aging process
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2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 178-189
Liliyanti Fauzi ◽  
Tiara Bunga

The eye is a complex sensory organ that is responsible for vision. Within the protective sheath, each eye has receptors, a lens system for focusing light on receptors, and a nervous system for transmitting impulses from the receptors to the brain. Visual dysfunction can be caused by abnormal eye movements or changes in visual acuity, refraction, color vision, or accommodation. Visual dysfunction may also be a secondary effect of other neurological disorders. This narrative review aims to describe the structure of the eye in general and visual disturbances caused by the aging process and disorders of the protective structure of the eye.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 238
Alessandro Leparulo ◽  
Marta Bisio ◽  
Nelly Redolfi ◽  
Tullio Pozzan ◽  
Stefano Vassanelli ◽  

For Alzheimer’s disease (AD), aging is the main risk factor, but whether cognitive impairments due to aging resemble early AD deficits is not yet defined. When working with mouse models of AD, the situation is just as complicated, because only a few studies track the progression of the disease at different ages, and most ignore how the aging process affects control mice. In this work, we addressed this problem by comparing the aging process of PS2APP (AD) and wild-type (WT) mice at the level of spontaneous brain electrical activity under anesthesia. Using local field potential recordings, obtained with a linear probe that traverses the posterior parietal cortex and the entire hippocampus, we analyzed how multiple electrical parameters are modified by aging in AD and WT mice. With this approach, we highlighted AD specific features that appear in young AD mice prior to plaque deposition or that are delayed at 12 and 16 months of age. Furthermore, we identified aging characteristics present in WT mice but also occurring prematurely in young AD mice. In short, we found that reduction in the relative power of slow oscillations (SO) and Low/High power imbalance are linked to an AD phenotype at its onset. The loss of SO connectivity and cortico-hippocampal coupling between SO and higher frequencies as well as the increase in UP-state and burst durations are found in young AD and old WT mice. We show evidence that the aging process is accelerated by the mutant PS2 itself and discuss such changes in relation to amyloidosis and gliosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 720
Marianne Lauwers ◽  
Manting Au ◽  
Shuofeng Yuan ◽  
Chunyi Wen

COVID-19 is a trending topic worldwide due to its immense impact on society. Recent trends have shifted from acute effects towards the long-term morbidity of COVID-19. In this review, we hypothesize that SARS-CoV-2 contributes to age-related perturbations in endothelial and adipose tissue, which are known to characterize the early aging process. This would explain the long-lasting symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 as the result of an accelerated aging process. Connective tissues such as adipose tissue and musculoskeletal tissue are the primary sites of aging. Therefore, current literature was analyzed focusing on the musculoskeletal symptoms in COVID-19 patients. Hypovitaminosis D, increased fragility, and calcium deficiency point towards bone aging, while joint and muscle pain are typical for joint and muscle aging, respectively. These characteristics could be classified as early osteoarthritis-like phenotype. Exploration of the impact of SARS-CoV-2 and osteoarthritis on endothelial and adipose tissue, as well as neuronal function, showed similar perturbations. At a molecular level, this could be attributed to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 expression, renin-angiotensin system dysfunction, and inflammation. Finally, the influence of the nicotinic cholinergic system is being evaluated as a new treatment strategy. This is combined with the current knowledge of musculoskeletal aging to pave the road towards the treatment of long-term COVID-19.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 365
Manuel J. Valcárcel-Muñoz ◽  
María Guerrero-Chanivet ◽  
María del Carmen Rodríguez-Dodero ◽  
María de Valme García-Moreno ◽  
Dominico A. Guillén-Sánchez

Fino and Amontillado are Sherry wines, produced in Marco de Jerez area (southern Spain), and aged in Criaderas y Solera system. Fino Sherry wine follows a biological aging process, under a veil of flor yeasts, while Amontillado Sherry wine shares the same biological aging firstly, followed by oxidative aging, which gives them special features. Organic acids, esters, higher alcohols, phenolic compounds and total dry extract of Sherries evolve during aging due to evaporation processes, physical-chemical reactions, wood contributions and microbiological activity. During aging, Sherry wines improve their organoleptic profile, as could be proved in the tasting sessions. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and Factor Analysis with factor extraction using Principal Components of Sherry wines studied were carried out and natural groupings of the wines according to the type of aging and their age were observed. A strong correlation between the parameters analyzed and the aging of each wine has been seen in the Multiple Linear Regression studies, establishing two different models, one for each type of Sherry wine, that, with only four of all the variables studied estimated the wine age with more than 99% of confidence. This constitutes a useful tool to control the age of these Sherry wines in the winery.

