animal model
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 933-938
Xuejian Zhang ◽  
Yue Deng ◽  
Yan Wang ◽  
Chuanrong Yin ◽  
Junzhao Gao

Objective: To investigate the effect of insertion torque on implant osseointegration in an animal model. Methods: First, the first to fourth premolars of nine healthy adult beagles’ mandibular were extracted to form an edentulous area, and then the beagles were equally divided into three groups with different torques (low torque: 10–30 Ncm; medium torque: 30–50 Ncm; high torque: > 70 Ncm). Three implants were placed on each side of the edentulous area of the beagles (54 total), and the dogs were observed for 8 weeks. Implant performance and removal torque values (RTV) were determined at 1, 4, and 8 weeks after surgery. In addition, the expression ratios of OPG and RANKL mRNAs in the surrounding bone tissue were determined. Results: None of the 54 implants showed loosening or loss, and no significant bone resorption was observed. The removing torques and the expression ratios of OPG and RANKL mRNAs showed differences at 1 and 4 weeks after surgery, while they converged at 8 weeks after the surgery (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The osteointegration process lasted approximately 8 weeks depending on the difference in parameters, and all parameters showed the same values even though the insertion torques at the beginning were different.

2022 ◽  
Vol 270 ◽  
pp. 477-485
Aran Yoo ◽  
Celia Short ◽  
Mandi J. Lopez ◽  
Catherine Takawira ◽  
Kazi N. Islam ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Wei Xia ◽  
Honglin Chen ◽  
Yiwei Feng ◽  
Nan Shi ◽  
Zongjian Huang ◽  

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human herpesvirus that latently infects approximately 95% of adults and is associated with a spectrum of human diseases including Infectious Mononucleosis and a variety of malignancies. However, understanding the pathogenesis, vaccines and antiviral drugs for EBV-associated disease has been hampered by the lack of suitable animal models. Tree shrew is a novel laboratory animal with a close phylogenetic relationship to primates, which is a critical advantage for many animal models for human disease, especially viral infections. Herein, we first identified the key residues in the CR2 receptor that bind the gp350 protein and facilitate viral entry. We found that tree shrew shares 100% sequence identity with humans in these residues, which is much higher than rabbits (50%) and rats (25%). In vitro analysis showed that B lymphocytes of tree shrews are susceptible to EBV infection and replication, as well as EBV-enhanced cell proliferation. Moreover, results of in vivo experiments show that EBV infection in tree shrews resembles EBV infection in humans. The infected animals exhibited transient fever and loss of weight accompanied by neutropenia and high viremia levels during the acute phase of the viral infection. Thereafter, tree shrews acted as asymptomatic carriers of the virus in most cases that EBV-related protein could be detected in blood and tissues. However, a resurgence of EBV infection occurred at 49 dpi. Nanopore transcriptomic sequencing of peripheral blood in EBV-infected animals revealed the dynamic changes in biological processes occurring during EBV primary infection. Importantly, we find that neutrophil function was impaired in tree shrew model as well as human Infectious Mononucleosis datasets (GSE85599 and GSE45918). In addition, retrospective case reviews suggested that neutropenia may play an important role in EBV escaping host innate immune response, leading to long-term latent infection. Our findings demonstrated that tree shrew is a suitable animal model to evaluate the mechanisms of EBV infection, and for developing vaccines and therapeutic drugs against EBV.

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 126
Jing Yang ◽  
Xujiao Tang ◽  
Qingqing Wu ◽  
Panpan Ren ◽  
Yishu Yan

To develop a severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) model transited from mild symptoms, we investigated a “two-hit” strategy with L-arginine in mice. The mice were intraperitoneally injected with ice-cold L-arginine (4 g/kg) twice at an interval of 1 h on the first day and subjected to the repeated operation 72 h afterwards. The results showed the “two-hit” strategy resulted in the destructive damage and extensive necrosis of acinar cells in the pancreas compared with the “one-hit” model. Meanwhile, excessive levels of pro-inflammatory mediators, namely IL-6 and TNF-α, were released in the serum. Remarkably, additional deleterious effects on multiple organs were observed, including high intestinal permeability, kidney injury, and severe acute lung injury. Therefore, we confirmed that the SAP animal model triggered by a “two-hit” strategy with L-arginine was successfully established, providing a solid foundation for a deeper understanding of SAP initiation and therapy research to prevent worsening of the disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Yingying Chen ◽  
Hui Liu ◽  
Lijie Zeng ◽  
Liyan Li ◽  
Dan Lu ◽  

AbstractParoxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is a clonal disease caused by PIG-A mutation of hematopoietic stem cells. At present, there is no suitable PNH animal model for basic research, therefore, it is urgent to establish a stable animal model. We constructed a Pig-a conditional knock-out mice model by ES targeting technique and Vav-iCre. The expressions of GPI and GPI-AP were almost completely absent in CKO homozygote mice, and the proportion of the deficiency remained stable from birth. In CKO heterozygote mice, the proportion of the deficiency of GPI and GPI-AP was partially absent and decreased gradually from birth until it reached a stable level at 3 months after birth and remained there for life. Compared with normal C57BL/6N mice and Flox mice, pancytopenia was found in CKO homozygous mice, and leukopenia and anemia were found in CKO heterozygotes mice. Meanwhile, in CKO mice, the serum LDH, TBIL, IBIL, complement C5b-9 levels were increased, and the concentration of plasma FHb was increased. Hemosiderin granulosa cells can be seen more easily in the spleens of CKO mice. What’s more, CKO mice had stable transcription characteristics. In conclusion, our mouse model has stable GPI-deficient and mild hemolysis, which may be an ideal in vivo experimental model for PNH.

