active substance
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2022 ◽  
Vol 116 (1) ◽  
pp. 28-34
Jakub Karas ◽  
David Vetchý ◽  
Jan Gajdziok

The deposition of a drug to its required destination is crucial for effective lung treatment. It is important to design a suitable formulation that delivers the active ingredient to the desired site and resists the natural cleansing mechanisms of the airways. Large porous particles used as active substance carriers appear to be the most effective option for lung drug delivery. The present article provides a basic overview of the mechanisms of deposition of dry inhalable powders and methods of their preparation and evaluation. Spray drying together with micronization and crystallization techniques are among the most used methods of preparation of the discussed particles. Besides, these techniques can be combined with other production processes (encapsulation, emulsification, etc.). The evaluation of the properties of particles suitable for pulmonary application is based on specific requirements for their density, porosity, shape, aerodynamic parameters, and deposition in the lungs, which can now be simulated on an accurate model of artificial lungs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 354 (11-12) ◽  
pp. 141-144
A. M. Guseynova

It has been established that on each variant oftillage use of mineral fertilizers have a positive effect on the structural indicators of the yield when sowing summer soybeans. When the soil was cultivated to a depth of 8–10 cm, the number of beans per plant was 3.0–10.2 pieces, the number of grains per plant was 5.7–21.8 pieces, the grain yield per plant was 1.0–3.6 g, the weight of 1000 grains was 7.0–7.4 g; when disking the soil to a depth of 13–15 cm these indicators reached, respecttively, 3.3–11.4 pieces, 6.0–22.5 pieces, 1.2–3.8 g, 3.5–8.0 g; when plowing to a depth of 20–22 cm these indicators increased and amounted to 3.8–13.3 pieces, 6.9–24.9 pieces, 1.7–4.5 g, 4.3–8.6 g and this contributed to an increase in yield compared to control. Thus, the highest structural indicators were obtained when plowing the soil to a depth of 20–22 cm and at a rate of mineral fertilizers N60P90K60 kg/ha of active substance.

Tuti Sri Suhesti ◽  
M. Mudrik H. Rohman ◽  
Sunarto Sunarto

Nagasari (Mesua ferrea L.) is one of the biodiversity to be developed as an antiseptic preparation. These plants are known to contain flavonoid compounds, tannins, and terpenoids that act as antibacterial. Hand sanitizer gel preparations can increase the effectiveness of topically. The physical properties of a good gel depend on a gelling agent, one of which is HPMC. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of variations in HPMC levels on physical properties and antibacterial activity. Gels were prepared with various HPMC levels of 1%, 2%, and 3%. The gel was tested for physical properties and stability. All formulas produced preparations that met the requirements for good physical properties and stability. Testing of antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus showed that an increase in HPMC levels could decrease the ability to release the active substance of the preparation. The diameter of the inhibition zone obtained was 10.0 mm (HPMC 1%); 9.5 mm (2% HPMC) and 8.0 mm (3% HPMC). Increasing the concentration of HPMC will increase the viscosity and adhesion but decrease the spreadability. The three formulas had antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with moderate criteria.Keywords: Extract of nagasari leaf, Gel, HPMC, Staphylococcus aureus

EFSA Journal ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Jorge Borroto ◽  
Alba Brancato ◽  
Luis Carrasco Cabrera ◽  
Anna Federica Castoldi ◽  

Fazila Zakaria ◽  
Siti Efliza Ashari ◽  
Intan Diana Mat Azmi ◽  
Mohd Basyaruddin Abdul Rahman

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 ◽  
pp. 281-307
Aleksandra Olbryś

There has been a debate regarding substances that cause altered states of consciousness (especially those of a psychedelic nature) that have been intrinsically linked to man since the dawn of time. The question of the beginning of the crystallization of human consciousness intrigues today’s researchers. American writer and ethnobotanist Terence McKenna tangled with such ideas, indeed one of his thoughts contributes to many controversial opinions and theories presented in this work. The stoned ape theory considers psilocybin, the active substance of entheogenic mushrooms, as an element that played an important role in the process of human evolution and contributed to the acceleration of human consciousness. The author of a title theory believes that psychoactive mushrooms, which might have been components of our ancestors’ diet, could also contributed to the development of language and religion. In this paper, an attempt will be made to subject the title theory to criticism with particular discussion of archaeological evidence.

