mental foramen
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2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
pp. 79-83
Aymen Hameed Uraibi Al Timimi ◽  
Thulficar Ghali Hameed Al Khafaji ◽  
Firas Saddam Oglah Albaaj ◽  
Haider Ali Hasan ◽  
Mohammad Khursheed Alam

Objective: The mandible is the strongest bone in the human skeleton. The uses of the morphological characters of such jawbone is a predominantly used approach in forensic dentistry to determine the gender of a severely damaged cadaver. Distinguishing sex, race and personal stamp of the unknown skeleton still has been the most challenging job in forensic dentistry. This research aimed to clarify the gender of Babylon population by mental foramen (MF) assessment using Orthopantomography (OPG). Method: The present retrospective study was conducted on 120 digital panoramic radiographs. The radiographs were of 60 male and 60 female dentate patients aged between 18-62 years. Morphometric analysis was performed on bilateral mental foramina. Lines were drawn from superior (S) and inferior (I) borders of the foramen and perpendiculars to the lower (L) border of the mandible (S-L and I-L lines respectively). Data were distributed and subjected to statistical analysis using the Independent-Samples T test. Results: The average values of S-L and I-L were significantly higher in males than in females (p<0.05). Conclusion: The distance from the MF to the lower border of the lower jaw reveals gender differences in Babylon city population. Findings also suggest that OPG could be a useful technique for gender identification from the remnants of the human body skeleton. There was a statistical significant difference in the average S-L distance and average I-L distance between males and females at 3 different age groups (young adult, middle age and old age groups), except in the average I-L distance at the middle age group (p<0.05). Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol. 21(1) 2022 Page : 79-83

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 320-324
Bhadreshkumar P Vaghela ◽  
Boski Gupta ◽  
Sudarshan Gupta

The mental foramen is an oval or round opening on external surface of mandible and transmits mental nerve and vessels. Mostly located at apex of second mandibular premolar or between the apices of premolars. The study was commenced on 60 dried edentulous mandibles with the aim to determine location of mental foramen(MF) with reference to surrounding anatomical landmarks. By measuring its distance from midline (symphysis menti), posterior border of ramus of mandible, lower border of mandible. Length of lower border (Base) of mandible was also measured. In present study most common shape of mental foramen was round (70%). The mean distances of MF from midline are 24.36mm on right side and 24.15mm left side. From posterior border of ramus are 64.45mm on right side and 64.15mm on left side. From base of mandible are 12.29mm on right side and 12.48mm on left side. Length of base mandible (midline to angle of mandible) is 83.27mm right side and 83.12mm left side. Ratio of distance from symphysis menti to MF and length of base of mandible are same on both sides that are 0.29. There is statistically significant positive correlation between distance from symphysis menti to MF and length of base of mandible.The MF plays a very important role in treatment planning and its location needs to be considered prior to placement of dental-implants, regional anesthesia, osteotomy-surgeries and during complete denture-fabrication in order to avoid MN injury and related complications.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Mohammed Mashyakhy ◽  
Ahmed Mostafa ◽  
Amani Abeery ◽  
Zainab Sairafi ◽  
Nazeeha Hakami ◽  

Introduction. Accurate and precise knowledge about the position, size, and shape of the mental foramen (MF) are critical in avoiding procedural complications. The MF’s anatomical features vary among different ethnic groups, and various radiographic techniques have been used to determine these variations. Aims. To evaluate the MF’s shape, vertical and horizontal positions, and distance from the border of the mandible. To evaluate the differences among genders as they pertain to the right and left sides of the mandible and research the bilateral symmetry regarding the same variables. Materials and Methods. Cone beam computer tomography (CBCT) scans of 155 Saudi patients (69 males and 86 females) who visited the college of dentistry’s clinics were obtained from the college database for this retrospective study. All the scans were analyzed by 3 calibrated examiners. The data collected was analyzed statistically, and results were obtained. Results. The MF was located under the mandibular second premolar in 56.9% of cases, whereas in 26.9% of cases, it was located between the first and second mandibular premolar. The most prevalent position was below the level of the apices of the mandibular premolar teeth (87.2%). The round shape was most frequent (44.9%) compared to the H-oval (34.7%) and V-oval (20.4%). The V-oval shape was more frequent in males, while the H-oval shape was more frequent in females. The average distance from the center of the MF to the mandibular border was 14.03 ± 1.58   mm , with males exhibiting a greater distance than females. Overall, there were no significant differences between the bilateral symmetry and the right and left sides for all parameters. Conclusion. The most common position of the MF was under the root apex of the mandibular second premolar, with an average distance of about 14 mm from the border of the mandible. The position and shape of the MF were the same bilaterally in the majority of individuals.

