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بيان عايد الغراغير

The study aimed to identify the effectiveness of the use of blended learning in developing self-organized learning skills for basic stage students from the perspective of English language teachers. A teacher and a teacher were chosen randomly. The results showed the reality of education about the effectiveness of using blended learning in developing self-organized learning skills among primary school students from the perspective of English language teachers. They are also keen on the basic stage because of its great role in refining the students’ personality and thought, in addition to the ease of electronic communication with students at any time, especially at this time and the developments in the region. In light of the findings of the study, it recommends conducting more educational studies on blended education and a role in the self-organized learning process in terms of its dimensions and applications in educational institutions and other institutions.

Michael J. Bank ◽  
Nicola Scafetta

Orbital systems are often self-organized and/or characterized by harmonic relations. Inspired by music theory, we rewrite the Geddes and King-Hele (QJRAS, 24, 10–13, 1983) equations for mirror symmetries among the distances of the planets of the Solar System in an elegant and compact form by using the 2/3rd power of the ratios of the semi-major axis lengths of two neighboring planets (eight pairs, including the belt of the asteroids). This metric suggests that the Solar System could be characterized by a scaling and mirror-like structure relative to the asteroid belt that relates together the terrestrial and Jovian planets. These relations are based on a 9/8 ratio multiplied by powers of 2, which correspond musically to the interval of the Pythagorean epogdoon (a Major Second) and its addition with one or more octaves. Extensions of the same model are discussed and found compatible also with the still hypothetical vulcanoid asteroids versus the transneptunian objects. The found relation also suggests that the planetary self-organization of our system could be generated by the 3:1 and 7:3 resonances of Jupiter, which are already known to have shaped the asteroid belt. The proposed model predicts the main Kirkwood asteroid gaps and the ratio among the planetary orbital parameters with a 99% accuracy, which is three times better than an alternative, recently proposed harmonic-resonance model for the Solar System. Furthermore, the ratios of neighboring planetary pairs correspond to four musical “consonances” having frequency ratios of 5/4 (Major Third), 4/3 (Perfect Fourth), 3/2 (Perfect Fifth) and 8/5 (Minor Sixth); the probability of obtaining this result randomly has a p < 0.001. Musical consonances are “pleasing” tones that harmoniously interrelate when sounded together, which suggests that the orbits of the planets of our Solar System could form some kind of gravitationally optimized and coordinated structure. Physical modeling indicates that energy non-conserving perturbations could drive a planetary system into a self-organized periodic state with characteristics vaguely similar of those found in our Solar System. However, our specific finding suggests that the planetary organization of our Solar System could be rather peculiar and based on more complex and unknown dynamical structures.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 608
Tomoki Ozawa ◽  
Masayuki Murata ◽  
Takashi Suemasu ◽  
Kaoru Toko

Flexible and reliable thermoelectric generators (TEGs) will be essential for future energy harvesting sensors. In this study, we synthesized p- and n-type SiGe layers on a high heat-resistant polyimide film using metal-induced layer exchange (LE) and demonstrated TEG operation. Despite the low process temperature (<500 °C), the polycrystalline SiGe layers showed high power factors of 560 µW m−1 K−2 for p-type Si0.4Ge0.6 and 390 µW m−1 K−2 for n-type Si0.85Ge0.15, owing to self-organized doping in LE. Furthermore, the power factors indicated stable behavior with changing measurement temperature, an advantage of SiGe as an inorganic material. An in-plane π-type TEG based on these SiGe layers showed an output power of 0.45 µW cm−2 at near room temperature for a 30 K temperature gradient. This achievement will enable the development of environmentally friendly and highly reliable flexible TEGs for operating micro-energy devices in the future Internet of Things.

Aleksandr Diachenko ◽  
Iwona Sobkowiak-Tabaka

AbstractContributing to the issue of complex relationship between social and cultural evolution, this paper aims to analyze repetitive patterns, or cycles, in the development of material culture. Our analysis focuses on culture change associated with sociopolitical and economic stasis. The proposed toy model describes the cyclical character of the quantitative and qualitative composition of archaeological assemblages, which include hierarchically organized cultural traits. Cycles sequentially process the stages of unification, diversity, and return to unification. This complex dynamic behavior is caused by the ratio between cultural traits’ replication rate and the proportion of traits of the higher taxonomic order’s related unit. Our approach identifies a shift from conformist to anti-conformist transmission, corresponding with open and closed phases in cultural evolution in respect to the introduction of innovations. The model also describes the dependence of a probability for horizontal transmission upon orders of taxonomic hierarchy during open phases. The obtained results are indicative for gradual cultural evolution at the low orders of taxonomic hierarchy and punctuated evolution at its high orders. The similarity of the model outcomes to the patters of material culture change reflecting societal transformations enables discussions around the uncertainty of explanation in archaeology and anthropology.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Thiago Werlang ◽  
Maurício Matos ◽  
Frederico Brito ◽  
Daniel Valente

AbstractA longstanding challenge in nonequilibrium thermodynamics is to predict the emergence of self-organized behaviors and functionalities typical of living matter. Despite the progress with classical complex systems, it remains far from obvious how to extrapolate these results down to the quantum scale. Here, we employ the paradigmatic master equation framework to establish that some lifelike behaviors and functionalities can indeed emerge in elementary dissipative quantum systems driven out of equilibrium. Specifically, we find both energy-avoiding (low steady dissipation) and energy-seeking behaviors (high steady dissipation), as well as self-adaptive shifts between these modes, in generic few-level systems. We also find emergent functionalities, namely, a self-organized thermal gradient in the system’s environment (in the energy-seeking mode) and an active equilibration against thermal gradients (in the energy-avoiding mode). Finally, we discuss the possibility that our results could be related to the concept of dissipative adaptation.

