promotional effect
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Fuel ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 312 ◽  
pp. 122964
Luis F. Bobadilla ◽  
Ane Egaña ◽  
Rafael Castillo ◽  
Francisca Romero-Sarria ◽  
Miguel A. Centeno ◽  

2021 ◽  
Saeed Saedy ◽  
Nico Hiemstra ◽  
Dominik Benz ◽  
Hao van Bui ◽  
Michael Nolan ◽  

The promotional effects on photocatalytic hydrogen production of CuxO clusters deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD) on P25 TiO2 are presented. The structural and surface chemistry study of CuxO/TiO2 samples, along with first principles Density Functional Theory simulations, reveal the strong interaction of ALD deposited CuxO with TiO2, leading to the stabilization of CuxO clusters on the surface; it also demonstrated substantial reduction of Ti4+ to Ti3+ on the surface of CuxO/TiO2 samples after CuxO ALD. The CuxO/TiO2 photocatalysts showed remarkable improvement in hydrogen productivity, with 11 times greater hydrogen production for the optimum sample compared to unmodified P25. With the combination of the hydrogen production data and characterization of CuxO/TiO2 photocatalysts, we inferred that ALD deposited CuxO clusters have a dual promotional effect: increased charge carrier separation and improved light absorption, consistent with known copper promoted TiO2 photocatalysts and generation of a substantial amount of surface Ti3+ which results in self-doping of TiO2 and improves its photo-activity for hydrogen production. The obtained data were also employed to modify the previously proposed expanding photocatalytic area and overlap model to describe the effect of cocatalyst size and weight loading on photocatalyst activity. Comparing the trend of surface Ti3+ content increase and the photocatalytically promoted area, calculated with our model, suggests that the depletion zone formed around the heterojunction of CuxO-TiO2 is the main active area for hydrogen production, and the hydrogen productivity of the photocatalyst depends on the surface coverage by this active area. However, the overlap of these areas initiates the deactivation of the photocatalyst.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 13437
Abba Nabayi ◽  
Christopher Teh Boon Sung ◽  
Ali Tan Kee Zuan ◽  
Tan Ngai Paing

Washed rice water (WRW) is said to be a beneficial plant fertilizer because of its nutrient content. However, rigorous scientific studies to ascertain its efficiency are lacking. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of fermenting WRW on the bacterial population and identification, and to measure how fermentation affects the nutrient composition of WRW. Rice grains were washed in a volumetric water-to-rice ratio of 3:1 and at a constant speed of 80 rpm for all treatments. The treatments were WRW fermented at 0 (unfermented), 3, 6, and 9 days. Bacterial N fixation and P and K solubilization abilities in the fermented WRW were assessed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The isolated bacterial strains and the WRW samples were also tested for catalase and indole acetic acid (IAA) production ability. Significantly greater N fixation, P and K solubilization, and IAA production were recorded after 3 days of fermentation compared with other fermentation periods, with increases of 46.9–83.3%, 48.2–84.1%, 73.7–83.6%, and 13.3–85.5%, respectively, in addition to the highest (2.12 × 108 CFU mL−1) total bacterial population. Twelve bacteria strains were isolated from the fermented WRW, and the gene identification showed the presence of beneficial bacteria Bacillus velezensis, Enterobacter spp., Pantoea agglomerans, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia at the different fermentation periods. All the identified microbes (except Enterobacter sp. Strain WRW-7) were positive for catalase production. Similarly, all the microbes could produce IAA, with Enterobacter spp. strain WRW-10 recording the highest IAA of up to 73.7% higher than other strains. Generally, with increasing fermentation periods, the nutrients N, S, P, K, Mg, NH4+, and NO3− increased, while pH, C, and Cu decreased. Therefore, fermentation of WRW can potentially increase plant growth and enhance soil health because of WRW’s nutrients and microbial promotional effect, particularly after 3 days of fermentation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Xun Xi ◽  
Shaobin Wei ◽  
Kuen-Lin Lin ◽  
Haitao Zhou ◽  
Kui Wang ◽  

Exploring the intrinsic relationship between digital technology and the efficiency of food safety supervision contributes to a better understanding of the role of digital technology in food safety supervision and how to maximize its influence. This study employed sample data from 31 regions in China between 2015 and 2017 for an empirical analysis of the correlation between the two and to examine the moderating effects of the knowledge levels of food producers and consumers. The results show that the development of digital technology contributes to enhancing the efficiency of food safety supervision. In this process, the higher the knowledge level of consumers, the greater the positive promotional effect of digital technology. On the contrary, when the knowledge level of producers is higher, it is not conducive to enhancing the effect of digital technology on the efficiency of food safety supervision. The author holds the view that this is related to the fact that employees in the food production and manufacturing industry have insufficient moral and legal knowledge. This not only limits the effect of digital technology on enhancing the efficiency of food safety supervision, but also opens the door to illegal production for some unprincipled producers. The policy implications are that digital technology should be used to improve food safety supervision, the moral and legal knowledge of food producers should be improved, and consumers should be encouraged to use digital technology more in the pursuit of food safety. Implications for national healthcare system would be also discussed in our paper.

Yongcuomu Qu ◽  
Ziqiong Zhang ◽  
Yanchao Feng ◽  
Xiaorong Cui

Based on panel data on 124 prefecture-level and above cities from 2003 to 2018, this study investigated the impact of CNSAs on tourism economic development and the moderating effect of time-limited rectification by comprehensively using the quasi-DID model, the static spatial Durbin model, and the dynamic spatial Durbin model. The results showed that the impact of CNSAs on tourism economic development has a heterogeneous characteristic in terms of tourists and revenue. In addition, the spatial spillover effect and the path dependence have effectively promoted tourism economic development. Furthermore, the effectiveness of time-limited rectification has been proved in this study, while the “beggar-thy-neighbor” effect has, to some extent, weakened the promotional effect of CNSAs on tourism economic development, especially in terms of international tourists and international tourism revenue. Finally, relevant policy implications for the superior department in charge, local governments, and the management department of CNSAs are outlined to provide a practical reference for promoting the high-quality development of the tourism economy in China.

Wenjie Liu ◽  
Yifei Long ◽  
Shinian Liu ◽  
Yongyan Zhou ◽  
Xin Tong ◽  

Ran Ao ◽  
Liping Ma ◽  
Quxiu Dai ◽  
Zhiying Guo ◽  
Hongpan Liu ◽  

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