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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
R. S. Santos ◽  
L. Sousa-Souto

Abstract Some studies report the positive effect of organic residues from ant nests on soil properties and on the structure of the adjacent plant community in field experiments, but there is a gap about the effect on individual species. The purpose of the present study was to compare the soil nutrient content and the development of Turnera subulata Smith, an ornamental species, in the presence of the nest refuse (basically composed of fragments of grass leaves and the symbiotic fungus) produced by the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890) or in control soil through a greenhouse pot experiment. The experiment was carried out with two treatments: control soil and soil with 25% of nest refuse. The plants were kept in 1L pots for 90 days. We evaluated the parameters: plant height, stem diameter, root length, number of leaves, dry weight of the root, dry and fresh aboveground biomass. Additionally, the relative chlorophyll content and leaf nutrients were used as nutritional parameters. As a result, plants that grew in the soil with nest refuse showed significant higher values of all parameters evaluated when compared to the control treatment (p < 0.001). We conclude that this biofertilizer contributed to the production of more vigorous plants, being able to act on the local dynamics of nutrients in the ecosystems where A. balzani occurs. As it is relatively abundant and easy to collect, the refuse of A. balzani has the potential to be used as an alternative substrate in the production of shortlife cycle plants.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 213
Elena Villacrés ◽  
María Quelal ◽  
Susana Galarza ◽  
Diana Iza ◽  
Edmundo Silva

Quinoa is an important crop for food security and food sovereignty in Ecuador. In this study, we evaluated the nutritional value, bioactive compounds, and antinutrient compounds of leaves and grains of the Ecuadorian quinoa variety Tunkahuan, and we identified significant differences between the nutrient content in the leaves and grains. The quinoa leaves presented a higher protein content than the grains, as well as inorganic nutrients such as calcium, phosphorus, iron, and zinc. Both the grains and leaves had an appreciable phenolic content. In addition, the quinoa grains presented a higher content of the antinutrient saponin than the leaves, while the leaves contained more nitrates and oxalates than the grains. Thus, quinoa leaves and grains exhibit excellent potential for application in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 216
Hamza Bouras ◽  
Redouane Choukr-Allah ◽  
Younes Amouaouch ◽  
Ahmed Bouaziz ◽  
Krishna Prasad Devkota ◽  

Soil salinity is a major problem in arid and semi-arid regions, causing land degradation, desertification, and subsequently, food insecurity. Salt-affected soils and phosphorus (P) deficiency are the common problems in the sub-Sahara, including the Southern region of Morocco. Soil salinity limits plant growth by limiting water availability, causing a nutritional imbalance, and imparting osmotic stress in the plants. The objective of this study was to determine the positive effects of P on growth and productivity and understand the major leaf mineral nutrient content of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) cv. “ICBA Q5” irrigated with saline water. A field experiment applying three salinity (Electrical Conductivity, EC) levels of irrigation water (ECw = 5, 12, and 17 dS·m−1) and three P fertilizer rates (0, 60, and 70 kg of P2O5 ha−1) were evaluated in a split-plot design with three replications. The experiment was conducted in Foum El Oued, South of Morocco on sandy loam soil during the period of March–July 2020. The results showed that irrigation with saline water significantly reduced the final dry biomass, seed yield, harvest index, and crop water productivity of quinoa; however, P application under saline conditions minimized the effect of salinity and improved the yield. The application of 60 and 70 kg of P2O5 ha−1 increased (p < 0.05) the seed yield by 29 and 51% at low salinity (5 dS·m−1), by 16 and 2% at medium salinity (12 dS·m−1), and by 13 and 8% at high salinity (17 dS·m−1), respectively. The leaf Na+ and K+ content and Na+/K+ ratio increased with irrigation water salinity. However, the leaf content of Mg, Ca, Zn, and Fe decreased under high salinity. It was also found that increasing P fertilization improved the essential nutrient content and nutrient uptake. Our finding suggests that P application minimizes the adverse effects of high soil salinity and can be adopted as a coping strategy under saline conditions.

