cardiovascular events
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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 963
Elena Barbu ◽  
Mihaela-Roxana Popescu ◽  
Andreea-Catarina Popescu ◽  
Serban-Mihai Balanescu

Vascular disease was for a long time considered a disease of the old age, but it is becoming increasingly clear that a cumulus of factors can cause early vascular aging (EVA). Inflammation plays a key role in vascular stiffening and also in other pathologies that induce vascular damage. There is a known and confirmed connection between inflammation and atherosclerosis. However, it has taken a long time to prove the beneficial effects of anti-inflammatory drugs on cardiovascular events. Diabetes can be both a product of inflammation and a cofactor implicated in the progression of vascular disease. When diabetes and inflammation are accompanied by obesity, this ominous trifecta leads to an increased incidence of atherothrombotic events. Research into earlier stages of vascular disease, and documentation of vulnerability to premature vascular disease, might be the key to success in preventing clinical events. Modulation of inflammation, combined with strict control of classical cardiovascular risk factors, seems to be the winning recipe. Identification of population subsets with a successful vascular aging (supernormal vascular aging—SUPERNOVA) pattern could also bring forth novel therapeutic interventions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 409
Claudia Bures ◽  
Yasmin Uluk ◽  
Mona Besmens ◽  
Aycan Akca ◽  
Eva-Maria Dobrindt ◽  

Parathyroidectomy (PTX) is a mainstay of treating secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in patients with kidney failure in order to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events (CVE), increase overall survival and improve quality of life. Perioperative hyperkalemia may lead to devastating cardiac complications. Distinct preoperative thresholds for serum potassium levels (SPL) were defined, but neither their usefulness nor consecutive risks are understood. This study compared the results and efficacy of different clinical procedures in preventing or treating perioperative hyperkalemia, including postoperative urgent hemodialysis (UHD). Methods: Patients from Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin and Rheinland Klinikum Lukaskrankenhaus, Neuss, undergoing PTX due to SHPT between 2008 and 2018 were analyzed retrospectively with regard to demographic parameters, surgery specific conditions and perioperative laboratory results. Comparisons of patient values from both centers with focus on perioperative hyperkalemia and the need for UHD were performed. Results: A total of 251 patients undergoing PTX for SHPT were included (Neuss: n = 121 (48%); Berlin: n = 130 (52%)). Perioperative hyperkalemia (SPL ≥ 5.5 mmol/L) was noted in 134 patients (53%). UHD on the day of surgery was performed especially in patients with intraoperative hyperkalemia, in females (n = 40 (16%) vs. n = 27 (11%); p = 0.023), in obese patients (n = 27 (40%) vs. n = 50 (28%), p = 0.040) and more often in patients treated in Neuss (n = 42 (35%) vs. 25 (19%); p = 0.006). For patients treated in Neuss, the intraoperative hyperkalemia cut-off level above 5.75 mmol/L was the most predictive factor for UHD (n = 30 (71%) vs. n = 8 (10%); p < 0.001). Concerning secondary effects of hyperkalemia or UHD, no patient died within the postoperative period, and only three patients suffered from acute CVE, with SPL > 5.5 mmol/L measured in only one patient. Conclusion: Perioperative values could not predict postoperative hyperkalemia with the need for UHD. Previously defined cut-off levels for SPL should be reconsidered, especially for patients undergoing PTX. Early postoperative dialysis in patients with postoperative hyperkalemia can be performed with a low risk for complications and may be indicated for all patients with increased perioperative SPL.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 25
Sara Guillen-Aguinaga ◽  
Antonio Brugos-Larumbe ◽  
Laura Guillen-Aguinaga ◽  
Felipe Ortuño ◽  
Francisco Guillen-Grima ◽  

