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Gene ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 811 ◽  
pp. 146071
Author(s):  
Zhi Yao ◽  
Jiaxiao Li ◽  
Zijing Zhang ◽  
Yanan Chai ◽  
Xian Liu ◽  
...  

Genes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 153
Author(s):  
László Madar ◽  
Lilla Juhász ◽  
Zsuzsanna Szűcs ◽  
Lóránt Kerkovits ◽  
Mariann Harangi ◽  
...  

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is one of the most common autosomal, dominantly inherited diseases affecting cholesterol metabolism, which, in the absence of treatment, leads to the development of cardiovascular complications. The disease is still underdiagnosed, even though an early diagnosis would be of great importance for the patient to receive proper treatment and to prevent further complications. No studies are available describing the genetic background of Hungarian FH patients. In this work, we present the clinical and molecular data of 44 unrelated individuals with suspected FH. Sequencing of five FH-causing genes (LDLR, APOB, PCSK9, LDLRAP1 and STAP1) has been performed by next-generation sequencing (NGS). In cases where a copy number variation (CNV) has been detected by NGS, confirmation by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) has also been performed. We identified 47 causal or potentially causal (including variants of uncertain significance) LDLR and APOB variants in 44 index patients. The most common variant in the APOB gene was the c.10580G>A p.(Arg3527Gln) missense alteration, this being in accordance with literature data. Several missense variants in the LDLR gene were detected in more than one index patient. LDLR variants in the Hungarian population largely overlap with variants detected in neighboring countries.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yu Jiang ◽  
Lili Wu ◽  
Yunshen Ge ◽  
Jian Zhang ◽  
Yanru Huang ◽  
...  

Background: The prenatal BACs-on-Beads™ (PNBoBs™) assay has been applied worldwide for prenatal diagnosis. However, there are neither guidelines nor consensus on choosing patients, sample types, or clinical pathways for using this technique. Moreover, different perspectives have emerged regarding its clinical value. This study aimed to evaluate its clinical utility in the context of clinical practice located in a prenatal diagnostic center in Xiamen, a city in southeast China.Methods: We tested 2,368 prenatal samples with multiple referral indications using both conventional karyotyping and PNBoBs™. Positive results from PNBoBs™ were verified using current gold-standard approaches.Results: The overall rates for the detection of pathogenic copy number variation (pCNV) by karyotyping and PNBoBs™ were 1.9% (46/2,368) and 2.0% (48/2,368), respectively. The overall detection rate of karyotyping combined with PNBoBs™ for pCNV was 2.3% (54/2,368). A total of 13 cases of copy number variation (CNV)with a normal karyotype were detected by PNBoBs™. Another case with a normal karyotype that was detected as a CNV of sex chromosomes by PNBoBs™ was validated to be maternal cell contamination by short tandem repeat analysis.Conclusion: Karyotyping combined with PNBoBs™ can improve both the yield and efficiency of prenatal diagnosis and is appropriate in the second trimester in all patients without fetal ultrasound anomalies who undergo invasive prenatal diagnosis.


PPAR Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Author(s):  
Minghui Tang ◽  
Jingyao Wang ◽  
Liangsheng Fan

Endometrial cancer is a common malignant tumor in gynecology, and the prognosis of advanced patients is dismal. Recently, many studies on the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor pathway have elucidated its crucial involvement in endometrial cancer. Copy number variation (CNA) and nucleotide mutations often occur in tumor tissues, leading to abnormal protein expression and changes in protein structure. We analyzed the exon sequencing data of endometrial cancer patients in the TCGA database and found that somatic changes in PPAR pathway-related genes (PPAR-related-gene) often occur in UCEC patients. Patients with CNA or mutation changes in the exon region of the PPAR-related-gene usually have different prognostic outcomes. Furthermore, we found that the mRNA transcription and protein translation levels of PPAR-related-gene in UCEC are significantly different from that of adjacent tissues/normal uterus. The transcription level of some PPAR-related-gene (DBI, CPT1A, CYP27A1, and ME1) is significantly linked to the prognosis of UCEC patients. We further constructed a prognostic predicting tool called PPAR Risk score, a prognostic prediction tool that is a strong independent risk factor for the overall survival rate of UCEC patients. Comparing to the typical TNM classification system, this tool has higher prediction accuracy. We created a nomogram by combining PPAR Risk score with clinical characteristics of patients in order to increase prediction accuracy and promote clinical use. In summary, our study demonstrated that PPAR-related-gene in UCEC had significant alterations in CNA, nucleotide mutations, and mRNA transcription levels. These findings can provide a fresh perspective for postoperative survival prediction and individualized therapy of UCEC patients.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Lorenzo Talarico ◽  
Anna Bryjová ◽  
Dagmar Čížková ◽  
Karel Douda ◽  
Martin Reichard

AbstractPolymorphism of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), DAB1 gene was characterized for the first time in the European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus), a freshwater fish employed in studies of host-parasite coevolution and mate choice, taking advantage of newly designed primers coupled with high-throughput amplicon sequencing. Across 221 genotyped individuals, we detected 1–4 variants per fish, with 28% individuals possessing 3–4 variants. We identified 36 DAB1 variants, and they showed high sequence diversity mostly located within predicted antigen-binding sites, and both global and codon-specific excess of non-synonymous mutations. Despite deep divergence between two major allelic lineages, functional diversity was surprisingly low (3 supertypes). Overall, these findings suggest the role of positive and balancing selection in promotion and long-time maintenance of DAB1 polymorphism. Further investigations will clarify the role of pathogen-mediated selection to drive the evolution of DAB1 variation.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yansong Huo ◽  
Leina Sun ◽  
Jie Yuan ◽  
Hua Zhang ◽  
Zhenfa Zhang ◽  
...  

