dietary supplementation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Qing Duanmu ◽  
Bie Tan ◽  
Jing Wang ◽  
Bo Huang ◽  
Jianjun Li ◽  

Dietary supplementation with aromatic amino acids (AAAs) has been demonstrated to alleviate intestinal inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the piglets. But the mechanism of AAA sensing and utilization under inflammatory conditions is not well-understood. The study was conducted with 32 weanling piglets using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (diet and LPS challenge) in a randomized complete block design. Piglets were fed as basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 0.16% tryptophan (Trp), 0.41% phenylalanine (Phe), and 0.22% tyrosine (Tyr) for 21 days. The results showed that LPS treatment significantly reduced the concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK) and total protein but increased leptin concentration, the activities of alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase in serum. Dietary supplementation with AAAs significantly increased the serum concentrations of CCK, peptide YY (PYY), and total protein but decreased the blood urea nitrogen. LPS challenge reduced the ileal threonine (Thr) digestibility, as well as serum isoleucine (Ile) and Trp concentrations, but increased the serum concentrations of Phe, Thr, histidine (His), alanine (Ala), cysteine (Cys), and serine (Ser) (P < 0.05). The serum-free amino acid concentrations of His, lysine (Lys), arginine (Arg), Trp, Tyr, Cys, and the digestibilities of His, Lys, Arg, and Cys were significantly increased by feeding AAA diets (P < 0.05). Dietary AAA supplementation significantly increased the serum concentrations of Trp in LPS-challenged piglets (P < 0.05). In the jejunal mucosa, LPS increased the contents of Ala and Cys, and the mRNA expressions of solute carrier (SLC) transporters (i.e., SLC7A11, SLC16A10, SLC38A2, and SLC3A2), but decreased Lys and glutamine (Gln) contents, and SLC1A1 mRNA expression (P < 0.05). In the ileal mucosa, LPS challenge induced increasing in SLC7A11 and SLC38A2 and decreasing in SLC38A9 and SLC36A1 mRNA expressions, AAAs supplementation significantly decreased mucosal amino acid (AA) concentrations of methionine (Met), Arg, Ala, and Tyr, etc. (P < 0.05). And the interaction between AAAs supplementation and LPS challenge significantly altered the expressions of SLC36A1 and SLC38A9 mRNA (P < 0.05). Together, these findings indicated that AAAs supplementation promoted the AAs absorption and utilization in the small intestine of piglets and increased the mRNA expressions of SLC transports to meet the high demands for specific AAs in response to inflammation and immune response.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Kang Yang ◽  
Xiaolin Deng ◽  
Shiyan Jian ◽  
Meiyu Zhang ◽  
Chaoyu Wen ◽  

Early-life exposure to environmental stress disrupts the gut barrier and leads to inflammatory responses and changes in gut microbiota composition. Gallic acid (GA), a natural plant polyphenol, has received significant interest for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties that support the maintenance of intestinal health. To assess whether dietary supplementation of GA alleviates environmental stress, a total of 19 puppies were randomly allocated to the following three dietary treatments for 2 weeks: 1) basal diet (control (CON)); 2) basal diet + transportation (TS); and 3) basal diet with the addition of 500 mg/kg of GA + transportation (TS+GA). After a 1-week supplementation period, puppies in the TS and TS+GA groups were transported from a stressful environment to another livable location, and puppies in the CON group were then left in the stressful environment. Results indicated that GA markedly reduced the diarrhea rate in puppies throughout the trial period and caused a moderate decline of serum cortisol and HSP-70 levels after transportation. Also, GA alleviated the oxidative stress and inflammatory response caused by multiple environmental stressors. Meanwhile, puppies fed GA had a higher abundance of fecal Firmicutes and Lactobacillus and lower Proteobacteria, Escherichia–Shigella, and Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1 after transportation. As a result, the TS+GA group had the highest total short-chain fatty acids and acetic acid. Also, the fecal and serum metabolomics analyses revealed that GA markedly reversed the abnormalities of amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and nucleotide metabolism caused by stresses. Finally, Spearman’s correlation analysis was carried out to explore the comprehensive microbiota and metabolite relationships. Overall, dietary supplementation of GA alleviates oxidative stress and inflammatory response in stressed puppies by causing beneficial shifts on gut microbiota and metabolites that may support gut and host health.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Yujian Huang ◽  
Changbing Zheng ◽  
Bo Song ◽  
Li Wang ◽  
Hao Xiao ◽  

