probe with a different number of layers of TU and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The LbL-modified electrodes were used for the immobilization of human IgG. The binding interaction between human IgG and protein A was detected as a decrease in capacitance signal, and that change was used to investigate the correlation between the height of the LbL probe and the sensitivity of the capacitive measurement. The results showed that the initial increase in length of the LbL probe can enhance the amount of immobilized human IgG, leading to a more sensitive assay. However, with thicker LbL layers, a reduction of the sensitivity of the measurement was registered. The performance of the developed system under optimum set-up showed a linearity in response from 1 × 10−16 to 1 × 10−13 M, with the limit detection of 9.1 × 10−17 M, which could be interesting for the detection of trace amounts of protein A from affinity isolation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 ◽  
Lijun Yan ◽  
Fan Shi ◽  
Jingyao Zhang ◽  
Yanyan Niu ◽  
Lifang Huang ◽  

Background: By using bimetal nanocomposite modified electrode, the electrochemical DNA biosensor showed the advantages of high sensitivity, low cost, rapid response and convenient operation, which was applied for disease diagnosis, food safety, and biological monitoring. Objective: A nanocomposite consisting of platinum (Pt)-gold (Au) bimetal and two-dimensional graphene (GR) was synthesized by hydrothermal method, which was modified on the surface of carbon ionic liquid electrode and further used for the immobilization of probe ssDNA related to Vibrio Parahaemolyticus tlh gene to construct an electrochemical DNA sensor. Method: Potassium ferricyanide was selected as electrochemical indicator, cyclic voltammetry was used to study the electrochemical behaviours of different modified electrodes and differential pulse voltammetry was employed to test the analytical performance of this biosensor for the detection of target gene sequence. Results: This electrochemical DNA biosensor could detect the Vibrio Parahaemolyticus tlh gene sequence as the linear concentration in the range from 1.0×10-13 mol L-1 to 1.0×10-6 mol L-1 with the detection limit as 2.91×10-14 mol L-1 (3σ). Conclusion: This proposed electrochemical DNA biosensor could be used to identify the special gene sequence with good selectivity, low detection limit and wide detection range.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (24) ◽  
pp. 7742
Laura Cipriano Crapina ◽  
Liva Dzene ◽  
Jocelyne Brendlé ◽  
Florence Fourcade ◽  
Abdeltif Amrane ◽  

Advanced oxidation processes are considered as a promising technology for the removal of persistent organic pollutants from industrial wastewaters. In particular, the heterogeneous electro-Fenton (HEF) process has several advantages such as allowing the working pH to be circumneutral or alkaline, recovering and reusing the catalyst and avoiding the release of iron in the environment as a secondary pollutant. Among different iron-containing catalysts, studies using clay-modified electrodes in HEF process are the focus in this review. Fe(III)/Fe(II) within the lattice of clay minerals can possibly serve as catalytic sites in HEF process. The description of the preparation and application of clay-modified electrodes in the degradation of model pollutants in HEF process is detailed in the review. The absence of mediators responsible for transferring electrons to structural Fe(III) and regenerating catalytic Fe(II) was considered as a milestone in the field. A comprehensive review of studies investigating the use of electron transfer mediators as well as the mechanism behind electron transfer from and to the clay mineral structure was assembled in order to uncover other milestones to be addressed in this study area.

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