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2022 ◽  
Faisal Alosaimi ◽  
Yasin Temel ◽  
Sarah Hescham ◽  
Victoria Witzig ◽  
Faris Almasabi ◽  

Abstract Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has become a standard treatment in Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, in a considerable number of patients debilitating psychiatric side-effects occur. Recent research has revealed that external stimuli can alter the neurotransmitters’ homeostasis in neurons, which is known as “neurotransmitter respecification”. Herein, we addressed if neurotransmitter respecification could be a mechanism by which DBS suppresses the serotonergic function in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) leading to mood changes. We infused transgenic 5-HT-Cre (ePet-cre) mice with AAV viruses to achieve targeted expression of eYFP and the genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP6s in the DRN prior to methyl-4phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treatment. Mice received bilateral DBS electrodes in the STN and an optic fiber in the DRN for Ca2+ photometry. MPTP treated mice demonstrated behavioral and histological PD phenotype, whereas all STN-DBS animals exhibited an increased immobility time in the forced swim test, reduced Ca2+ activity, and loss of TPH2 expression in the DRN. Given the prominent role of Ca2+ transients in mediating neurotransmitter respecification, these results suggest a chronic loss of serotonergic phenotype in the DRN following STN-DBS. These findings indicate that loss of 5-HT cell phenotype may underlie the unwanted depressive symptoms following STN-DBS.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Qi Wang ◽  
Hongsheng Bi ◽  
Hongfei Huang ◽  
Yitong Wang ◽  
Lili Gong ◽  

<b><i>Background:</i></b> The precise physiological mechanisms of acupuncture in the treatment of depression are still unknown. This study aimed to observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on depression-like behavior of mouse in chronic mild stress (CMS) model and explore the underlying mechanism. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> The depression model was established by using CMS method for 6 weeks. After the third week of the CMS paradigm, EA treatment was performed daily for 15 min over a period of 3 weeks. The antidepressant-like effects of EA were evaluated using the sucrose preference test and the forced swimming test (FST). The protein levels of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), p-NF-κB, inhibitor of NF-κB, p-IκBα, NOD-like receptor protein 3, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, IL-18, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in hippocampus of mice were detected. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Sucrose preference was decreased after 6 weeks of CMS and the effects of CMS was reversed by EA. CMS increased immobility time and decreased latency to the first immobility in the FST test, but these effects were reversed by EA. CMS-induced nuclear entry of NF-κB (nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio of NF-κB) with an increase in protein levels of p-NF-κB and p-IκBα in the hippocampus. The CMS also increased NLRP3 levels in the hippocampus. However, these effects were reversed by EA. In addition, the levels of IL-6, IL-1β, IL-18, and TNF-α in the hippocampus were increased by CMS, and these effects of stress were reversed by EA. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> EA prevented CMS-induced depressive-like behaviors by inhibiting NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammatory pathway.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Chang Liu ◽  
Dai Yuan ◽  
Chi Zhang ◽  
Ye Tao ◽  
Ying Meng ◽  

Objective. Central inflammation is generally accepted to be involved in the pathology of depression. We investigated whether liquiritin exerts antidepressant effects by inhibiting central NLRP3 inflammasomes. Results. The behavioral despair model and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model in mice were established to evaluate the antidepressant action of liquiritin. In the despair model study, liquiritin (40 mg/kg) administration reduced immobility time in tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST) without affecting locomotion activity. In CUMS model study, liquiritin (40 mg/kg, once daily for 4 weeks) significantly increased sucrose consumption and body weight of CUMS mice. The behavioral experiment results showed that liquiritin reduced the immobile time of CUMS mice in TST and FST, respectively, and increased the time spent and open arm entries in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test. Further, the hippocampal superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was increased in liquiritin-treated group, while malonaldehyde (MDA) decreased. Additionally, the hippocampal cytokines interleukin-18 (IL-18) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) contents were reduced in the liquiritin-treated group. Further, liquiritin downregulated the expression of NLRP3 in the hippocampus of CUMS mice rather than TLR4. Besides, NLRP3 inflammasome-associated proteins caspase-1 and ASC were also downregulated. However, liquiritin did not alter the thermal stability of NLRP3 in the cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA), suggesting that its inhibition of NLPR3 was not by direct targeting of NLRP3 protein. Conclusions. Liquiritin attenuates depression-like behavior of CUMS mice and inhibited cytokines levels triggered by NLRP3 inflammasome, suggesting the antidepressant action is, at least partially, associated with antioxidant stress and inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Wen-Jing Cheng ◽  
Peng Li ◽  
Wen-Ya Huang ◽  
Yang Huang ◽  
Wen-Jie Chen ◽  