Abstract Background: Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) usually contain heterogeneous histological subtypes, among which the micropapillary (MIP) subtype was associated with poor prognosis while the lepidic (LEP) subtype possessed the most favorable outcome. A more comprehensive analysis involving discovery and public validation cohorts on the two subtypes could better decipher the key biological and evolutionary mechanisms.Methods: We firstly retrospectively studied the survival status of 286 LUAD patients with different subtypes. MIP and LEP components were micro-dissected for whole-exome sequencing (WES). Shared and private alterations as well as genomic alternation characteristics between the two components were investigated. Four public cohorts containing LEP and MIP samples were further selected for genomic profile comparison, novel therapeutic target investigation and immune infiltration quantification.Results: LEP and MIP subtypes exhibited largest disease free survival (DFS) in our patients. A total of 2035 SNV and 2757 InDels were identified in the sequenced LEP and MIP components. EGFR was found with highest mutation frequency. Distinct biological processes or pathways were involved in the evolutionary of the two components. Besides, analyses on copy number variation (CNV) and intratumor heterogeneity further discovered the possible immunosurveillance escape, the discrepancy between mutation and CNV level ITH and the pervasive DNA Damage Response as well as WNT pathway gene alternations in MIP component. Phylogenetic analysis on 5 pairs of LEP and MIP components further confirmed the presence of ancestral EGFR mutations. Through comprehensive analysis in our samples and public cohorts, PTP4A3, NAPRT and RECQL4 were identified as novel therapeutic and diagnostic targets in MIP subtype. Immunosuppression prevalence in MIP component was finally confirmed by multi-omics data.Conclusion: We identified genetic differences responsible for variated prognosis. The subtype evolution trajectory was additionally unraveled. Novel gene targets and the immunological analyses also provided therapeutic suggestions for MIP subtype.


2022 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Author(s):  
Juntong Liang ◽  
Xian Liu ◽  
Peng Yang ◽  
Zhi Yao ◽  
Kaixing Qu ◽  
...  

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 237
Author(s):  
Qilin Wang ◽  
Qian Liu ◽  
Sihan Qi ◽  
Junyou Zhang ◽  
Xian Liu ◽  
...  

Pyroptosis is a newly characterized type of programmed cell death. However, its function in cancer progression and its response to treatments remain controversial. Here, we extensively and systematically compiled genes associated with pyroptosis, integrated multiomics data and clinical data across 31 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas, and delineated the global alterations in PRGs at the transcriptional level. The underlying transcriptional regulations by copy number variation, miRNAs, and enhancers were elucidated by integrating data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression and International Cancer Genome Consortium. A prognostic risk model, based on the expression of PRGs across 31 cancer types, was constructed. To investigate the role of pyroptosis in immunotherapy, we found five PRGs associated with effectiveness by exploring the RNA-Seq data of patients with immunotherapy, and further identified two small-molecule compounds that are potentially beneficial for immunotherapy. For the first time, from a pyroptosis standpoint, this study establishes a novel strategy to predict cancer patient survival and immunotherapeutic outcomes.


Author(s):  
Eman Abd El Razek Abbas ◽  
Ahmed Barakat Barakat ◽  
Mohamed Hassany ◽  
Samar Samir Youssef

Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered one of the most common cancers related to mortality around the world, and susceptibility is related with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Copy number variation of the Bcell CLL/lymphoma 9 (BCL9) gene is a type of structural variation which can influence gene expression and can be related with specific phenotypes and diseases and has a role in hepatocarcinogenesis. Our aims were to assess the copy number variation (CNV) in the BCL9 gene and explore its role in HCV-related HCC Egyptian patients. A total of 50 HCV-related HCC patients were enrolled in the study (including 25 early HCC and 25 late HCC cases); the copy number of the BCL9 gene was detected using quantitative polymerase reaction. Results There was a highly statistically significant difference between the two groups (early and late HCC patients) in gender, bilharziasis, performance status, child score class, child grade, focal lesion size, portal vein, and ascites. CNV was detected and represented by the gain in the BCL9 gene in 14% of patients, and all of them were males. Also, it was noticed that the ratio of gain in BCL9 copy number in late individuals was about 1.5 times than that in early HCC individuals. Moreover, our results showed that the distribution of performance status > 1, average and enlarged liver, focal lesion size, thrombosed portal vein, and AFP was higher in patients with BCL9 copy number gain. Conclusion We detected about 14% gain in BCL9 copy number in Egyptian HCC patients. But the variation in copy number of the BCL9 gene did not affect HCC development in our patients’ cohort.


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