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Meghan Reading Turchioe ◽  
Elsayed Z. Soliman ◽  
Parag Goyal ◽  
Alexander E. Merkler ◽  
Hooman Kamel ◽  

Background It is unknown if stroke symptoms in the absence of a stroke diagnosis are a sign of subtle cardioembolic phenomena. The objective of this study was to examine associations between atrial fibrillation (AF) and stroke symptoms among adults with no clinical history of stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Methods and Results We evaluated associations between AF and self‐reported stroke symptoms in the national, prospective REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) cohort. We conducted cross‐sectional (n=27 135) and longitudinal (n=21 932) analyses over 8 years of follow‐up of REGARDS participants without stroke/transient ischemic attack and stratified by anticoagulant or antiplatelet agent use. The mean age was 64.4 (SD±9.4) years, 55.3% were women, and 40.8% were Black participants; 28.6% of participants with AF reported stroke symptoms. In the cross‐sectional analysis, comparing participants with and without AF, the risk of stroke symptoms was elevated for adults with AF taking neither anticoagulants nor antiplatelet agents (odds ratio [OR], 2.22; 95% CI, 1.89–2.59) or antiplatelet agents only (OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.61–2.29) but not for adults with AF taking anticoagulants (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.71–1.65). In the longitudinal analysis, the risk of stroke symptoms was also elevated for adults with AF taking neither anticoagulants nor antiplatelet agents (hazard ratio [HR], 1.41; 95% CI, 1.21–1.66) or antiplatelet agents only (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.04–1.46) but not for adults with AF taking anticoagulants (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.62–1.18). Conclusions Stroke symptoms in the absence of a stroke diagnosis may represent subclinical cardioembolic phenomena or “whispering strokes.” Future studies examining the benefit of stroke symptom screening may be warranted.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Stina Saunders ◽  
Craig W. Ritchie ◽  
Tom C. Russ ◽  
Graciela Muniz-Terrera ◽  
Richard Milne

Abstract Background Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a condition that exists between normal healthy ageing and dementia with an uncertain aetiology and prognosis. This uncertainty creates a complex dynamic between the clinicians’ conception of MCI, what is communicated to the individual about their condition, and how the individual responds to the information conveyed to them. The aim of this study was to explore clinicians’ views around the assessment and communication of MCI in memory clinics. Method As part of a larger longitudinal study looking at patients’ adjustment to MCI disclosure, we interviewed Old Age Psychiatrists at the five participating sites across Scotland. The study obtained ethics approvals and the interviews (carried out between Nov 2020–Jan 2021) followed a semi-structured schedule focusing on [1] how likely clinicians are to use the term MCI with patients; [2] what tests clinicians rely on and how much utility they see in them; and [3] how clinicians communicate risk of progression to dementia. The interviews were voice recorded and were analysed using reflective thematic analysis. Results Initial results show that most clinicians interviewed (Total N = 19) considered MCI to have significant limitations as a diagnostic term. Nevertheless, most clinicians reported using the term MCI (n = 15/19). Clinical history was commonly described as the primary aid in the diagnostic process and also to rule out functional impairment (which was sometimes corroborated by Occupational Therapy assessment). All clinicians reported using the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-III as a primary assessment tool. Neuroimaging was frequently found to have minimal usefulness due to the neuroradiological reports being non-specific. Conclusion Our study revealed a mixture of approaches to assessing and disclosing test results for MCI. Some clinicians consider the condition as a separate entity among neurodegenerative disorders whereas others find the term unhelpful due to its uncertain prognosis. Clinicians report a lack of specific and sensitive assessment methods for identifying the aetiology of MCI in clinical practice. Our study demonstrates a broad range of views and therefore variability in MCI risk disclosure in memory assessment services which may impact the management of individuals with MCI.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (12) ◽  
pp. 430-432
Chirantap Oza ◽  
Madhura Karguppikar ◽  
Vaman Khadilkar ◽  
Anuradha Khadilkar

Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome-1 (APS-1)also known as autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutation of AIRE gene on chromosome 21q22.3 with an overall prevalence of <1:100,000. Here, we present a 16-year-old male having clinical history of evolution of symptoms for oral candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and adrenal insufficiency (AI). He developed rare endocrine and non-endocrine manifestations such as type-1 diabetes (T1D) and autoimmune hepatitis, respectively. The patient while on hormone replacement therapy along with immunosuppressants developed liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension with esophageal varices and candidiasis. Subsequently, he was admitted for complaints of cough, cold and fever and was confirmed to be affected by SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method. In his prolonged ICU stay of 26 days, he required oxygen therapy, intravenous glucocorticoids, remdesivir, low molecular weight heparin, and hemodynamic support with inotropes. His medical management with subcutaneous insulin therapy and azathioprine was continued. He was discharged after complete resolution of symptoms and negative tests for SARS-CoV-2 and was advised radiological and clinical follow-up. Reports suggest that risk of severe COVID does not increase in patients with AI or autoimmunity. However, our patient possibly developed severe COVID not only due to AI and autoimmunity but also associated rare manifestations like hyperglycemia due to T1D and cirrhosis. Thus, good glycemic control and well-tolerated modern immunosuppressant therapy may be useful in improving prognosis of severe COVID-19 illness in patients with APS-1.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
pp. 01-07
Vedat Goral ◽  
Kerem Mert Goral ◽  
Necati Ormeci

Today, advances in cross-sectional imaging have led to the detection and early recognition of incidental/focal liver lesions (FCL). In approximately 17,000 cases of chest CT, incidental liver lesions were found in 6% [1]. In general, FCL consists of hepatocytes, biliary epithelium, mesenchymal tissue, connective tissue, or metastasized cells from distant sites. Most incidental lesions are benign, some may require careful management and treatment. In evaluating the lesion, the patient's clinical history, underlying disease and age factor should be considered. FCL can be detected at a rate of 10-30% in normal healthy and chronic liver disease patients, and even in oncology patients with malignancy, FCLs can be highly benign (50-80%)

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 94
Juan F. Dorado ◽  
Javier C. Angulo

(1) Background: The adjustable transobturator male system (ATOMS) device serves to treat post-prostatectomy incontinence, as it enhances residual urinary sphincteric function by dorsal compression of the bulbar urethra. We investigated the clinical parameters affecting continence recovery using this device and developed a decision aid to predict success. (2) Methods: We reviewed consecutive men treated with first-time ATOMS for post-prostatectomy incontinence from 2014 to 2021 at our institution. Patient demographics, reported pads per day (PPD), 24-h pad-test and Standing Cough Test (SCT), results’ grades 1–4, according to Male Stress Incontinence Grading Scale (MSIGS), and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF) questionnaire were assessed. Treatment success was defined as no pads or a single PPD with ≤20-mL 24-h pad-test. Logistic regression was performed using a stepwise model (entry 0.15 and stay criterium 0.1) to evaluate independent variables’ determinant of dryness. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for predictive variables were evaluated and their area under curve (AUC) was compared. A nomogram was generated and internally validated to predict probability of treatment success. (3) Results: Overall, 149 men (median age 70 years, IQR 7) were evaluated with a median follow-up of 45 months (IQR 26). Twelve patients (8%) had previous devices for incontinence, and 21 (14.1%) had pelvic radiation. Thirty-five men (23.5%) did not achieve continence after ATOMS adjustment (use of no or one security PPD with ≤20-mL 24-h pad-test). In univariate analysis, Charlson comorbidity index (p = 0.0412), previous urethroplasty (p = 0.0187), baseline PPD (p < 0.0001), 24-h pad-test (p < 0.0001), MSIGS (p < 0.0001), and ICIQ-SF questionnaire score (p < 0.0001) predicted ATOMS failure. In a multivariable model, 24-h pad-test (p = 0.0031), MSIGS (p = 0.0244), and radiotherapy (p = 0.0216) were independent variables, with AUC 0.8221. The association of MSIGS and 24-h pad-test was the superior combination (AUC 0.8236). A nomogram to predict the probability of ATOMS failure using the independent variables identified was proposed. (4) Conclusions: Several variables were identified as predictive of success for ATOMS using clinical history, physical examination (MSIGS), and factors that evaluate urine loss severity (PPD, 24-h pad-test, and ICIQ-SF questionnaire). MSIGS adds prognostic value to 24-h pad-test in assessing success of ATOMS device to treat post-prostatectomy incontinence. A nomogram was proposed to calculate the risk of ATOMS failure, which could be of interest to personalize the decision to use this device or not in the individual patient.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 495-498
Parvathi Pillai

