anatomical structure
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2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 46-54
Paweł Turek ◽  

Designing an anatomical structure for a surgical procedure is not a simple task. It is especially true of the craniofacial area, which consists of bone tissues with very complex geometry. CAD modelers need appropriate knowledge and skills in medicine and technical sciences to fully use the currently available tools in related processes with the reconstruction of the craniofacial areas. The presented preliminary studies are based on four patients treated at the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery. The segmentation process of the mandible model was performed in the ITK SNAP software. The process of generating surface body models was performed in the Auto Surfacing module in Geomagic software using two different methods: organic and mechanical. Then compare both methods for the accuracy of generating a CAD model of the mandible based on a triangle mesh structure in the Focus Inspection and the GOM Inspect software.

2022 ◽  
pp. 38-44
М.С. Жанибек ◽  
К.К. Орынбасарова

В данной статье представлены результаты микроскопического исследования особенностей анатомического строения (листья, цветки) растения пижмы сантолинной (Tanacetum Santolina). Цель работы: изучение анатомического строения надземных органов, определение подлинности и отличия от других видов. Материалы и методы: объект исследования - цветки пижмы сантолинной, собранные в период цветения в мае 2020 года в предгорных равнинах Каратау. Микроскопическое исследование цветков пижмы сантолинной проводилось в соответствии с требованиями государственной фармакопеи Республики Казахстан. С помощью микроскопа Биолам-5 изучался объект с увеличением от х40 до х400. Исследование срезов и создание микрорисунков проводили с помощью цифрового камерного тринокулярного микроскопа «МТ300L» (Япония) (увеличенный 7х1,5х4,5; 7х1,5х8; 7х1,5х40). Результаты и обсуждения: изучены диагностические признаки для определения цельного сырья: диагностические признаки листьев, форма клеток эпидермиса, тип аппарата устьиц, строение волосков и эфирномасличных желез; формы оксалата кальция. Выводы: проведен микроскопический анализ цветков пижмы сантолинной. Для определения подлинности этого сырья были выявлены анатомодиагностические признаки. Во всех частях растения встречаются одноклеточные волоски и пучковые волокна. На обеих частях листовой пластины хорошо видны волокна и волоски, устьица, пигментные полости. Кристаллы оксалата кальция, находятся в мезофильных полостях листа. В цветках оксалат кальция встречается только в виде четырехугольного кристалла. На анатомическом признаке измельченного сырья видны эфирномасличные железки. Форма эфирно-масличных желез обнаруживает основные диагностические признаки цветков и листьев пижмы сантолинной. Анатомические характеристики позволяют повысить уровень стандартизации, дальнейшее изучение лекарственного растительного сырья This article presents the results of a microscopic study of the anatomical structure (leaves, flowers) of the Santolina’s tansy plant (Tanacetum Santolina). The purpose of the work: to study the anatomical structure of aerial organs, to determine authenticity and differences from other species. Materials and methods: the object of research is the flowers of Santolina’s tansy collected during the flowering period in May 2020 in the foothill plains of Karatau. Microscopic examination of the flowers of Santolina’s tansy was carried out in accordance with the requirements of the State Pharmacopoeia of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Using a Biolam-5 microscope with magnification from x40 to x400 an object was studied. The study of sections and the creation of micro-nozzles was carried out using a digital chamber trinocular microscope "MT300L" (Japan) (enlarged 7x1.5x4.5; 7x1.5x8; 7x1.5x40). Results and discussions: diagnostic signs for the determination of whole raw materials were studied: diagnostic signs of leaves, the shape of epidermis cells, the type of stomatal apparatus, the structure of hairs and essential oil glands; forms of calcium oxalate. Conclusions: microscopic analysis of flowers of Santolina’s tansy was carried out. Anatomical and diagnostic signs were identified to determine the authenticity of this raw material. Unicellular hairs and beam fibers are found in all parts of the plant. Fibers and hairs, stomata, pigment cavities are clearly visible on both parts of the leaf plate. Calcium oxalate crystals are located in the mesophilic cavities of the leaf. In flowers, calcium oxalate occurs only in the form of a quadrangular crystal. On the anatomical feature of the crushed raw materials, essential oil glands are visible. The shape of the essential oil glands reveals the main diagnostic signs of flowers and leaves of santolina tansy. Anatomical characteristics make it possible to increase the level of standardization, further study of medicinal plant raw materials.