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 110
Xiaoying Ping ◽  
Yu Chang ◽  
Miao Liu ◽  
Yuanman Hu ◽  
Wentao Huang ◽  

Forest fires are a significant factor that affects the boreal forest carbon distribution which emits carbon into the atmosphere and leads to carbon redistribution among carbon pools. However, knowledge about how much carbon was transferred among pools and the immediate changes in soil nutrient contents in areas that were burned by fires of various severities are still limited. In this study, we surveyed eight wildfire sites that are located in northeast China within three months after the fires occurred. Our results indicate that the total soil nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon contents significantly increased after moderate- and high-severity fires. The carbon emissions were 3.84, 5.14, and 12.86 Mg C/ha for low-, moderate-, and high-severity fires, respectively. The amount of carbon transferred among pools increased with fire severity except for the charcoal pool, storing the highest amounts of carbon in moderate-severity fires. Although the charcoal and ash pools accounted for a small proportion of the total ecosystem, they are important for biogeochemical cycles and are worthy of attention. The carbon redistribution information in our study is important for accurately estimating the forest carbon budget and providing crucial parameters for forest carbon cycling models to incorporate the carbon transfer process.

Agriculture ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 107
Shoule Wang ◽  
Zhenyong Zhao ◽  
Shaoqing Ge ◽  
Ke Zhang ◽  
Changyan Tian ◽  

Halophytes possess the capacity to uptake high levels of salt through physiological processes and their root architecture. Here, we investigated whether halophyte/non-halophyte intercropping in saline soil benefits plant growth and contains root-dialogue between interspecific species. Field and pot experiments were conducted to determine the plant biomasses and salt and nutrient distributions in three suaeda (Suaeda salsa)/maize (Zea mays L.) intercropping systems, set up by non-barrier, nylon-barrier, and plastic-barrier between plant roots. The suaeda/maize intercropping obviously transferred more Na+ to the suaeda root zone and decreased salt and Na+ contents. However, the biomass of the non-barrier-treated maize was significantly lower than that of the nylon and plastic barrier-treated maize. There was lower available N content in the soil of the non-barrier treated groups compared with the plastic barrier-treated groups. In addition, the pH was lower, and the available nutrient content was higher in the nylon barrier, which suggested that rhizospheric processes might occur between the two species. Therefore, we concluded that the suaeda/maize intercropping would be beneficial to the salt removal, but it caused an adverse effect for maize growth due to interspecific competition, and also revealed potential rhizospheric effects through the role of roots. This study provides an effective way for the improvement of saline land.

2022 ◽  
Alemu Tarekegn Tiruneh ◽  
Dessalegn Gelaye Amsalu ◽  
Kifetew Kesete Adane

Abstract Background Understanding the relationship between dry matter yield production and forage quality throughout the growing season will help to optimize the cutting intervals between harvests in different Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) varieties. An experiment was conducted to assess the effects of harvest frequency on forage yield and quality of 2 improved cultivars (ILRI-6984 and var. DzF-552) of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Western Dembia district over 20 months during 2017 and 2018. Four harvest frequencies (every 30, 40, 50 and 60 days) were compared in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 4 replications. The experiment was laid down in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) in factorial arrangement with four replications. To assess their production potential plant height (cm), number of branches per plant, fresh biomass yield (t ha−1) and dry matter yield (t ha−1) of the forge and its nutrient content were recorded. The data collected was subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) by using the general linear model (GLM) procedure in Statistical Analysis System (SAS) (2003) version 9.1. Results The results revealed that highest forage dry matter yield was recorded for variety ILRI-6984 harvested every 40 days (26.8 t DM ha−1) and for var. DzF-552 when harvested every 60 days (24.1 t DM ha−1) (P<0.001). While crude protein concentration tended to decline as age at harvest increased, there was little consistency in the pattern. Crude protein yields were also inconsistent across treatments but ILRI-6984 harvested every 40 days produced the highest yields (6.5 t ha−1) (P<0.001). Conclusion These preliminary findings need to be confirmed under field conditions on a large scale along with longer-term studies to examine the longevity of the stands at these harvest frequencies. Irregular harvesting based on stage of maturity should be compared with fixed inter-harvest intervals.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (3) ◽  
pp. 175-183
Rina Nuryati ◽  
Faqihuddin Faqihuddin ◽  
Cici Aulia Permata Bunda ◽  
Januar Arifin Ruslan