Oxidative stress is closely related to the occurrence of depression. Acupuncture has been proved to be an effective method for treating depression. In order to explore the mechanism of the antidepressant effect of acupuncture, this study performed acupuncture prevention on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) depression model rats, and observed the effect of acupuncture on hippocampal oxidative stress and Nrf2 signaling pathway. Male SD rats were randomly divided into control group, CUMS group, acupuncture group, and fluoxetine group (n = 10/group). Fluoxetine, a common antidepressant, was used as a positive control drug in this study. In the fluoxetine group, rats were given fluoxetine (2.1 mg/kg) intragastrically once a day for 28 days. The acupoints of Shangxing (GV23) and Fengfu (GV16) were applied in acupuncture group, once every other day for 14 times in total. Behavioral tests and biological detections were used to evaluate the effects of the interventions and the changes of factors related to oxidative stress, Nrf2 pathway, and neuronal apoptosis. The results showed that both acupuncture and fluoxetine could increase sugar preference rate in SPT and decrease immobility time in FST in depression model rats. It also significantly decreased oxidative stress products such as ROS and H2O2, and elevated the protein and mRNA expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1. From Nissl’s staining, there were more abundant nerve cells in two intervention groups compared with CUMS group. Plus, acupuncture down-regulated the expression levels of Bax and caspase-3 and up-regulated the expression of Bcl-2. Our findings indicate that acupuncture improved depression-like behaviors of CUMS rats. And CUMS-induced depression-like behaviors in rats were related to oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus. Acupuncture showed antidepressant effects in reducing oxidative stress products via regulating the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway so that prevented neuronal apoptosis.

Shruti Mittal ◽  
Prashant Gupta ◽  
Vijay Nigam

Depressive disorder is a prevalent psychiatric disorder, which affects 21% of the world population. The presently using drugs can impose a variety of side-effects including cardiac toxicity, hypopiesia, sexual dysfunction, body weight gain, and sleep disorder. Ayurvedic medicine may be a powerful weapon given by our nature to cure disease. Considering the importance of plants as sources of drugs even today people are adopting different herbal drugs for the treatment of assorted diseases. During the last decade, there is a growing interest in the therapeutic effects of natural products on mental disorders. This study planned to assess antidepressant like activity of methanolic extract of Clitoria ternatea Linn. (fabaceae). Soxhlet extraction method was used for methanolic extraction. Antidepressant activity was studied using forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Two doses 200 and 400 mg/kg of methanolic extract of flower were selected for testing. Imipramine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) were used as the reference standard drugs. Methanolic extract of Clitoria ternatea flower significantly reduced immobility time in both TST and FST. Extract increased the climbing behavior in FST, which is similar to effect observed with imipramine. The results of this study suggest that antidepressant like effect of Clitoria ternatea seems to be mediated by an increase in norepinephrine level in synapses. However further study is needed to understand mechanism of action and to isolate the active component responsible for antidepressant like activity.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 22
Paulina Misztak ◽  
Magdalena Sowa-Kućma ◽  
Patrycja Pańczyszyn-Trzewik ◽  
Bernadeta Szewczyk ◽  
Gabriel Nowak