2022 ◽  
Xingfa Han ◽  
Xu Xia ◽  
Yong Zhuo ◽  
Lun Hua ◽  
Guozhi Yu ◽  

Abstract Backgroud: Salivary gland degeneration and dysfunction are common symptoms that occur after sex hormone deprivation, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Additionally, immunocastration, which causes drop of sex hormones, has been developed as an alternative to surgical castration, however whether it exerts similar effects as surgical castration on the salivary glands is unknown. Through histological and RNA-seq analysis, we assessed changes in morphology and transcriptome of submaxillary gland (SMG) in response to immunocastration (IM) versus surgical castration (bilateral orchiectomy, ORC). Results: Compared to intact males (EM), ORC caused a dramatical degeneration of SMG in rats, as evidenced by both decreased (P < 0.01) SMG weight and organ index, and by decreased (P < 0.01) quantity of SMG acini and ducts. IM had minimal effects (P > 0.05) on SMG weight and organ index, but it still caused degeneration (P < 0.05) of the acini and ducts. Even though, the quantity of both SMG acini and ducts was much higher (P < 0.001) in IM than in ORC. Functional enrichment analysis of the common regulated genes by ORC/IM revealed disrupted epithelial cell development, angiogenesis, anatomical structure morphogenesis and enhanced cell death are associated with SMG degeneration in deprivation of androgens. Integrated data analysis shown that there existed a selective hyperfunction of SMG ribosome and mitochondrion in ORC but not in IM, which might be associated with more severe degeneration of SMG in ORC than in IM. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that both surgical castration and immunocastration caused SMG degeneration by disrupting epithelial cell development, angiogenesis, anatomical structure morphogenesis and enhancing cell death. But, surgical castration selectively induced hyperfunction of SMG ribosome and mitochondrion, thus causing more severe degeneration of SMG than immunocastration.

Khan Shazia Islamuddin ◽  
Deepak Singh

Marma Science is one of the most distinctive concepts of Ayurveda. There are 107 marma sites in the body, and they are the conglomeration of muscles, veins, ligaments, bones, and joints. This peculiarity makes Marmamarma a somewhat vulnerable point, and any injury can lead to disability, dysfunction and demise. The cause of the damage can either be traumatic or iatrogenic; therefore, it becomes a necessity to rule out the exact location of the marma and anatomical structure responsible for the traumatic effects. Katiktarun being a Prishthagata marma, is prone to get injured during significant surgeries of the gluteal region and spine. Its injury can lead to delayed death. The aim of this study revolves around the anatomical entity responsible for delayed death caused by katiktarun injury. By identifying the location and structure involved in the marma, it might be possible to repair the structure and deferment the delayed end. Based on Ayurvedic literature and cadaveric observations, the superior margin of the sciatic notch (suprapiriform foraman) is considered as the position of Katiktarun Marma, whereas the neurovasculature associated with suprapiriform foramen is the causative structure of marma trauma symptoms.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (20) ◽  
pp. 179-185
Sándor Rózsa ◽  
Vasile Lazăr ◽  
Orsolya Borsai ◽  
Tincuța-Marta Gocan ◽  
Ileana Andreica ◽  

Dehydrated plums are distinguished by a pleasant taste, but at the same time they are also distinguished by a special nutritional value, which brings many benefits to human health. After apples, plums are the most cultivated fruits in Romania. Quality as a notion is a general and specific characteristic being represented by certain features that condition both the marketing and the use of the finished product. The physical condition of dehydrated plums is determined by the anatomical structure, structural firmness, water content and appearance. The composition of the soluble dry matter is influenced by the variety, the degree of maturation, at which the raw material has been processed and by the qualitative changes undergone by each component, during dehydration. In this paper, we followed the influence of blanching treatment on 4 varieties of plums, dehydrated in a stream of warm air, at a temperature of 70 °C. The fruits taken into analysis were characterized by a water content of 75-84%, soluble dry matter 9-24%, total sugar 7-13%, acidity 0.45-0.98% and 2-17 mg ascorbic acid. After dehydration, the analyzed parameters were as follows: 16-24% water, total sugar 31-51%, total acidity 1.1-2.3%.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 115
Ahmed M. El-Taher ◽  
Hany S. Abd El-Raouf ◽  
Nahid A. Osman ◽  
Samah N. Azoz ◽  
Magdy A. Omar ◽  

The present study aimed to investigate the impact of salinity on vegetative growth, chemical constituents, and yields of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) and the possible benefits of salicylic acid (SA) on these plants after damage from salinity. To achieve these objectives, two pot experiments were carried out at the Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Egypt, during the two growing seasons of 2019 and 2020. The results revealed that salinity significantly decreased, and SA treatment substantially increased the plant height, number of compound leaves, number of internodes per plant, fresh weights of leaves and stems, productivity, photosynthetic pigments content, and concentrations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) of the cowpea plants compared with the control. The anatomical structure of stems and leaves of the plants were also investigated, and it was found that positive variations in the anatomical structure of the median portion of the main stems and blades of mature foliage leaves were detected in the stressed and SA-treated plants. In conclusion, SA treatment increased the salt stress tolerance of cowpea plants by improving the morphological and physiological attributes of the plants.

