metabolic interactions
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Israr Khan ◽  
Yanrui Bai ◽  
Lajia Zha ◽  
Naeem Ullah ◽  
Habib Ullah ◽  

The mammalian gut microbial community, known as the gut microbiota, comprises trillions of bacteria, which co-evolved with the host and has an important role in a variety of host functions that include nutrient acquisition, metabolism, and immunity development, and more importantly, it plays a critical role in the protection of the host from enteric infections associated with exogenous pathogens or indigenous pathobiont outgrowth that may result from healthy gut microbial community disruption. Microbiota evolves complex mechanisms to restrain pathogen growth, which included nutrient competition, competitive metabolic interactions, niche exclusion, and induction of host immune response, which are collectively termed colonization resistance. On the other hand, pathogens have also developed counterstrategies to expand their population and enhance their virulence to cope with the gut microbiota colonization resistance and cause infection. This review summarizes the available literature on the complex relationship occurring between the intestinal microbiota and enteric pathogens, describing how the gut microbiota can mediate colonization resistance against bacterial enteric infections and how bacterial enteropathogens can overcome this resistance as well as how the understanding of this complex interaction can inform future therapies against infectious diseases.

2021 ◽  
Pau Perez Escriva ◽  
Tobias Fuhrer ◽  
Uwe Sauer

The complex interactions between gut microbiome and host or pathogen colonization resistance cannot solely be understood from community composition. Missing are causal relationships such as metabolic interactions among species to better understand what shapes the microbiome. Here, we focused on metabolic niches generated and occupied by the Oligo-Mouse-Microbiota consortium, a synthetic community composed of 12 members that is increasingly used as a model for the mouse gut microbiome. Combining mono-cultures and spent medium experiments with untargeted metabolomics uncovered broad metabolic diversity in the consortium, constituting a dense cross-feeding network with more than 100 pairwise interactions. Quantitative analysis of the cross-feeding network revealed distinct C and N food webs that highlight the two Bacteroidetes consortium members B. caecimuris and M. intestinale as primary suppliers of carbon, and a more diverse group as nitrogen providers. Cross-fed metabolites were mainly carboxylic acids, amino acids, and the so far not reported nucleobases. In particular the dicarboxylic acids malate and fumarate provided a strong physiological benefit to consumers, presumably as anaerobic electron acceptors. Isotopic tracer experiments validated the fate of a subset of cross-fed metabolites, in particular the conversion of the most abundant cross-fed compound succinate to butyrate. Thus, we show that this consortium is tailored to produce the anti-inflammatory metabolite butyrate. Overall, we provide evidence for metabolic niches generated and occupied by OMM members that lays a metabolic foundation to facilitate understanding of the more complex in vivo behavior of this consortium in the mouse gut.

Roland Lawson ◽  
Petra Čechová ◽  
Eliès Zarrouk ◽  
James Javellaud ◽  
Václav Bazgier ◽  