Tasikmalaya regency has great potential in the development of the livestock sector due to land use which is dominated by agricultural activities as a producer of forage. The current problem is the supply of forage which is influenced by the season. This service program aims to overcome these problems so as to increase the productivity of the livestock business. This service includes several stages, namely counseling, training, monitoring and evaluation and reporting. The time and place of the activity is from 5th June to 15th July 2021 in Setiawaras Village, Tasikmalaya Regency. Extension activities and training on feed processing with M-Bio technology have a positive impact in terms of the quantity and quality of feed. The use of local ingredients and M-Bio produces feed that can be stored for a week with complete nutrient content. In the long term, this activity will increase knowledge, skills and independence of farmers. Results of evaluation show attitude of farmers who are enthusiastic and satisfied with this activity.

Jialei Gong ◽  
Zhongyi Zheng ◽  
Bufan Zheng ◽  
Yongjun Liu ◽  
Ruiwen Hu ◽  

The traditional shallow tillage method makes the soil quality declining, and affects the efficiency of agricultural production. Taking the conventional rotary tillage(12 cm) as the control, Yunyan 87 as the test variety, and the soil type of the test site is paddy soil, we studied the effects of deep tillage(Subsoiling 30 cm) on soil nutrients, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and tobacco(Nicotiana tabacum L.)growth. The results showed that deep tillage increased the contents of organic carbon, available phosphorus(AP) and available potassium(AK) in 20 ~ 40 cm soil layer. The community of AMF was changed by deep tillage. Glomus, the dominant genus in both group, increased significantly in the soil after deep tillage. The colonization rate of AMF was lower than that of conventional rotary tillage. Deep tillage was beneficial to the growth of tobacco in the middle and late stages. Root growth and nutrient content of tobacco increased. Deep tillage significantly improved the output value of tobacco. It can be seen that deep tillage is conducive to improving soil fertility, promoting the vigorous growth of root, reducing the dependence of tobacco on AMF, and promoting the high quality and yield of tobacco in drylands of Hunan.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 158
John L. Havlin ◽  
Robert Austin ◽  
David Hardy ◽  
Adam Howard ◽  
Josh L. Heitman

With limited research supporting local nutrient management decisions in North Carolina grape (Vitis vinifera) production, field studies (2015–17) were conducted to evaluate late season foliar nitrogen (N) application on leaf and petiole N concentration and yeast assimilable N (YAN) in the fruit. Foliar urea (1% v/v) was applied at different rates and application times beginning pre-and post-veraison. Compared to soil applied N, late season foliar N substantially enhanced petiole N and grape YAN. Smaller split N applications were generally more effective in increasing YAN than single larger N rates. These data demonstrate the value of assessing plant N content at full bloom with petiole N analysis or remote sensing to guide foliar N management decisions. Additional field studies (2008–11) were conducted to evaluate pre-bud soil applied phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) effects on petiole P and K nutrient status. Fertilizer P and K were initially broadcast applied (0–896 kg P2O5 ha−1; 0–672 kg K2O ha−1) prior to bud-break in 2008–09 and petiole P and K at full bloom soil test P and K were monitored for three to four years after application. Soil test and petiole P and K were significantly increased with increasing P and K rates, which subsequently declined to near unfertilized levels over the sampling time depending on site and P and K rate applied. These data demonstrate the value of annually monitoring petiole P and K levels to accurately assess plant P and K status to better inform nutrient management decisions.

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