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2022 ◽  
Gopalan Gnanaguru ◽  
Steven J Tabor ◽  
Kentaro Yuda ◽  
Ryo Mukai ◽  
Jörg Köhl ◽  

Microglia, the resident immune cell of the central nervous system, play a pivotal role in facilitating neurovascular development through mechanisms that are not fully understood. This current work resolves a previously unknown role for microglia in facilitating the developmental pruning of the astrocytic template resulting in a spatially organized retinal vascular bed. Mechanistically, our study identified that local microglial expression of complement (C)3 and C3aR is necessary for the regulation of astrocyte patterning and vascular growth during retinal development. Ablation of retinal microglia, loss of C3 or C3aR reduced developmental pruning and clearance of astrocytic bodies leading to increased astrocyte density leading to altered vascular patterning during retinal vascular development. This data demonstrates that C3/C3aR signaling is an important checkpoint required for the finetuning of vascular density during neuroretinal development.

Lab on a Chip ◽  
2022 ◽  
Yoshikazu Kameda ◽  
Surachada Chuaychob ◽  
Miwa Tanaka ◽  
Yang Liu ◽  
Ryu Okada ◽  

Three-dimensional (3D) tissue culture is a powerful tool for understanding physiological events. However, 3D tissues still have limitations in their size, culture period, and maturity, which are caused by the...

2022 ◽  
pp. 104321
Yusuke Tobe ◽  
Jun Homma ◽  
Katsuhisa Sakaguchi ◽  
Hidekazu Sekine ◽  
Kiyotaka Iwasaki ◽  

2021 ◽  
E.M. Inyushkina ◽  
D.V. Vorobiev ◽  
A.N. Inyushkin

The study was the first to study the effect of pulsed electric currents from the ELAV–8 device and the biologically active substance "Pelamine" on microcirculation in the rabbit ear. It was found that pulsed currents from the ELAV-8 device with a frequency of 100 Hz, as well as the biologically active agent "Pelamine" injected into the rabbit's paravertebral region by means of pulsed currents, have a vasodilatory effect on the vascular bed of the rabbit's ear. At the same time, transdermal administration of the biologically active agent "Pelamine" with the help of currents from the ELAV-8 device has a more prolonged effect on vasodilation. Key words: Microcirculation, rabbit ear, paravertebral region, vascular diameter, "Pelamine", ELAV-8 device.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (4) ◽  
pp. 91-95
M. M. Batiushin ◽  
I. M. Blinov ◽  
N. B. Bondarenko ◽  
E. D. Stephanova ◽  
A. M. Batiushina

Within the framework of the publication, an L‑shaped fusion of the kidneys (horseshoe‑shaped) is considered, referring to the category of asymmetric fusion. The presented clinical case is an extremely rare form of congenital anomaly of renal fusion, demonstrating the difficulty of verifying the correct diagnosis. The article presents the results of a tomographic study, which, in addition to enlargement of the kidneys, recorded signs of dysplasia of the left ureter (stricture) and signs of an arterial vascular bed (aberrant artery of the upper part of the L‑shaped horseshoe).

Ghazwan Butrous

December. 1st 2021 is "World AIDS Day" reminding us that HIV infection is still widespread and that many of its long-term effects can be deadly. One of these complications is its effect on the pulmonary vascular beds, leading to an increase in the pulmonary pressure, causing the clinical manifestation of "pulmonary hypertension". Unfortunately, we are still far from fully understanding the prevalence, mechanics, and pathobiology of "HIV pulmonary hypertension", especially in Africa and other developing countries where HIV is still common. In addition, the impact of other factors like co-infection and illicit drugs can add and modify the effect on the pulmonary vascular bed, complicating the pathological and clinical effects of HIV. Thus, "World AIDS Day" can be an impetus to pursue further research in this area.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jéssica A. Troiano ◽  
Simone R. Potje ◽  
Murilo E. Graton ◽  
Emily T. Gonçalves ◽  
Rita C. Tostes ◽  