Introduction: Some of the ovarian lesions become functional and secrete hormones that bring endometrial changes like hyperplasias and polyps. This study aimed to find endometrial changes associated with different types of cystic lesions of the ovary. Materials and Methods: A histopathological study done from 2010 -2013 on all the total abdominal hysterectomy specimens with bilateral oophorectomy having cyst size more than 3cms, with a detailed clinical history received in the Department of Pathology, Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College and Hospital, Pondicherry. A total of 112 cases were collected analyzed and statistically correlated. Results: Out of the 112 cases of cystic lesions of the ovary 67% showed endometrium within normal limits, 33% of cystic lesions of ovary showed polyps, simple hyperplasia without atypia, complex hyperplasia without atypia. Among non-neoplastic lesions, follicular cyst produced the most endometrial changes, followed by benign surface epithelial lesions. Granulosa cell tumor was found to induce polyp as well as simple hyperplasia without atypia. Two out of three malignant lesions showed endometrial changes followed by benign lesions. The majority of the cystic lesions of the ovary encountered are non-neoplastic lesions (59%) and follicular cysts were more common (97%). Endometrial hyperplasia of both simple and complex types without atypia was found with serous cystadenoma. Conclusions:  From the current study it implicates the necessity of assessing cystic lesions of the ovary like a follicular cyst, luteal cyst, granulosa cell tumors as they can become functional leading to endometrial changes that can form a fertile ground for carcinomas.

2022 ◽  
Jeyashanth Riju ◽  
Amit Jiwan Tirkey ◽  
Malavika Babu ◽  
Ronald Anto ◽  
Amey Madhav Baitule ◽  

Abstract Oral squamous cell carcinoma(OSCC) involving tongue and buccoalveolar complex(BAC) behaves differently. Clinical features of the two subsites and their influence on pathological factors remain least analysed. Patients are divided into two groups i.e, tongue cancer and BAC cancer group, and various clinical parameters were compared. Among 474 patients 232 had tongue cancer and 242 had BAC cancer. 30% of patients with OSCC were asymptomatic at presentation except for the ulcer. Compared to tongue cancers, lesions confined to BAC presents at an advanced stage(p=0.006). Multivariate analysis showed that dysphagia in tongue cancer(p=0.020) and external swelling or lesion in BAC cancers(p=0.002) were significant predictors of an advanced stage of disease. On histopathology perineural invasion was significantly associated tongue(p=0.008) and BAC cancers(P=0.015). Among tongue cancers, those with pain and referred otalgia had a statistically significantly high depth of invasion(DOI), compared to those without pain (DOI – no pain 6.9mm, pain 9.9mm and referred otalgia 11.4mm). There is a delay in clinical presentation of OSCC. Among tongue cancers, clinical history of pain was significantly associated with depth of invasion and perineural invasion, the significance of which needs to be prospectively analysed. Clinical history in OSCC can be used as predicting factors for various pathological characters, which is subsite specific.

Paolo Barbero ◽  
Domizia Vecchio ◽  
Eleonora Virgilio ◽  
Paola Naldi ◽  
Cristoforo Comi ◽  

AbstractA 35-year-old Caucasian woman presented an abrupt onset of bilateral impaired vision, and arrived to our attention two weeks later. She had a previous episode of mild dizziness. She underwent a fluorescein angiography showing branch retinal artery occlusions and a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealing several supraand infratentorial FLAIR-hyperintense white matter lesions, two with contrast enhancement. Thrombophilic, autoimmune and infective (including Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Borrelia burgdorferi, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, Herpes Simplex Virus 1-2, Varicella Zoster Virus) screening was negative. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed intrathecal IgG synthesis. We suspected a Primary Central Nervous System Vasculitis, and intravenous steroids were started. Three months later a second brain MRI showed seven new lesions without contrast enhancement, and she revealed a cognitive impairment and bilateral hearing loss. Reviewing the clinical history and MRI, she fulfilled diagnostic criteria for Susac syndrome. She had two cycles of cyclophosphamide, and recovered in 6 months and then remained stable with metotrexate.