Chronic stress is the key factor contributing to the development of depressive symptoms. Chronic restraint stress (CRS) is well validated and is one of the most commonly used models to induce depressive-like behavior in rodents. The present study aimed to evaluate whether fluoxetine (FLU 5 mg/kg) and zinc (Zn 10mg/kg) given simultaneously induce a more pronounced antidepressant-like effect in the CRS model than both those compounds given alone. Behavioral assessment was performed using the tail suspension and splash tests (TST and ST, respectively). Furthermore, the effects of CRS, FLU and Zn given alone and combined treatment with FLU + Zn on the expression of proteins involved in the apoptotic, inflammatory, and epigenetic processes were evaluated in selected brain structures (prefrontal cortex, PFC; and hippocampus, Hp) using Western blot analysis or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The results obtained indicated that three hours (per day) of immobilization for 4 weeks induced prominent depressive symptoms that manifested as increased immobility time in the TST, as well as decreased number and grooming time in the ST. Behavioral changes induced by CRS were reversed by both FLU (5 and 10 mg/kg) or Zn (10 mg/kg). Zinc supplementation (10 mg/kg) slightly increases the effectiveness of FLU (5 mg/kg) in the TST. However, it significantly increased the activity of FLU in the ST compared to the effect induced by FLU and Zn alone. Biochemical studies revealed that neither CRS nor FLU and Zn given alone or in combined treatment alter the expression of proteins involved in apoptotic or inflammatory processes. CRS induced major alterations in histone deacetylase (HDAC) levels by increasing the level of HADC1 and decreasing the level of HADC4 in the PFC and Hp, decreasing the level of HADC6 in the PFC but increasing it in Hp. Interestingly, FLU + Zn treatment reversed CRS-induced changes in HDAC levels in the Hp, indicating that HDAC modulation is linked to FLU + Zn treatment and this effect is structure-specific.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Xiufang Dong ◽  
Kuan Lu ◽  
Pengcheng Lin ◽  
Hongxia Che ◽  
Hongyan Li ◽  

Saccharina japonica is a common marine vegetable in East Asian markets and has a variety of health benefits. This study was focused on the anti-depressant/anxiety effects of Saccharina japonica ethanol extract (SJE) on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mice and its potential mechanism in their brain. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with mesalazine and various doses of SJE (1, 2, and 4 g/kg body weight) for 2 weeks, followed by DSS treatment at the second week. The DSS-induced mice showed depression/anxiety-like behavior, which included shorter path length in the open field test and longer immobility time in the tail suspension test. L-SJE alleviated the depression-like behaviors. In the DSS-induced mice, reduced synaptic plasticity activated microglia, increased proinflammatory cytokines, decreased anti-inflammatory cytokine, and increased expression levels of Toll-like receptors-4, nuclear factor kappa-B, NOD-like receptors 3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein, and Caspase-1 were observed, most of which were alleviated by SJE treatment. Furthermore, all the SJE groups could significantly enhance superoxide dismutase activity, while the L-SJE treatment decreased the contents of malondialdehyde, and the H-SJE treatment inhibited apoptosis. All these results showed that the SJE might serve as a nutritional agent for protecting the brain in ulcerative colitis mice.

Mehmet Hanifi Tanyeri ◽  
Mehmet Emin Buyukokuroglu ◽  
Pelin Tanyeri ◽  
Rumeysa Keles Kaya ◽  
Aykut Ozturk ◽  

Aims: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is common urological disease, is characterized by lower urinary tract syndrome, usually associated with sexual dysfunctions. The aim of present study is to investigate the effects of terazosin, silodosin and alfuzosin which are the main treatment options for BPH on depression and anxiety to understand whether these drugs may be effective in BPH caused mood disorders. Study Design: All the drugs were given intraperitoneally (i.p.) in a volume of 0.1 ml per 10 g body weight of mice. Drugs were given 30 min before the experiment. We investigated the effects of terazosin, silodosin and alfuzosin on depression and anxiety, in mice. Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Department of Pharmacology and Department of Urology, Sakarya University, Animal Research Center, between June 2019 and September 2020. Methodology: Here, we examined the effects of terazosin (0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg), silodosin silodosin (1, 3, 10 mg/kg) and alfuzosin (3, 6 and 9 mg/kg) on depression and anxiety by using forced swimming test and elevated plus maze test, respectively, in mice (n:96). Additionally, the locomotor activity was evaluated by open field test. Results: All doses of terazosin, alfuzosin and silodosin significantly increased immobility time, compared to saline group. Silodosin and alfuzosin prolonged the time spent in open arms but terazosin decreased the time spent in open arms compared to saline group. Terazosin, silodosin (1 and 3 mg/kg) and alfuzosin (3 and 6 mg/kg) did not have any effect on the number of entries into the open arms while silodosin (10 mg/kg) and alfuzosin (9 mg/kg) increased the number of entries into open arms. Conclusion: We found that silodosin and alfuzosin had antidepressant and anxiolytic-like effects, while terazosin had depressant and anxiogenic effects. Patients with BPH who need antidepressant and anxiolytic treatment can be treated with a single drug instead of multiple medications.