Turczaninowia ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (4) ◽  
pp. 23-46
Elena V. Novozhilova ◽  
Elvira V. Boyko

This paper is a continuation of a series of our investigation of the morphological and anatomical structure of the cypselas of the family Asteraceae. The article presents the results of an investigation of the morphological and anatomical structure of the cypselas of 6 species of the genus Olgaea Iljin of the tribe Cardueae Cass. (O. baldschuanica (C. Winkl.) Iljin, O. leucophylla (Turcz.) Iljin, O. lomonossowii (Trautv.) Iljin, O. nidulans (Rupr.) Iljin, O. pectinata Iljin, O. tangutica Iljin) by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The carpological examination of the cypselas revealed specific features of the species of the genus Olgaea: the shape of the cypsela, the sculpture of the surface of the pericarp, the absence (or presence) crowns and carpopodium, the ratio of the thickness of the pericarp and exotesta, the number of rows and the nature of thickening of the walls of mesocarp cells, the presence or absence of endocarp, the shape and size of exotesta cells, the coefficient of their palisade (the ratio of the length of the radial walls to the length of the tangent). Cypsela of Olgaea species have significant differences, which indicates the heterogeneity of the genus and the need for its revision. Based on the data obtained and the previously published results of the study (Novozhilova, Boyko, 2019), a comparative analysis of the morphological and anatomical features of the cypsela of representatives of the genera Olgaea and Alfredia Cass. was carried out, which revealed the main differences in the structure of the cypsela of these two genera. It was found that the cypsela Olgaea and Alfredia have different structures, and therefore it is inappropriate to combine them into one genus.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
pp. 48-55
A. V. Neprokina ◽  
E. D. Lutsai ◽  
D. N. Begun

In the article the features of anatomical structure and microtopography of the lower jaw of fetus at the age of 14–18 weeks were discussed. The relevance of the research is due to the prevalence of congenital pathology of the maxillofacial region, the possibilities of its early prenatal diagnosis and correction in connection with the development of fetal surgery.The aim of the research is to get new data of the macromicroscopic anatomy and microtopography of the lower jaw in fetuses of 14–18 weeks.Material and methods. The object of the research was the lower jaw of 40 male and female fetuses at the age of 14–18 weeks. The research was carried out using morphological methods and the method of ultrasound scanning. The qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the lower jaw were studied.Results. The lower jaw of the fetus at the age of 14–18 weeks is already formed and has basic anatomical structures. The body, angle, ramus, condylar and coronoid processes, teeth anlages, which can be described on morphological preparations and studied using the method of ultrasound scanning, are defined in the lower jaw. In front of the lower jaw, soft tissues are located, their thickness varies from 2.1 to 3.9 mm. Behind the lower jaw, there is a slit space with a width of 0.3 to 1.5 mm, behind it the tongue and the oral part of the pharynx are situated. The latter has an irregular shape. In a fetus of 14-18 weeks, major salivary glands (parotid, sublingual and submandibular) are already formed and determined on different cuts. The length of the alveolar arch is 29.1±6.2 mm, the width of the lower jaw is 19.5±4.2 mm. At this time, the lower jaw can be presented by two anlages and a symphysis located along the median line. The symphysis on horizontal cut has a fusiform shape, it narrows to the outer and inner surfaces of the lower jaw. In the narrow part, its size varies from 0.1 to 0.4 mm, the extension in the central part is from 0.5 to 0.9 mm. In the lower jaw, the anlages of decidual teeth of an irregular shape are determined. The size of anlages varies from 1.3 to 2.3 mm, depending on the type of tooth. On some cuts under the anlage of primary tooth, it is possible to determine the anlage of permanent one. The significant bilateral and sex differences of human fetuses at the age of 14–18 weeks of intrauterine development were not revealed.Conclusion. The lower jaw of fetuses at the age of 14–18 weeks has all elements of the anatomical structure, with certain fetal features (incomplete accretion of the mandibular processes, anlages of decidual and permanent teeth, microtopographic relationships with adjacent anatomical structures). At this stage of development, there are no significant bilateral and sex differences. The use of various methodological approaches to the research of the qualitative and quantitative anatomy of the lower jaw makes it possible to detail and supplement the substantiation of approaches for fetal surgery.

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