2022 ◽  
Arjun M C ◽  
Arvind Kumar Singh ◽  
Debkumar Pal ◽  
Kajal Das ◽  
Alekhya Gajjala ◽  

Background: Long COVID or long-term complication after COVID-19 has the ability to affect health and quality of life. Knowledge about the burden and predictors could aid in their prevention and management. Most of the studies are from high-income countries and focus on severe cases. We did this study to estimate the prevalence and identify the characteristics and predictors of Long COVID among our patients. Methodology: We recruited adult (≥18 years) patients who were diagnosed as Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RTPCR) confirmed SARS-COV-2 infection and were either hospitalized or tested on outpatient basis. Eligible participants were followed up telephonically after four weeks of diagnosis of SARS-COV-2 infection to collect data on sociodemographic, clinical history, vaccination history, Cycle threshold (Ct) values during diagnosis and other variables. Characteristic of Long COVID were elicited, and multivariable logistic regression was done to find the predictors of Long COVID. Results: We have analyzed 487 individual data with a median follow-up of 44 days (Inter quartile range (IQR): 39,47). Overall, Long COVID was reported by 29.2% (95% Confidence interval (CI): 25.3%,33.4%) participants. Prevalence of Long COVID among patients with mild/moderate disease (n = 415) was 23.4% (95% CI: 19.5%,27.7%) as compared to 62.5% (95% CI: 50.7%,73%) in severe/critical cases(n=72). The most common Long COVID symptom was fatigue (64.8%) followed by cough (32.4%). Statistically significant predictors of Long COVID were - Pre-existing medical conditions (Adjusted Odds ratio (aOR)=2.00, 95% CI: 1.16,3.44), having a more significant number of symptoms during acute phase of COVID-19 disease (aOR=11.24, 95% CI: 4.00,31.51), two doses of COVID-19 vaccination (aOR=2.32, 95% CI: 1.17,4.58), the severity of illness (aOR=5.71, 95% CI: 3.00,10.89) and being admitted to hospital (Odds ratio (OR)=3.89, 95% CI: 2.49,6.08). Conclusion: A considerable proportion of COVID-19 cases reported Long COVID symptoms. More research is needed in Long COVID to objectively assess the symptoms and find the biological and radiological markers.

Geriatrics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 13
Chukwuma Okoye ◽  
Valeria Calsolaro ◽  
Filippo Niccolai ◽  
Alessia Maria Calabrese ◽  
Riccardo Franchi ◽  

The aim of this single-center, open-label, randomized controlled study was to evaluate which formulation of vitamin D—between cholecalciferol and calcifediol—is most effective in the treatment of hypovitaminosis D in older adults. Demographic characteristics, clinical history, and comprehensive geriatric assessment were recorded at admission. Eligible patients were randomly assigned an equivalent vitamin D supplement, either with cholecalciferol or calcifediol, from the time of hospital admission to three months after discharge. Among the 140 older patients included (mean age 83 ± 6.6 years, 57.8% females), 69 received cholecalciferol and 71 received calcifediol. The mean plasma values of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OH-vitamin D3) found at the time of enrollment were 16.8 ± 9.9 ng/mL in patients receiving cholecalciferol and 18.8 ± 13.3 ng/mL in those treated with calcifediol (p = 0.31). At the three month follow-up, the mean concentration of 25OH-vitamin D3 was significantly higher in patients treated with calcifediol than in those receiving cholecalciferol (30.7 ± 8.4 vs. 45.4 ± 9.8 ng/mL, respectively; p < 0.001). Supplementation with either cholecalciferol or calcifediol effectively results in reaching the optimal circulating values of 25OH-vitamin D3 in older patients suffering from hypovitaminosis D. However, supplementation with calcifediol led to average circulating values of 25OH-vitamin D3 that were significantly higher (over 50%) than those obtained with cholecalciferol.

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