Deoxynivalenol (DON) reduces growth performance and damage intestinal function, and resveratrol (RES) has positive effects on growth performance and intestinal function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective mechanism of RES in vitro and vivo challenged with DON. The results showed that dietary supplementation with DON significantly increase the mRNA expression levels of mitophagy- related genes, and protein level for PINK1, Parkin, Beclin-1, Lamp, Atg5, Map1lc, Bnip3, Fundc1, Bcl2l1 and SQSTMS1 (P < 0.05), while supplementation with both RES and DON decreased those indexes in the ileum. Besides DON significantly decreased protein level for Pyruvate Dehydrogenase, Cytochrome c, MFN1, OPA1, and PHB1 (P < 0.05), while supplementation with both RES and DON increased protein level for PHB1, SDHA, and VDAC in the ileum. Moreover, in vitro, we found that DON significantly decreased mitochondrial respiration (P < 0.05), while RES + DON increased the rate of spare respiratory capacity. Also, DON significantly decreased total NAD and ATP (P < 0.05), while RES + DON increased the total NAD and ATP. These results indicate that RES may ameliorates the intestinal damage challenged with deoxynivalenol through mitophagy in weaning piglets.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Lang Zhang ◽  
Yongxing Hong ◽  
Yuying Liao ◽  
Kui Tian ◽  
Haodong Sun ◽  

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary Lasia spinosa Thw. (LST) powder supplementation on growth performance, blood metabolites, antioxidant status, intestinal morphology, and cecal microbiome in broiler chickens. A total of 400 1-day-old male Guangxi partridge broilers (initial body weight: 42.52 ± 0.06 g) were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments: LST0 group (a basal diet), LST1 group (a basal diet with 1% LST powder), LST2 group (a basal diet with 2% LST powder), LST4 group (a basal diet with 4% LST powder), 10 replicates for each treatment, and 10 broilers in each treatment group. Results indicated that the average daily feed intake of broilers during 22–42 days and the average daily gain of chickens during 1–42 days significantly increased by dietary supplementation of LST powder (p < 0.01), while the feed conversion ratio during the overall periods was decreased by dietary supplementation of LST powder (p < 0.01). Except for the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in liver (p > 0.05), the levels of SOD, catalase (CAT) and GSH-Px in serum, liver, and breast muscle were significantly increased in the LST supplemented groups (p < 0.05), while the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum, liver, and breast muscle were significantly decreased in the LST supplemented groups (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the levels of triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly decreased by the addition of dietary LST powder (p < 0.01), while the levels of HDL-C, Ca, Fe, Mg, and P were linearly increased by the addition of dietary LST powder (p < 0.01). With respect to the gut morphometric, crypt depth was significantly decreased by LST supplementation (p < 0.05), while villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth were notably increased by LST supplementation (p < 0.05). Sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) from the cecal contents of broilers revealed that the composition of the chicken gut microbiota was altered by LST supplementation. The α-diversity of microbiota in broilers was increased (p < 0.05) in the LST1 group, but was decreased (p < 0.05) in the LST2 and LST4 groups compared with the LST0 group. The differential genera enriched in the LST1 group, such as Bacillus, Odoribacter, Sutterella, Anaerofilum, Peptococcus, were closely related to the increased growth performance, antioxidant status, intestinal morphology, Ca, Mg, and reduced blood lipid in the treated broilers.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262427
Sami Ullah ◽  
Jinzhi Zhang ◽  
Bingying Xu ◽  
Arnaud Fabrice Tegomo ◽  
Gladstone Sagada ◽  

A feeding trial of eight weeks was conducted to examine the influence of food supplementation with lauric acid (LA) on Acanthopagrus schlegelii (juvenile black sea bream). A 24 percent fish meal baseline diet was created, while the other two diets were generated with dietary supplementation of graded points of LA at 0.1 percent and 0.8 percent, respectively. Each diet was given a triplicate tank with 20 fish weighing 6.22 ± 0.19 g. In comparison with the control group, the weight gain rate, growth rate, as well as feed efficiency of fish fed of 0.1 percent diet of LA were considerably (P < 0.05) greater. The total body and dorsal muscle proximate compositions did not change significantly between groups (P > 0.05). Triglyceride (TG) content was considerably (P < 0.05) greater in the LA-supplemented meals eating group in comparison with the control group. In the group eating LA-supplemented meals, the height of villus and the number of goblet cells/villus were considerably (P < 0.05) larger. The microbial makeup of the gut was also studied. The differences in phyla, class, and family level were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Firmicutes in the phylum, Betaproteobacteri, Gammaproteobacteria, and Clostridia in the class, and Clostridiaceae in the family were all substantially increased with higher levels of LA supplementation (P < 0.05). According to the findings of this study, an LA-supplemented diet improves fish development, antioxidative capability, gut microbiota and intestinal health.

