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2022 ◽  
David Dejong

Paternalism to Partnership provides a biographical sketch of each head of Indian affairs between 1786 and 2021 in context with each commissioner’s political philosophy. These administrators have been responsible for enforcing an Indian policy as directed by the president and/or the Congress but also influenced by their own political and social philosophy. From 1786-1848, authority was delegated to a superintendent of Indian affairs, a superintendent of the Indian trading houses, a superintendent of the Office of Indian Trade, a chief clerk, and a commissioner of Indian affairs, all of whom reported to the secretary of War. Since 1849, the commissioner of Indian affairs, and after 1977, the assistant secretary for Indian affairs have reported to the secretary of the Interior.   Today, the BIA is administered by the assistant secretary for Indian affairs—all of whom have been Native Americans. Previous studies focused on the commissioners, completely overlooking the superintendents that preceded them and the colonial and early American antecedents. David DeJong’s documentary edition is the first to provide an understanding of the political philosophy of each head of the Indian bureau through the emphasis of policy.

Aby Sene-Harper ◽  
Rasul Mowatt ◽  
Myron Floyd

Public lands and the outdoor opportunities they afford are imbued with a long history of cultural and political contestations between the White settler colonial regime, Black and Native Americans. These contestations are grounded in starkly different values and beliefs systems pertaining to the landscape and human-nature relations. Despite the contestations, whiteness continues to dominate the narratives about public lands and its institutions. Furthermore, the ideology of wilderness - as a place of refuge, the antidote to urban living – remains the main frame of reference to explore outdoor experiences. Thus, as researchers continue to espouse this ideology of wilderness, they effectively suppress the experiences and values that African Americans and other people of color hold towards nature and historically shaped by their social and political realities. The history of slavery, post-slavery and Black dispossession, have conjured up innovative Black diasporic cultural practices of resistance, survival and self-determination. Through hidden outdoor spaces they have forged a culture of resistance, built social structures centered on African traditional practices, and engaged in alternative modes of environmental stewardship. The Black outdoors culture today have roots in this robust legacy of resistance and political struggle for self-determination and provide inspiration for outdoor recreation and environmental education programs that culturally and politically relevant to African Americans. In this paper we engage in an investigation on Black peoples’ political outlook of the outdoors and/or their political outlook on engagement with those spaces both historically and presently. In doing so, we first call attention to the need to critically examine diversity practices designed to accommodate a multi-cultural society and how they contribute to a cultural hegemony. We also review the history of research on outdoor experiences putting into sharper relief the Euro-centric values that dominate the analysis and maintain the cultural power of white racial identities. Finally, pulling from African American literary works, we propose Black-centered interpretations of nature centered on their cultural worldviews and political resistance against hegemonic models of dispossession, abstraction and commodification. The aim here is to advocate for the co-existence of multiple cultural imaginaries of nature defined by the social and political realities of different racialized people, thus responding to the call for different paradigms of outdoor recreation highlighted in this special issue.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 15
Jandel Crutchfield ◽  
Latocia Keyes ◽  
Maya Williams ◽  
Danielle R. Eugene

Students of color experience academic, social, and emotional challenges due to colorism in schools. The purpose of this scoping review is to compare the experiences with colorism of students from varying racial backgrounds (African Americans, Native Americans, Asians, and Latin) in U.S. public schools. It is predicted that the understudied group of Latinx and indigenous students of color will uniquely experience colorism in academic settings when compared to African American and Asian students. A 30 article literature review utilizing search dates from 1990 to 2020 was conducted employing a scoping review framework. Themes emerged that include: the privileging of lighter skin and more Eurocentric features in academic outcomes, the complicated social status created for students of color experiencing colorism in schools, and the increased potential for emotional challenges as a result of colorism. This review highlights possible school reform efforts to affirm all skin tones, reduce colorist biases, and offer mediation to mitigate colorist experiences in the school environment.

2022 ◽  
pp. 001100002110417
Jared M. Hawkins ◽  
Roy A. Bean ◽  
Timothy B. Smith ◽  
Jonathan G. Sandberg

Literature reviews have concluded that People of Color are underrepresented in psychological literature; however, the fields of counseling and counseling psychology have taken a clear affirmative stance with respect to human diversity. This study sought to evaluate the representation of People of Color in four key journals across the 2000–2019 timespan: The Counseling Psychologist, Journal of Counseling Psychology, Journal of Counseling & Development, and Counselling Psychology Quarterly. Journal articles were coded for variables including focus on racial/ethnic minority (REM) groups and article content topics. Results indicated that 26.3% of the articles were coded as REM-focused (3.8% focused on African Americans, 4.1% on Asian Americans, 3.1% on Latinxs, and 0.7% on Native Americans). The need for additional research is especially notable in the case of Latinxs (the least represented REM group relative to United States Census estimates) and for several multicultural topics that remain underrepresented in the literature.

2022 ◽  
Vol 112 (1) ◽  
pp. 154-164
Lauren C. Zalla ◽  
Grace E. Mulholland ◽  
Lindsey M. Filiatreau ◽  
Jessie K. Edwards

Objectives. To estimate the direct and indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on overall, race/ethnicity‒specific, and age-specific mortality in 2020 in the United States. Methods. Using surveillance data, we modeled expected mortality, compared it to observed mortality, and estimated the share of “excess” mortality that was indirectly attributable to the pandemic versus directly attributed to COVID-19. We present absolute risks and proportions of total pandemic-related mortality, stratified by race/ethnicity and age. Results. We observed 16.6 excess deaths per 10 000 US population in 2020; 84% were directly attributed to COVID-19. The indirect effects of the pandemic accounted for 16% of excess mortality, with proportions as low as 0% among adults aged 85 years and older and more than 60% among those aged 15 to 44 years. Indirect causes accounted for a higher proportion of excess mortality among racially minoritized groups (e.g., 32% among Black Americans and 23% among Native Americans) compared with White Americans (11%). Conclusions. The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mortality and health disparities are underestimated when only deaths directly attributed to COVID-19 are considered. An equitable public health response to the pandemic should also consider its indirect effects on mortality. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(1):154–164. )

2022 ◽  
Yvette M. Güereca ◽  
Parker A. Kell ◽  
Bethany L. Kuhn ◽  
Natalie Hellman ◽  
Cassandra A. Sturycz ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
pp. 137-156
Robert Stewart ◽  
Brieanna Watters ◽  
Veronica Horowitz ◽  
Ryan P. Larson ◽  
Brian Sargent ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 83 (1) ◽  
pp. 77-78
Kathleen A. Welsh-Bohmer ◽  
Goldie Smith Byrd ◽  
Rachel Dewees ◽  
Andrea C. Bozoki ◽  
Patrick M. Martin ◽  

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