(1) Background: Patients with schizophrenia have higher mortality, with cardiovascular diseases being the first cause of mortality. This study aims to estimate the excess risk of hospital admission for cardiovascular events in schizophrenic patients, adjusting for comorbidity and risk factors. (2) Methods: The APNA study is a dynamic prospective cohort of all residents in Navarra, Spain. A total of 505,889 people over 18 years old were followed for five years. The endpoint was hospital admissions for a cardiovascular event. Direct Acyclic Graphs (DAG) and Cox regression were used. (3) Results: Schizophrenic patients had a Hazard Ratio (HR) of 1.414 (95% CI 1.031–1.938) of hospital admission for a cardiovascular event after adjusting for age, sex, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, low income, obesity, antecedents of cardiovascular disease, and smoking. In non-adherent to antipsychotic treatment schizophrenia patients, the HR was 2.232 (95% CI 1.267–3.933). (4) Conclusions: Patients with schizophrenia have a higher risk of hospital admission for cardiovascular events than persons with the same risk factors without schizophrenia. Primary care nursing interventions should monitor these patients and reduce cardiovascular risk factors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Hao-Yu Wang ◽  
Bo Xu ◽  
Chen-Xi Song ◽  
Chang-Dong Guan ◽  
Li-Hua Xie ◽  

Background. There is a paucity of real-world data regarding the clinical impact of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) interruption (temporary or permanent) among patients at high ischemic risk. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of cardiovascular events after interruption of DAPT in high-risk PCI population. Methods. This study used data from the Fuwai PCI registry, a large, prospective cohort of consecutive patients who underwent PCI. We assessed 3,931 patients with at least 1 high ischemic risk criteria of stent-related recurrent ischemic events proposed in the 2017 ESC guidelines for focused update on DAPT who were free of major cardiac events in the first 12 months. The primary ischemic endpoint was 30-month major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events, and the key safety endpoints were BARC class 2, 3, or 5 bleeding and net adverse clinical events. Results. DAPT interruption within 12 months occurred in 1,122 patients (28.5%), most of which were due to bleeding events or patients’ noncompliance to treatment. A multivariate Cox regression model, propensity score (PS) matching, and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) based on the propensity score demonstrated that DAPT interruption significantly increased the risk of primary ischemic endpoint compared with prolonged DAPT (3.9% vs. 2.2%; Cox-adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 1.840; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.247 to 2.716; PS matching-HR: 2.049 [1.236–3.399]; IPTW-adjusted HR: 1.843 [1.250–2.717]). This difference was driven mainly by all-cause death (1.8% vs. 0.7%) and MI (1.3% vs. 0.5%). Furthermore, the rate of net adverse clinical events (4.9% vs. 3.2%; Cox-adjusted HR: 1.581 [1.128–2.216]; PS matching-HR: 1.639 [1.075–2.499]; IPTW-adjusted HR: 1.554 [1.110–2.177]) was also higher in patients with DAPT interruption (≤12 months), whereas no significant differences between groups were observed in terms of BARC 2, 3, or 5 bleeding. These findings were consistent across various stent-driven high-ischemic risk subsets with respect to the primary ischemic endpoints, with a greater magnitude of harm among patients with diffuse multivessel diabetic coronary artery disease. Conclusions. In patients undergoing high-risk PCI, interruption of DAPT in the first 12 months occurred infrequently and was associated with a significantly higher adjusted risk of major adverse cardiovascular events and net adverse clinical events. 2017 ESC stent-driven high ischemic risk criteria may help clinicians to discriminate patient selection in the use of long-term DAPT when the ischemic risk certainly overcomes the bleeding one.

2022 ◽  
Gal Tsaban ◽  
Hilmi Alnsasra ◽  
Aref El Nasasra ◽  
Amjad Abu-Salman ◽  
Ala Abu-Dogosh ◽  

