biodiversity loss
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2022 ◽  
Vol 194 ◽  
pp. 107339
Zhongxiao Sun ◽  
Paul Behrens ◽  
Arnold Tukker ◽  
Martin Bruckner ◽  
Laura Scherer

2022 ◽  
Ha Thi Hong Hanh ◽  
Hoàng Trường Giang ◽  
Chu Nguyet Ha ◽  
Hà Minh Hằng ◽  
Duong Minh Hang ◽  

Biodiversity loss and its solutions

2022 ◽  
Nathan J Butterworth ◽  
James F Wallman ◽  
Nikolas P Johnston ◽  
Blake M Dawson ◽  
Angela McGaughran

Climate change and deforestation are causing rainforests to become increasingly fragmented, placing them at heightened risk of biodiversity loss. Invertebrates constitute the greatest proportion of this biodiversity, yet we lack basic knowledge of their population structure and ecology. It is not currently feasible to assess the population structure of every invertebrate species, so there is a compelling need to identify indicator species that are broadly indicative of habitat-level patterns and processes. Blowflies are an ideal candidate, because they are widespread, abundant, and can be easily collected within rainforests. Here, we present the first study of the blowfly Chrysomya latifrons , which is endemic to the rainforests of New South Wales, Australia. We genotyped 188 flies from 15 isolated rainforests and found low overall genetic diversity and a complete lack of genetic structure between populations, suggesting the presence of a single large panmictic population along 1,000 km of the Australian east coast. This highlights that: (1) Ch. latifrons inhabits every rainforest in NSW and undoubtedly plays an important role in these ecosystems, but low genetic diversity may cause it to struggle to adapt to a changing climate; (2) strongly dispersing insects have the capacity to migrate between isolated rainforests, likely carrying pollen, parasites, phoronts, and pathogens with them to form crucial trophic networks; and (3) there is an urgent need for similar studies on poorly dispersing rainforest insects, as these may be the most fragmented and at highest risk of local extinction.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Marie C. Henniges ◽  
Robyn F. Powell ◽  
Sahr Mian ◽  
Clive A. Stace ◽  
Kevin J. Walker ◽  

AbstractThe vascular flora of Britain and Ireland is among the most extensively studied in the world, but the current knowledge base is fragmentary, with taxonomic, ecological and genetic information scattered across different resources. Here we present the first comprehensive data repository of native and alien species optimized for fast and easy online access for ecological, evolutionary and conservation analyses. The inventory is based on the most recent reference flora of Britain and Ireland, with taxon names linked to unique Kew taxon identifiers and DNA barcode data. Our data resource for 3,227 species and 26 traits includes existing and unpublished genome sizes, chromosome numbers and life strategy and life-form assessments, along with existing data on functional traits, species distribution metrics, hybrid propensity, associated biomes, realized niche description, native status and geographic origin of alien species. This resource will facilitate both fundamental and applied research and enhance our understanding of the flora’s composition and temporal changes to inform conservation efforts in the face of ongoing climate change and biodiversity loss.

2022 ◽  
pp. 097317412110573
Laura M. Valencia

In response to the global climate emergency and biodiversity loss, environmental advocates promote ecological restoration of millions of hectares of the world’s degraded forest lands. Lands of high value to restoration are home to nearly 300 million people, including 12% of low- and middle-income country populations. In this article, I respond to calls for greater empirical investigation into the social impacts of forest landscape restoration. Through spatial and ethnographic analysis of forest restoration in Keonjhar, Odisha (India), I show that state-led afforestation efforts contradict a decade of forest tenure reform which sought to decentralize and decolonize forest governance. I explore how state-led efforts ignore (and inhibit) the continued protagonism of forest-dwelling communities in forest regeneration on their customary lands. Weaving accounts from 1992 onwards across six villages and 22 plantations, I characterize state strategies as an ‘uphill battle’: by systematically selecting shifting cultivation (podu) uplands for enclosure and tree plantation, forest agencies contribute to a lose-lose situation where neither forest restoration nor forest rights are realized. Investigating this process from colonial forest policy to the present, I leverage a critical political ecology perspective that supports calls for rights-based restoration.

2022 ◽  
Minh-Hoang Nguyen ◽  
Thomas E. Jones

The rapidly declining biosphere integrity, representing one of the core planetary boundaries, is alarming. One of the most widely accepted measures to halt the rate of biodiversity loss is to maintain and expand protected areas that are effectively managed. However, it requires substantial finance derived from nature-based tourism, specifically visitors from urban areas. Using the Bayesian Mindsponge Framework (BMF) on 535 Vietnamese urban residents, the current study examined how their biodiversity loss perceptions can affect their willingness to pay for the entrance fee and conservation in protected areas. We found that perceived environmental degradation, loss of economic growth, loss of nature-based recreation opportunity, and loss of knowledge as consequences of biodiversity loss has indirect effects on paying willingness through the mediation of the attitude towards conservation. Especially, the perceived knowledge loss also has a direct positive influence on the willingness to pay for the entrance fee and conservation. In contrast, perceived loss of health is negatively associated with the attitude towards conservation. Based on these findings, we suggest that building an eco-surplus culture among urban residents can be a promising way to generate more finance from nature-based tourism for conservation in protected areas and ease the domestic government’s and international organizations’ funding allocations problems.

2022 ◽  
Minh-Hoang Nguyen

In line with conservation social scientists, I contend that understanding how people adapt and change their attitudes and behaviors towards biodiversity concepts is crucial for tackling biodiversity loss through building an eco-surplus culture in urban areas. My argument can be defended by various studies that have confirmed the positive relationships between interactions with nature and attitudes towards biodiversity and the biophilia hypothesis.

2022 ◽  
pp. 578-602
Hanane Boutaj ◽  
Aicha Moumni ◽  
Oumayma Nassiri ◽  
Abdelhak Ouled Aitouna

Considerable attention has been paid to climate change and its impacts on biodiversity. The climate change has caused several problems such as continuous ecosystem degradation and a resultant biodiversity decline. In addition, climate warming has a range of indirect effects through changes in vegetation type level and sea that affect physical and biological systems. This has also led to changes in the distribution of species, as well as reductions in the size of populations, or even local extinctions of these populations. Moreover, many species are disappearing with time due to climate change combined with the emergence of disease that develops and increases with time. These problems affect different biodiversity components that are close to collapse. This chapter explored the richness of biodiversity in arid and semi-arid zones. It is also illuminates the effects of climate change on distribution of biodiversity. The authors highlight the responses of biodiversity under climate change, in terms of species extinction, biodiversity loss, and the impacts of climate change to ecological tourism. Finally, the authors show how biodiversity can overcome the effect of climate change, by developing some systems that allow to them to survive and conservation of species and ecosystems.

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