Yan-Bin Wang ◽  
Ce Li ◽  
Jin-Yang Yan ◽  
Tian-Yu Wang ◽  
Ya-Lin Yao ◽  

Nutritional symbionts are restricted to specialized host cells called bacteriocytes in various insect orders. These symbionts can provide essential nutrients to the host. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying the regulation of these insect–symbiont metabolic associations remain largely unclear. The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci MEAM1, hosts Portiera and Hamiltonella bacteria in the same bacteriocyte. In this study, the induction of autophagy by chemical treatment and gene silencing decreased symbiont titers, and essential amino acid (EAA) and B vitamin contents. In contrast, the repression of autophagy in bacteriocytes via Atg8 silencing increased symbiont titers, and amino acid and B vitamin contents. Furthermore, dietary supplementation with non-EAAs or B vitamins alleviated autophagy in whitefly bacteriocytes, elevated TOR (target of rapamycin) expression and increased symbiont titers. TOR silencing restored symbiont titers in whiteflies after dietary supplementation with B vitamins. These data suggest that Portiera and Hamiltonella evade autophagy of the whitefly bacteriocytes by activating the TOR pathway via providing essential nutrients. Taken together, we demonstrated that autophagy plays a critical role in regulating the metabolic interactions between the whitefly and two intracellular symbionts. Therefore, this study reveals that autophagy is an important cellular basis for bacteriocyte evolution and symbiosis persistence in whiteflies. The whitefly symbiosis unravels the interactions between cellular and metabolic functions of bacteriocytes. Importance Nutritional symbionts, which are restricted to specialized host cells called bacteriocytes, can provide essential nutrients for many hosts. However, the cellular mechanisms of regulation of animal–symbiont metabolic associations have been largely unexplored. Here, using the whitefly- Portiera / Hamiltonella endosymbiosis, we demonstrate autophagy regulates the symbiont titers, and thereby alters the essential amino acid and B vitamin contents. For persistence in the whitefly bacteriocytes, Portiera and Hamiltonella alleviate autophagy by activating the TOR (target of rapamycin) pathway through providing essential nutrients. Therefore, we demonstrate that autophagy plays a critical role in regulating the metabolic interactions between the whitefly and two intracellular symbionts. This study also provides insight into the cellular basis of bacteriocyte evolution and symbiosis persistence in the whitefly. The mechanisms underlying the role of autophagy in whitefly symbiosis could be widespread in many insect nutritional symbioses. These findings provide new avenue for whitefly control via regulating autophagy in the future.

2021 ◽  
Hyungseok Kim ◽  
Jeffrey A. Kimbrel ◽  
Christopher A. Vaiana ◽  
Jessica R. Wollard ◽  
Xavier Mayali ◽  

AbstractPhotosynthetic microalgae are responsible for 50% of the global atmospheric CO2 fixation into organic matter and hold potential as a renewable bioenergy source. Their metabolic interactions with the surrounding microbial community (the algal microbiome) play critical roles in carbon cycling, but due to methodological limitations, it has been challenging to examine how community development is influenced by spatial proximity to their algal host. Here we introduce a copolymer-based porous microplate to co-culture algae and bacteria, where metabolites are constantly exchanged between the microorganisms while maintaining physical separation. In the microplate, we found that the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum accumulated to cell abundances ~20 fold higher than under normal batch conditions due to constant replenishment of nutrients through the porous structure. We also demonstrate that algal-associated bacteria, both single isolates and complex communities, responded to inorganic nutrients away from their host as well as organic nutrients originating from the algae in a spatially predictable manner. These experimental findings coupled with a mathematical model suggest that host proximity and algal culture growth phase impact bacterial community development in a taxon-specific manner through organic and inorganic nutrient availability. Our novel system presents a useful tool to investigate universal metabolic interactions between microbes in aquatic ecosystems.

2021 ◽  
Titouan Jaunet-Lahary ◽  
Tatsuro Shimamura ◽  
Masahiro Hayashi ◽  
Norimichi Nomura ◽  
Kouta Hirasawa ◽  

Oxalobacter formigenes is an oxalate-degrading bacterium in the gut microbiota that absorbs food-derived oxalate to use this as a carbon and energy source and thereby helps reduce the risk of kidney stone formation of the host animals. The bacterial oxalate transporter OxlT uptakes oxalate from the gut to bacterial cells and excrete formate as a degradation product, with a strict discrimination from other carboxylates that serve as nutrients. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we present crystal structures of oxalate-bound and ligand-free OxlT in two different conformations, occluded and outward-facing states. The oxalate binding site contains two basic residues that form salt bridges with a dicarboxylate substrate while preventing the conformational switch to the occluded state without an acidic substrate, a disallowed state for an antiporter. The occluded ligand-binding pocket can accommodate oxalate but not larger dicarboxylates, such as metabolic intermediates. The permeation pathways from the binding pocket are completely blocked by extensive interdomain hydrophobic and ionic interactions. Nevertheless, a molecular dynamics simulation showed that a flip of a single side chain neighbouring the substrate is sufficient to trigger the gate opening. The OxlT structure indicates the underlying metabolic interactions enabling favourable symbiosis at a molecular level.