Entropy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. 107
Santosh Manicka ◽  
Michael Levin

What information-processing strategies and general principles are sufficient to enable self-organized morphogenesis in embryogenesis and regeneration? We designed and analyzed a minimal model of self-scaling axial patterning consisting of a cellular network that develops activity patterns within implicitly set bounds. The properties of the cells are determined by internal ‘genetic’ networks with an architecture shared across all cells. We used machine-learning to identify models that enable this virtual mini-embryo to pattern a typical axial gradient while simultaneously sensing the set boundaries within which to develop it from homogeneous conditions—a setting that captures the essence of early embryogenesis. Interestingly, the model revealed several features (such as planar polarity and regenerative re-scaling capacity) for which it was not directly selected, showing how these common biological design principles can emerge as a consequence of simple patterning modes. A novel “causal network” analysis of the best model furthermore revealed that the originally symmetric model dynamically integrates into intercellular causal networks characterized by broken-symmetry, long-range influence and modularity, offering an interpretable macroscale-circuit-based explanation for phenotypic patterning. This work shows how computation could occur in biological development and how machine learning approaches can generate hypotheses and deepen our understanding of how featureless tissues might develop sophisticated patterns—an essential step towards predictive control of morphogenesis in regenerative medicine or synthetic bioengineering contexts. The tools developed here also have the potential to benefit machine learning via new forms of backpropagation and by leveraging the novel distributed self-representation mechanisms to improve robustness and generalization.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Stefan Rother

AbstractThe global pandemic has resulted in ad hoc unilateral policies on migration, mobility and border management while at the same time emphasizing the need for global cooperation. For global governance in this field to be effective, it needs to include stakeholders beyond states and international institutions. The Global Compact for safe, orderly and regular Migration (GCM) highlights the role of those groups directly affected by global policies, i.e. migrants and their organisations. The goal of this paper is to analyse the role of civil society in global migration governance in times of COVID-19. It employs a comparative approach between “invented” and “invited” spaces. “Invited spaces” in this context refer to spaces created by international organisations such as the United Nations Network on Migration’s “Stakeholder Listening Sessions” on COVID-19 and the resulting statements. “Invented Spaces” refer to self-organized spaces by civil society actors. The paper will compare these spaces regarding their openness, the central issues and calls for specific policy measures, the stakeholders involved and the strategies they employ. I argue that the pandemic has strengthened the “input” dimension for migrant civil society in global governance. This relates to the structure/format as well as to the content of the participation. “Zoomification” has opened up access to “invited” spaces while pushing forward the creation and scope of “invented” spaces”. There are indicators that the pandemic has also influenced parts of the output dimension, although it is too early to assess whether this will have a lasting effect on policies on the ground.

Economies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 14
Tiago Cruz Gonçalves ◽  
Jorge Victor Quiñones Borda ◽  
Pedro Rino Vieira ◽  
Pedro Verga Matos

The study of critical phenomena that originated in the natural sciences has been extended to the financial economics’ field, giving researchers new approaches to risk management, forecasting, the study of bubbles and crashes, and many kinds of problems involving complex systems with self-organized criticality (SOC). This study uses the theory of self-similar oscillatory time singularities to analyze stock market crashes. We test the Log Periodic Power Law/Model (LPPM) to analyze the Portuguese stock market, in its crises in 1998, 2007, and 2015. Parameter values are in line with those observed in other markets. This is particularly interesting since if the model performs robustly for Portugal, which is a small market with liquidity issues and the index is only composed of 20 stocks, we provide consistent evidence in favor of the proposed LPPM methodology. The LPPM methodology proposed here would have allowed us to avoid big loses in the 1998 Portuguese crash, and would have permitted us to sell at points near the peak in the 2007 crash. In the case of the 2015 crisis, we would have obtained a good indication of the moment where the lowest data point was going to be achieved.

2022 ◽  
Vol 46 (3) ◽  
pp. 297-302
A. M. SELVAM ◽  

  Long-range spatio-temporal correlations manifested as the self-similar fractal geometry to the spatial pattern concomitant with inverse power law form for the power spectrum of temporal fluctuations are ubiquitous to real world dynamical systems and are recently identified as signatures of self-organized criticality Self-organised criticality in atmospheric flows is exhibited as the fractal geometry 10 the global cloud cover pattern and the inverse power law form for the atmospheric eddy energy spectrum, In this paper, a recently developed cell dynamical system model for  atmospheric flows is summarized. The model predicts inverse power law form of the statistical normal distribution for atmospheric eddy energy spectrum as a natural consequence of quantum-like mechanics governing atmospheric flows extending up to stratospheric levels and above, Model Predictions are in agreement with continuous periodogram analyses of atmospheric total ozone. Atmospheric total ozone variability (in days) exhibits the temporal signature of self-organized criticality, namely, inverse power law form for the power spectrum. Further, the long-range temporal correlations implicit to self-organized criticality can be quantified in terms of the universal characteristics  of the normal distribution. Therefore the total pattern of fluctuations of total ozone over a period of time is predictable.  

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