2022 ◽  
Zhen-Ge Luo ◽  
Xin-Yao Sun ◽  
Xiang-Chun Ju ◽  
Yang Li ◽  
Peng-Ming Zeng ◽  

The recently developed brain organoids have been used to recapitulate the processes of brain development and related diseases. However, the lack of vasculatures, which regulate neurogenesis, brain disorders, and aging process, limits the utility of brain organoids. In this study, we induced vessel and brain organoids respectively, and then fused two types of organoids together to obtain vascularized brain organoids. The fused brain organoids were engrafted with robust vascular network-like structures, and exhibited increased number of neural progenitors, in line with the possibility that vessels regulate neural development. Fusion organoids also contained functional blood-brain-barrier (BBB)-like structures, as well as microglial cells, a specific population of immune cells in the brain. The incorporated microglia responded actively to immune stimuli to the fused brain organoids. Thus, the fusion organoids established in this study allow modeling interactions between the neuronal and non-neuronal components in vitro, in particular the vasculature and microglia niche.

2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (4) ◽  
pp. 65-72
Andra Mihaela Onas ◽  
Iuliana Elena Biru ◽  
Aida Petca ◽  
Razvan Cosmin Petca

Ureteral catheters, commonly known as double j stents according to their specific shape, are largely used worldwide with good results to assure proper renal drainage and to overpass ureteral obstacles successfully. This study deals with the aging behavior of polyurethane-based urinary catheters, explanted at different time intervals: 22 days, 29 days, three months, and eight months respectively. TGA (Thermogravimetric analyses) tests showed significant differences in the thermal behavior of polyurethane-based material, especially at eight months, where a higher thermostability was noticed. Also, the DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) curves presented different shapes for the samples of polyurethane-based urinary catheters after three months and eight months. FTIR (Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectrometry) spectra gave a detailed picture of the chemical trans-formation which has occurred within the material at eight months. All the analyses gave an overview of the aging process of polyurethane-based urinary catheters and showed insights into the chemical/ physical transformations that the polymeric material suffers from prolonged usage.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 153
Sandra Haupt ◽  
Tobias Niedrist ◽  
Harald Sourij ◽  
Stephan Schwarzinger ◽  
Othmar Moser

Aging as a major risk factor influences the probability of developing cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes, amongst others. The underlying mechanisms of disease are still not fully understood, but research suggests that delaying the aging process could ameliorate these pathologies. A key biological process in aging is cellular senescence which is associated with several stressors such as telomere shortening or enhanced DNA methylation. Telomere length as well as DNA methylation levels can be used as biological age predictors which are able to detect excessive acceleration or deceleration of aging. Analytical methods examining aging are often not suitable, expensive, time-consuming or require a high level of technical expertise. Therefore, research focusses on combining analytical methods which have the potential to simultaneously analyse epigenetic, genomic as well as metabolic changes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 19-28
Luz Judith R. Esparza ◽  
Fernando Baltazar-Larios

2022 ◽  
Vol 2161 (1) ◽  
pp. 012008
Roy Ashish ◽  
B G Prasad

Abstract The aging process creates significant changes in the appearances of people’s faces. When compared to other causes of variation in face imaging, aging-related variation has specific distinct properties. Facial Aging variations, for example, is unique for each person; it occurs gradually and is significantly influenced by other characteristics including health, gender, and life-style. As a result, the proposed effort will use Generative Adversarial Networks to address these critical concerns (GANs). Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN’s) is made up of a generator and a discriminator network. The generator model generates images that a discriminator model analyses to determine if they are real or fake. This paper provides a Temporal Face Feature Progressive framework with Cycle GAN, which maintains the initial appearance and identity in the elderly aspect of their facial structure. To address aging concerns, our goal is to transform an initial age category image into a targeted age with age progression. We show that our temporal face features progressive cycle GAN learns and transfers facial traits from the source group to the targeted group by training various images. The IMDB-WIKI Face dataset has been used to obtain the results for the same.

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