2021 ◽  
Mariana Murillo-Roos ◽  
Hafiz Syed M. Abdullah ◽  
Mossaab Debbar ◽  
Nico Ueberschaar ◽  
Matthew T. Agler

The leaf microbiome plays a crucial role in plant's health and resilience to stress. Like in other hosts, successful colonization is dependent on multiple factors, among them, resource accessibility. The apoplast is an important site of plant-microbe interactions where nutrients are tightly regulated. While leaf pathogens have evolved elaborate strategies to obtain nutrients there, it is not yet clear how commensals survive without most of these adaptations. Resource limitation can promote metabolic interactions, which in turn shape and stabilize microbiomes but this has not been addressed in detail in leaves. Here, we investigated whether and how the nutrient environment might influence metabolic exchange and assembly of bacterial communities in Flaveria trinervia and F. robusta leaves. We enriched bacteria from both plant species in-vitro in minimal media with sucrose as a carbon source, and with or without amino acids. After enrichment, we studied the genetic and metabolic diversity within the communities. Enriched Pseudomonas koreensis strains could cross-feed from diverse leaf bacteria. Although P. koreensis could not utilize sucrose, cross-feeding diverse metabolites from Pantoea sp ensured their survival in the sucrose-only enrichments. The Pseudomonas strains had high genetic similarity (~99.8% ANI) but still displayed clear niche partitioning, enabling them to simultaneously cross-feed from Pantoea. Interestingly, cross-feeders were only enriched from F. robusta and not from F. trinervia. Untargeted metabolomics analysis of the leaf apoplasts revealed contrasting nutrient environments, with greater concentrations of high-cost amino acids in F. trinervia. Additionally, P. koreensis strains were better able to survive without a cross-feeding partner in these richer apoplasts. Thus, cross feeding might arise as an adaptation to cope with nutrient limitations in the apoplast. Understanding how apoplast resources influence metabolic interactions could therefore provide plant breeders targets to manipulate leaf microbiome shape and stability.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (11) ◽  
pp. e1009060
Dafni Giannari ◽  
Cleo Hanchen Ho ◽  
Radhakrishnan Mahadevan

The study of microbial communities and their interactions has attracted the interest of the scientific community, because of their potential for applications in biotechnology, ecology and medicine. The complexity of interspecies interactions, which are key for the macroscopic behavior of microbial communities, cannot be studied easily experimentally. For this reason, the modeling of microbial communities has begun to leverage the knowledge of established constraint-based methods, which have long been used for studying and analyzing the microbial metabolism of individual species based on genome-scale metabolic reconstructions of microorganisms. A main problem of genome-scale metabolic reconstructions is that they usually contain metabolic gaps due to genome misannotations and unknown enzyme functions. This problem is traditionally solved by using gap-filling algorithms that add biochemical reactions from external databases to the metabolic reconstruction, in order to restore model growth. However, gap-filling algorithms could evolve by taking into account metabolic interactions among species that coexist in microbial communities. In this work, a gap-filling method that resolves metabolic gaps at the community level was developed. The efficacy of the algorithm was tested by analyzing its ability to resolve metabolic gaps on a synthetic community of auxotrophic Escherichia coli strains. Subsequently, the algorithm was applied to resolve metabolic gaps and predict metabolic interactions in a community of Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, two species present in the human gut microbiota, and in an experimentally studied community of Dehalobacter and Bacteroidales species of the ACT-3 community. The community gap-filling method can facilitate the improvement of metabolic models and the identification of metabolic interactions that are difficult to identify experimentally in microbial communities.

2021 ◽  
Vol 63 ◽  
pp. 231-237
Carolina Ferreira ◽  
Jérôme Estaquier ◽  
Ricardo Silvestre

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