A. G. Gurin ◽  
S. V. Rezvyakova ◽  
N. Yu. Revin

The study aimed to estimate seasonal dynamics of soil nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium under the influence of sod grasses in a sod-dressing intercropped orchard. The trial was conducted in a Welsey apple 1987-year orchard. Trees were planted at 8×6 m, cultivar seedlings used as rootstock. Red clover and meadow timothy in variant shares were used for interrow sodding. The cereal—legume intercropping was done in 2015, preceded by a 180 kg/ha active substance phosphorus-potassium dressing in reserve. Nitrogen was applied annually prior to growing season at 34.4 kg/ha active substance. Grass biomass in first hay cutting was the highest and comprised 45.3-49.9 % total mass. A total four cuttings dry mass was 3.36-7.10 t/ha depending on scheme. The maximum biomass was registered for the schemes with red clover and meadow timothy at ratios 1:1 and 7:3 (6.52 and 7.10 t/ha). In the growing period, grass depleted soil for 111.1—219.9 kg/ha nitrogen, 21.5-42.7 kg/ha phosphorus and 209.3—380.8 kg/ha potassium. Such consumptions suggest a serious competition for soil nutrients between grass vegetation and fruit trees. The available phosphorus and potassium content was independent of interrow dressing schemes. Inter-scheme differences did not exceed experimental bias due to presowing phosphorus and potassium application in reserve before trial. By first cutting, the nitrate nitrogen soil content in sodding schemes was 1.5-2-fold less vs. bare fallow, i.e. more nitrogen is used by vegetating grass, and its available forms recover slower than being consumed.

Lidya Tumewu ◽  
Irfan Rayi Pamungkas ◽  
Hilkatul Ilmi ◽  
Achmad Fuad Hafid ◽  
Indah Setyawati Tantular ◽  

Background: Andrographis paniculata is a herbaceous plant in the Acanthaceae family, that is widely used as a traditional medicine in Asian countries and known to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological effects. Recent studies have provided an overview of the great potential of A. paniculata as an analgesic. The ethanol extract and ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of A.paniculata were shown to contain diterpene lactone compounds, which may be useful as a potential active ingredient in analgesic drugs. The development of a herbal medicine based drug requires an effective and high quality active ingredient. Therefore, this research was aimed to compare the analgesic activity of ethanol extract and EA fraction based on their andrographolide content and further to determine the more viable active substance for analgesic herbal medicine based drug development. Method: The andrographolide content in the ethanol extract and EA fraction was determined by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Measurement of analgesic activity was performed by writhing test. The experimental animals were randomly divided into eight groups consisting of 5 mice in each. Group 1 (negative control) received 1% Tween-80 in normal saline. Group 2 (positive control) received a standard analgesic drug (diclofenac sodium) at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight. Group 3, 4, and 5 received ethanol extract while Group 6, 7, and 8 received EA fraction, each at a dose of 12.5, 25, and 50 mg andrographolide/kg body weight, respectively. Each mouse was injected intraperitoneally with 1% acetic acid at a dose of 10 ml/kg body weight 30 minutes after oral administration of the treatments. The number of writhes were counted 5 min after acetic acid injection over a period of 45 min. Results: Andrographolide content in ethanol extract and EA fraction was 15.66±0.28 and 21.25±1.08 % w/w, respectively. Ethanol extract and EA fraction displayed analgesic activity of 67.68% and 70.91% respectively, at a dose of 50 mg andrographolide/kg body weight. The positive control at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight showed an analgesic activity of 74.33%. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences between EA fraction at a dose of 50 mg andrographolide/kg body weight and ethanol extract at the same dose as well as the positive control (P> 0.05). The effective dose 50% (ED50) of the ethanol extract and EA fraction was determined to be 29.49 and 25.55 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Conclusion: It was possible to use andrographolide content as an indicator for the analgesic activity of A.paniculata. Ethanol extract and EA fraction of A. paniculata at the same dose of andrographolide showed similar analgesic activity. The amount of ethanol extract which needed to reach similar analgesic activity was higher than EA fraction. Therefore, EA fraction likely has greater potential as an analgesic active substance due to its higher content of andrographolide; however further study is needed to develop it as a dosage form.

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