Bashir Ahmed ◽  
Manoj Kumar ◽  
. Bushra ◽  
Suneel Kumar Punjabi ◽  
Raj Kumar ◽  

Objective: To assess the occurrence and location of the mental foramen in relation to gender and age by using cone-beam computed tomography. Materials and Methods: A descriptive case series study was conducted at department of radiology at advance diagnostic care centre, Institute of Dentistry, Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences Hyderabad. One hundred and fifty patients of either gender, having age 18-40 years with retained permanent dentition and recommended for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) radiograph were selected by non-probability convenient sampling technique. Patients with history of bone disease, old trauma and not willing to participate were excluded. CBCT imaging of each patient will be performed and assessed for occurrence and location of the mental foramen. Results: Out of 150 patients, male were 98 (65.3%) and female were 52 (34.7%) with mean age of 28.8 ± 6.9 (18-40) years. Position 4 was the most common right side horizontal position with 74(49.3%) patients followed by position 3 with 69(46.0%) patients, position 5 with 6(4.0%) patients and position 2 with 1(0.7%) patients. Similarly position 4 was the most common left side horizontal position with 75(50.0%) patients followed by position 3 with 70(46.7%) patients, and position 5 with 5(3.3%) patients. Position 1 was only choice either for right or left side vertical position in all patients i.e., 150 (100.0%). Conclusion: It was concluded from the study that no significant difference was observed in occurrence and location of the mental foramen in relation to gender and age by using cone-beam computed tomography.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (4) ◽  
pp. 8109-8115
Ndiaye M R ◽  
Mar N B ◽  
Yacouba Garba K ◽  
Ndoye J M N ◽  

Aim: The aim of our study was to perform a morphometric analysis of the mental foramen in senegalese context. Material and method: The study was performed on thirty-nine dry mandibles of adult humans. On these mandibles, the number of mental foramen present and their shape were noted on inspection. The situation of the foramen in relation to the lower teeth was studied according to a methodology already described. The following measurements were made: the distance between the foramen and the other landmarks of the mandible (symphysis, basilar border, posterior border), vertical and horizontal diameters. Results: The number of mental foramina were 39 on the right and 40 on the left: one mandible presented a double foramen on the left. The oval shape was predominant. The most frequent situation was below the second premolar on both sides. The mean distance between the foramen and the mandibular symphysis was 25mm on both sides. The distance between the foramen and the basilar border of the mandible was on average 13mm on the right and 14mm on the left. The distance between the foramen and the posterior border of the mandible was on average 72mm on the right and 73mm on the left. The average vertical diameter was 33mm on the right and 32mm on the left, and the average horizontal diameter was 4mm on both sides. Conclusion: Mental foramen is a constant anatomical structure, found on all the mandibles studied. The results can be superimposed on those described in the majority of studies carried out on the mental foramen. Key words: Mental Foramen, Mandible Anatomy, Morphometry.

2021 ◽  
Vol 71 (5) ◽  
pp. 1801-05
Mubashir Sharif ◽  
Nighat Haroon ◽  
Muhammad Anwaar Alam ◽  
Adil Umar Durrani ◽  
Talib Hussain ◽  

Objective: To determine the mean distance of mandibular incisive canal from the mental foramen in patients reporting to a tertiary care centre using Cone Beam Computerized Tomography for placement of dental implants in the anterior/interforaminal region. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Prosthodontics, Foundation University College of Dentistry Rawalpindi, Jun to Nov 2019. Methodology: A total of 70 patients participated between the age of 20-45 years. Cone Beam Computerized Tomography (the investigation was carried out and measurements of the mandibular incisive canal from mental foramen were recorded with the help of measuring tools in the software and noted down on the proforma. Data were analyzed using SPSS-20. Results: The number of patients selected for this study was 70. Out of these 70 patients, 33 (47.1%) were males and 37 (52.9%) were females. The mean age of patients in this study was 36.31 ± 6.38 years. The mean distance/extension of the mandibular incisive canal from left mental foramen and right mental foramen in all patients was recorded to be 14.49 ± 6.31 mm and 14.97 ± 7.10 mm respectively. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it is concluded that a maximum distance of 22mm of the incisive canal from the mental foramen was observed using cone-beam computerized tomography.

Brian Windle

Abstract Congenital hypoplasia of the masseter muscle is a rare condition most commonly associated with craniofacial or poly-malformation syndromes, with a small number of reported idiopathic cases. The condition is most commonly managed by orthodonture and later surgical intervention; however, surgery is not an option for all patients. Non-surgical approaches to correcting asymmetry may be considered for patients for whom the functional impact of hypoplasia has been largely managed and the patient’s concern is primarily aesthetic. In this case study, the patient presented for a consultation seeking a non-surgical solution for marked facial asymmetry. The patient underwent physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging to confirm diagnosis of congenital masseter muscle hypoplasia. To treat the asymmetry, a total of 9.6 cc of PMMA-collagen gel (Bellafill ®; Suneva Medical, Inc., San Diego, CA) was injected along the border of the mandible from the gonial angle out to the area of the mental foramen and slightly above over the course of 6 months (2 visits spaced 3 months apart) to provide long-term, non-surgical correction. The patient was very satisfied with the results, highlighting the potential for PMMA-collagen gel to be used in clinical situations in which durable, non-surgical correction of lower-face asymmetry is needed.

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