2022 ◽  
Vol 54 (1) ◽  
M. D. Mariezcurrena-Berasain ◽  
M. A. Mariezcurrena-Berasain ◽  
J. Lugo ◽  
Y. Libien-Jiménez ◽  
D. L. Pinzon-Martinez ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 205-238
Barbara U. Metzler-Zebeli ◽  

Colonization of the porcine gut microbiota commences after birth; however, this development is interrupted at weaning, rendering the piglet vulnerable to enteric disease. Dietary supplementation of non-digestible oligosaccharides can contribute to the stabilization of gut homeostasis by promotion of saccharolytic bacteria, inhibition of opportunistic pathogens, bacterial metabolite production and immune regulation. Whilst traditionally fructans and galactooligosaccharides have been added to weaner pig diets, supplementation of sow’s gestation and lactation diets and oral administration of suckling piglets may exert some beneficial effects too to promote gut microbiota and (immune) function development. Oligosaccharides in sow milk act as prebiotics by specifically shaping the gut microbiota of the offspring. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge on effects of prebiotic oligosaccharides on porcine gut function and health. The modes of actions of those substances are discussed as well as aspects that need more investigation for future applications in diets for suckling piglets.

Agriculture ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 83
Qingyu Sun ◽  
Haiming Yang ◽  
Jun Yu ◽  
Jingru Liang ◽  
Xuean Xu ◽  

This experiment aimed to investigate effects of the different dietary levels of vitamin E (VE) on the growth performance, immunity and antioxidant capacity of goslings. A total of 240 1-day-old, male Jiangnan white goslings were selected and randomly divided into 6 groups. Each treatment included five replicates. The basal diet was supplemented with 6 concentrations of VE (0, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 mg DL-α-tocopherol acetate/kg). The results were as follows: (1) The α-tocopherol content in the serum and liver of goslings increased linearly as supplemental VE increased in diet (p < 0.05). (2) The body weight (BW) and average daily gain (ADG) increased quadratically with increasing dietary VE supplementation (p < 0.05). Dietary VE supplementation could significantly reduce the feed/gain ratio (F/G) (p < 0.05). (3) Dietary supplementation with VE could significantly improve the contents of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the serum of the goslings (p < 0.05). The content of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in the serum was significantly reduced with VE supplementation (p < 0.05). (4) Dietary supplementation with VE could significantly improve serum and liver catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and liver total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) (p < 0.05); Serum and liver MDA contents were significantly reduced with VE supplementation (p < 0.05). In summary, dietary supplementation with VE could improve growth performance, immunity and antioxidant capacity. Based on broken-line regression analysis, the dietary VE supplementation level for ADG was 12.51 mg/kg, but higher supplementation level should be considered to improve immunity and antioxidant capacity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Navid Tabriz ◽  
Dennis Fried ◽  
Verena Uslar ◽  
Dirk Weyhe

Background: We want to investigate if a routine preoperative dietary supplementation of calcium and magnesium prior to thyroidectomy for nodular goiter and graves' disease can influence patients' outcome with regards to hypocalcemia associated symptoms and quality of life in order to reduce the risk of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia and to improve patient's quality of life.Methods: The study will be conducted as a two-armed randomized controlled trial including patients scheduled for total thyroidectomy. Patients assigned to the intervention group will receive calcium carbonate and magnesium oxide starting 2 weeks preoperatively. Primary outcome is the postoperative quality of life measured by the ThyPRO-39 and EQ-5D questionnaires. Secondary outcome is the assessment of postoperative biochemical (calcium and PTH levels) and clinical hypocalcemia (symptoms as reported by the patient).Discussion: A prophylactic dietary supplementation with calcium and magnesium, which could easily be implemented in the preoperative setting, could potentially help to avoid or reduce hypocalcemia-associated symptoms and improve quality of life. In the event of a positive outcome, this preoperative procedure can be an inexpensive way to prepare patients scheduled for thyroidectomy and can possibly reduce disease-specific costs by reducing the postoperative complication rate.Clinical Trial Registration: DRKS00017195 in the German clinical trials register (Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien, DRKS) on the 22.05.2019.

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