2022 ◽  
pp. 2100398
Kasper Dienel ◽  
Ahmed Abu‐Shahba ◽  
Roman Kornilov ◽  
Roy Björkstrand ◽  
Bas Bochove ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Peng-Bo Chen ◽  
Gui-Xun Shi ◽  
Tao Liu ◽  
Bo Li ◽  
Sheng-Dan Jiang ◽  

The process of intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is complex, and its mechanism is considered multifactorial. Apoptosis of oxidative stressed nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) should be a fundamental element in the pathogenesis of IVDD. In our pilot study, we found that the expression of MAT2A decreased, and METTL16 increased in the degenerative nucleus pulposus tissues. Previous studies have shown that the balance of splicing, maturation, and degradation of MAT2A pre-mRNA is regulated by METTL16 m6A modification. In the current study, we aimed to figure out whether this mechanism was involved in the aberrant apoptosis of NPCs and IVDD. Human NPCs were isolated and cultured under oxidative stress. An IVDD animal model was established. It showed that significantly higher METTL16 expression and lower MAT2A expression were seen in either the NPCs under oxidative stress or the degenerative discs of the animal model. MAT2A was inhibited with siRNA in vitro or cycloleucine in vivo. METTL16 was overexpressed with lentivirus in vitro or in vivo. Downregulation of MAT2A or upregulation of METTL16 aggravated nucleus pulposus cell apoptosis and disc disorganization. The balance of splicing, maturation, and degradation of MAT2A pre-mRNA was significantly inclined to degradation in the NPCs with the overexpression of METTL16. Increased apoptosis of NPCs under oxidative stress could be rescued by reducing the expression of METTL16 using siRNA with more maturation of MAT2A pre-mRNA. Collectively, oxidative stress aggravates apoptosis of NPCs through disrupting the balance of splicing, maturation, and degradation of MAT2A pre-mRNA, which is m6A modified by METTL16.

mBio ◽  
2022 ◽  
Geraldine Vilmen ◽  
Anna C. Smith ◽  
Hector Cervera Benet ◽  
Rajni Kant Shukla ◽  
Ross C. Larue ◽  

Rhesus macaques are a critical animal model for preclinical testing of HIV-1 vaccine and prevention approaches. However, HIV-1 does not replicate in rhesus macaques, and thus, chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs), which encode HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Envs), are used as surrogate challenge viruses to infect rhesus macaques for modeling HIV-1 infection.

2022 ◽  
Filip Milosavljevic ◽  
Irene Brusini ◽  
Andrea Atanasov ◽  
Marina Manojlovic ◽  
Maria Novalen ◽  

Background: Animal models are essential for understanding etiology and pathophysiology of movement disorders. Previously, we have found that mice transgenic for the human CYP2C19 gene, expressed in the liver and developing brain, exhibit altered neurodevelopment associated with impairments of their motor function and emotionality. Objectives: To characterize motoric phenotype of the CYP2C19 transgenic mice and validate its usefulness as an animal model of ataxia. Methods: The rotarod and beam-walking tests were utilized to quantify the functional alterations induced by motoric phenotype. Dopaminergic system was assessed by tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry and by chromatographic quantification of the whole-brain dopamine levels. Beam-walking test was also repeated after the treatment with the dopamine receptor antagonists, ecopipam and raclopride. The volumes of 20 brain regions in the CYP2C19 transgenic mice and controls were quantified by 9.4T gadolinium-enhanced postmortem structural neuroimaging. Results: CYP2C19 transgenic mice were found to exhibit abnormal, unilateral ataxia-like gait, clasping reflex and 5.6-fold more paw-slips using the beam-walking test (p<0.0001, n=89); the phenotype was more pronounced in younger animals. Hyperdopaminergism was observed in the CYP2C19 mice; however, the motoric impairment was not ameliorated by dopamine receptor antagonists and there was also no midbrain dopamine neuron loss in CYP2C19 mice. However, in these mice, cerebellar volume was drastically decreased (-11.8% [95%CI: -14.7, -9.0], q<0.0001, n=59), whereas a moderate decrease in hippocampal volume was observed (-4.2% [95%CI: -6.4%, -1.9%], q=0.015, n=59). Conclusions: Humanized CYP2C19 transgenic mice exhibit altered motoric function and functional motoric impairments; this phenotype is likely caused by an aberrant cerebellar development.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document