We have investigated the role caveolae/caveolin-1 (Cav-1) plays in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation and how it impacts pregnancy-induced decreased vascular reactivity in normotensive (Wistar rats) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Wistar rats and SHR were divided into non-pregnant (NP) and pregnant (P). Nitrite levels were assessed by the Griess method in the aorta and mesenteric vascular bed. In functional studies, arteries were incubated with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (dextrin, 10mmol/L), which disrupts caveolae by depleting cholesterol, and concentration-response curves to phenylephrine (PE) and acetylcholine (ACh) were constructed. Electronic microscopy was used to determine endothelial caveolae density in the aorta and resistance mesenteric artery in the presence of vehicle or dextrin (10mmol/L). Western blot was performed to evaluate Cav-1, p-Cav-1, calmodulin (CaM), and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) expression. Cav-1/eNOS interaction in the aorta and mesenteric vascular bed was assessed by co-immunoprecipitation. Nitric oxide (NO) generation was greater in arteries from P groups compared to NP groups. Dextrin did not change vascular responses in the aorta from P groups or the number of caveolae in P groups compared to NP groups. Compared to NP Wistar rats, NP SHR showed smaller number of caveolae and reduced Cav-1 expression. Pregnancy did not alter Cav-1, CaM, or Hsp90 expression in the aorta or mesenteric vascular bed from Wistar rats or SHR. These results suggest that pregnancy does not alter expression of the main eNOS regulatory proteins, but it decreases Cav-1/eNOS interaction. Reduced Cav-1/eNOS interaction in the aorta and mesenteric vascular bed seems to be an important mechanism to increase eNOS activity and nitric oxide production in pregnant normotensive and hypertensive rats.

2021 ◽  
Vol 43 (6) ◽  
pp. 48-50
O. V. Maslovskaya

Published in 1955 by R.A.Vortapetov and P.G.Zhuchenko data on the favorable result of treatment with novocaine in 80 women with threatening termination of pregnancy prompted us to experimentally study the nature of the effect of novocaine introduced into the vascular bed on the intensity of uterine contractions

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Haipeng Yao ◽  
Zhen Sun ◽  
Guangyao Zang ◽  
Lili Zhang ◽  
Lina Hou ◽  

Vascular calcification is the transformation of arterial wall mesenchymal cells, particularly smooth muscle cells (SMCs), into osteoblast phenotypes by various pathological factors. Additionally, vascular transformation mediates the abnormal deposition of calcium salts in the vascular wall, such as intimal and media calcification. Various pathological types have been described, such as calcification and valve calcification. The incidence of vascular calcification in patients with diabetes is much higher than that in nondiabetic patients, representing a critical cause of cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes. Because basic research on the clinical transformation of vascular calcification has yet to be conducted, this study systematically expounds on the risk factors for vascular calcification, vascular bed differences, sex differences, ethnic differences, diagnosis, severity assessments, and treatments to facilitate the identification of a new entry point for basic research and subsequent clinical transformation regarding vascular calcification and corresponding clinical evaluation strategies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 108 (Supplement_7) ◽  
Aditi Aggarwal ◽  
Ashok Bala ◽  
Hani Slim ◽  
Hisham Rashid ◽  
Thoraya Ammar ◽  

Abstract Aim To discuss the varied manifestations of COVID-19 thrombotic syndrome. Methods We reviewed all patients referred to vascular surgery with evidence of thrombosis in at least one vascular bed. Electronic patient records were reviewed, patient laboratory and radiological investigations analysed, and COVID-19 status confirmed. Results 72 patients presented over 8 weeks with systemic thrombosis involving all sized vessels from aorta to visceral to crural arteries. Of these, 15 patients had RT-PCR or radiological evidence of COVID-19 infection. We investigated these 15 patients further. 27% presented with symptoms of thrombosis as the initial presentation of COVID-19 infection. 93% were COVID RT-PCR positive. 7% had evidence of COVID pneumonitis on CT chest but were COVID RT-PCR negative. 47% presented to the Emergency Department, whilst 53% were hospital admitted patients. All patients presented with ischaemic effects and D-dimers were raised in all patients in whom it was performed. 33% were lymphopenic. Fibrinogen levels and hypercoagulability profile was not routinely done for all and where available was negative. Echocardiogram demonstrated normal left ventricular systolic function and no evidence of thrombus in all patients in whom it was performed. 13% were managed with surgery and 6% with thrombolysis or other endovascular intervention. 73% were managed with anti-coagulation alone. 33% died during hospitalisation of COVID-19. Conclusion There is evidence that COVID-19 initiates an immuno-thrombotic state. Anti-coagulation alone was the preferred management strategy, as governed by patient co-morbidities. There is high mortality associated with patients with thrombosis and COVID-19 infection.

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