2021 ◽  
Bidisha Rajkhowa ◽  
Sidharth Mehan ◽  
Pranshul Sethi ◽  
Sonalika Bhalla ◽  
Aradhana Prajapati ◽  

Abstract Background Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic mental illness characterized by mood fluctuations that range from depressive lows to manic highs. Several studies have linked the downregulation of SIRT-1 (silent mating type information regulation-2 homologs) signaling to the onset of BD and other neurological dysfunctions. The purpose of this research was to look into the neuroprotective potential of Solanesol (SNL) in rats given ICV-Ouabain injections, with a focus on its effect on SIRT-1 signaling activation in the brain. Ouabain, which is found in hypothalamic and medullary neurons, is an endogenous inhibitor of brain Na+/K+ ATPase. The inhibition of brain Na+/K+ ATPase by Ouabain may also result in changes in neurotransmission within the central nervous system. SNL is a Solanaceae family active phytoconstituent produced from the plant Nicotiana tabacum. SNL is used as a precursor for the production of CoQ10 (Coenzyme Q10), a powerful antioxidant and neuroprotective compound. In the current study, lithium (Li), an important mood stabilizer drug, was used as a control. Methods This study looked at the neuroprotective potential of SNL at dosages of 40 and 80 mg/kg in ICV-OUA injections that caused BD-like neurobehavioral and neurochemical defects in Wistar rats. Wistar rats were placed into eight groups (n=6) and administered 1 mM/0.5µl ICV-OUA injections for three days. Neurochemical assessments were done in rat brain homogenates, CSF, and blood plasma samples at the end of the experiment protocol schedule. Results Long-term SNL and lithium administration have been shown to decrease the number of rearing and crossings, as well as reduce time spent in the center, locomotor activities, and immobility time. Solansesol treatment gradually raises the amount of Na+/K+ ATPase, limiting the severity of behavioural symptoms. These findings also revealed that SNL increases the levels of SIRT-1 in CSF, blood plasma, and brain homogenate samples. Furthermore, in rat brain homogenates and blood plasma samples, SNL modulates apoptotic markers such as Caspase-3, Bax (pro-apoptotic), and Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic). Mitochondrial-ETC complex enzymes, including complex-I, II, IV, V, and CoQ10, were also restored following long-term SNL treatment. Furthermore, SNL lowered inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) levels while restoring neurotransmitter levels (serotonin, dopamine, glutamate, and acetylcholine) and decreasing oxidative stress markers. Conclusion As a result, our findings suggest that SNL, as a SIRT-1 signalling activator, may be a promising therapeutic approach for BD-like neurological dysfunctions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (12) ◽  
pp. 1269
Gabriela P. Silote ◽  
Michelle C. Gatto ◽  
Amanda Eskelund ◽  
Francisco S. Guimarães ◽  
Gregers Wegener ◽  

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-intoxicating compound extracted from Cannabis sativa, showing antidepressant-like effects in different rodent models. However, inconsistent results have been described depending on the species and the strain used to assess depressive-like behavior. Moreover, only a few studies investigated the effect of CBD in female rodents. Therefore, we aimed to (i) investigate the effects of CBD in two different strains of mice (Swiss and C57BL/6) and a rat model of depression based on selective breeding (Flinders Sensitive and Resistant Lines, FSL and FRL) subjected to tests predictive of antidepressant-like effects and (ii) investigate the influence of sex in the effects of CBD in both mice and rats. CBD induced an antidepressant-like effect in male Swiss but not in female Swiss or C57BL/6 mice in the tail suspension test (TST). In male FSL rats, CBD produced an antidepressant-like effect 1 h post injection. However, in female FSL, CBD induced a bimodal effect, increasing the immobility time at 1 h and decreasing it at 2 h. In conclusion, strain, sex, and administration time affect CBD’s behavioral response to rodents exposed to tests predictive of antidepressant effects.

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