Abstract Introduction: Secondary prevention of cardiovascular events among patients with diagnosed cardiovascular disease and high ischemic risk poses a significant challenge in clinical practice. The combinations of aspirin with low dose (LD) Ticagrelor or LD-Rivaroxaban have shown superiority in preventing major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) than aspirin treatment alone. The comparative value for money of these two regimens remains unexplored.Methods: We analyzed each regimen's annual cost needed to treat (CNT) by multiplying the annualized number needed to treat (aNNT) by the annual cost of each drug. The aNNTs were based on outcome data from PEGASUS TIMI-54 and COMPASS trials. Scenario analyses were performed to overcome variances in terms of population risk. Costs were based on 2021 US prices. The primary outcome was defined as CNT to prevent one MACE across the two regimens. Secondary value analysis was performed for myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and CV death as separate outcomes. Results: The aNNTs to prevent MACE with LD-Ticagrelor and with LD-Rivaroxaban were 229 [95% confidence interval (CI):141-734] and 147 (95%CI:104-252), respectively. At an annual cost of 3,618$ versus 4,308$, the corresponding CNTs were 828,478$ (95%CI:510,111$-2,655,471$) with LD-Ticagrelor and 633,270$ (95%CI:448,028$-1,085,607$) with LD-Rivaroxaban. LD-Rivaroxaban.Conclusion: Combining aspirin with LD-Rivaroxaban provides better value for money than with LD-Ticagrelor for secondary prevention of MACE.

2022 ◽  
Avivit Cahn ◽  
Stephen D. Wiviott ◽  
Ofri Mosenzon ◽  
Sabina A. Murphy ◽  
Erica L. Goodrich ◽  

<b>Objective:</b> Current guidelines recommend prescribing SGLT-2 inhibitors to patients with type 2 diabetes and established or at high risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), irrespective of HbA1c levels. We studied the association of HbA1c with cardiovascular and renal outcomes and whether the benefit of dapagliflozin varies by baseline HbA1c. <p><b>Methods:</b> In the Dapagliflozin Effect on Cardiovascular Events (DECLARE)-TIMI 58 trial 17,160 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized to dapagliflozin or placebo for a median follow up of 4.2 years. Cardiovascular and renal outcomes by baseline HbA1c in the overall population, and with dapagliflozin vs. placebo in HbA1c subgroups were studied by Cox regression models.</p> <p><b>Results:</b> In the overall population, increasing HbA1c was associated with higher risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure (CVD/HHF), major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; CVD, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke) and of the cardiorenal outcome (adjusted HR [95% CI] 1.12 [1.06-1.19], 1.08 [1.04-1.13] and 1.17 [1.11-1.24] per 1% increase respectively). Elevated HbA1c was associated with an increased risk for MACE and for the cardiorenal outcome significantly more in patients with multiple risk factors (MRF), vs. patients with established ASCVD (P-interaction 0.0064 and 0.0093 respectively). Dapagliflozin led to a decrease in the risk of CVD/HHF, HHF and the cardiorenal outcome vs. placebo with no heterogeneity by baseline HbA1c (P-interaction >0.05).</p> <p><b>Conclusions</b>: High HbA1c levels were associated with greater cardiovascular and renal risk, particularly in the MRF population, yet the benefits of dapagliflozin were observed in all subgroups irrespective of baseline HbA1c, including patients with HbA1c<7%.</p>

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 186
Lyanne Rodríguez ◽  
Diego Mendez ◽  
Hector Montecino ◽  
Basilio Carrasco ◽  
Barbara Arevalo ◽  

In terms of safe and healthy food, beans play a relevant role. This crop belongs to the species of Phaseolusvulgaris L., being the most consumed legume worldwide, both for poor and developed countries, the latter seek to direct their diet to healthy feeding, mainly low in fat. Phaseolus vulgaris L. stands out in this area—an important source of protein, vitamins, essential minerals, soluble fiber, starch, phytochemicals, and low in fat from foods. This species has been attributed many beneficial properties for health; it has effects on the circulatory system, immune system, digestive system, among others. It has been suggested that Phaseolus vulgaris L. has a relevant role in the prevention of cardiovascular events, the main cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Conversely, the decrease in the consumption of this legume has been related to an increase in the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. This review will allow us to relate the nutritional level of this species with cardiovascular events, based on the correlation of the main bioactive compounds and their role as cardiovascular protectors, in addition to revealing the main mechanisms that explain the cardioprotective effects regulated by the bioactive components.

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