quantum channels
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2022 ◽  
Zhan-Yun Wang ◽  
Feng-Lin Wu ◽  
Zhen-Yu Peng ◽  
Si-Yuan Liu

Abstract We investigate how the correlated actions of quantum channels affect the robustness of entangled states. We consider the Bell-like state and random two-qubit pure states in the correlated depolarizing, bit flip, bit-phase flip, and phase flip channels. It is found that the robustness of two-qubit pure states can be noticeably enhanced due to the correlations between consecutive actions of these noisy channels, and the Bell-like state is always the most robust state. We also consider the robustness of three-qubit pure states in correlated noisy channels. For the correlated bit flip and phase flip channels, the result shows that although the most robust and most fragile states are locally unitary equivalent, they exhibit different robustness in different correlated channels, and the effect of channel correlations on them is also significantly different. However, for the correlated depolarizing and bit-phase flip channels, the robustness of two special three-qubit pure states is exactly the same. Moreover, compared with the random three-qubit pure states, they are neither the most robust states nor the most fragile states.

Entropy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. 5
Francisco Revson Fernandes Pereira ◽  
Stefano Mancini

A general framework describing the statistical discrimination of an ensemble of quantum channels is given by the name quantum reading. Several tools can be applied in quantum reading to reduce the error probability in distinguishing the ensemble of channels. Classical and quantum codes can be envisioned for this goal. The aim of this paper is to present a simple but fruitful protocol for this task using classical error-correcting codes. Three families of codes are considered: Reed–Solomon codes, BCH codes, and Reed–Muller codes. In conjunction with the use of codes, we also analyze the role of the receiver. In particular, heterodyne and Dolinar receivers are taken into consideration. The encoding and measurement schemes are connected by the probing step. As probes, we consider coherent states. In such a simple manner, interesting results are obtained. As we show, there is a threshold below which using codes surpass optimal and sophisticated schemes for any fixed rate and code. BCH codes in conjunction with Dolinar receiver turn out to be the optimal strategy for error mitigation in quantum reading.

Nanophotonics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Keshaan Singh ◽  
Angela Dudley

Abstract Vectorial structured light fields have displayed properties advantageous in many disciplines ranging from communications, microscopy and metrology to laser cutting and characterizing quantum channels. The generation of these fields has been made convenient through the implementation of nanophotonic metasurfaces amongst other static and digital techniques. Consequently, the detection and characterisation of these fields is of equal importance. Most existing techniques involve using separate polarization optics and correlation filters to perform the projective measurements – or are only able to perform such measurements on a subset of possible vector states. We present a compact, fully automated measurement technique based on a digital micro-mirror device (DMD), which facilitates the complete, local and global, characterisation of the spatial mode and polarization degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) for arbitrary vectorial fields. We demonstrate our approach through the identification of relevant hybrid-order Poincaré spheres, the reconstruction of state vectors on these spheres, as well as the recovery of the non-separability and states-of-polarization for a variety of vector beams.

Konstantin Antipin

Abstract Genuine entanglement is the strongest form of multipartite entanglement. Genuinely entangled pure states contain entanglement in every bipartition and as such can be regarded as a valuable resource in the protocols of quantum information processing. A recent direction of research is the construction of genuinely entangled subspaces — the class of subspaces consisting entirely of genuinely entangled pure states. In this paper we present methods of construction of such subspaces including those of maximal possible dimension. The approach is based on the composition of bipartite entangled subspaces and quantum channels of certain types. The examples include maximal subspaces for systems of three qubits, four qubits, three qutrits. We also provide lower bounds on two entanglement measures for mixed states, the concurrence and the convex-roof extended negativity, which are directly connected with the projection on genuinely entangled subspaces.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Aleksandra Krawiec ◽  
Łukasz Pawela ◽  
Zbigniew Puchała

AbstractCertification of quantum channels is based on quantum hypothesis testing and involves also preparation of an input state and choosing the final measurement. This work primarily focuses on the scenario when the false negative error cannot occur, even if it leads to the growth of the probability of false positive error. We establish a condition when it is possible to exclude false negative error after a finite number of queries to the quantum channel in parallel, and we provide an upper bound on the number of queries. On top of that, we found a class of channels which allow for excluding false negative error after a finite number of queries in parallel, but cannot be distinguished unambiguously. Moreover, it will be proved that parallel certification scheme is always sufficient, however the number of steps may be decreased by the use of adaptive scheme. Finally, we consider examples of certification of various classes of quantum channels and measurements.

Quantum ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
pp. 569
Tamal Guha ◽  
Mir Alimuddin ◽  
Sumit Rout ◽  
Amit Mukherjee ◽  
Some Sankar Bhattacharya ◽  

Sharing correlated random variables is a resource for a number of information theoretic tasks such as privacy amplification, simultaneous message passing, secret sharing and many more. In this article, we show that to establish such a resource called shared randomness, quantum systems provide an advantage over their classical counterpart. Precisely, we show that appropriate albeit fixed measurements on a shared two-qubit state can generate correlations which cannot be obtained from any possible state on two classical bits. In a resource theoretic set-up, this feature of quantum systems can be interpreted as an advantage in winning a two players co-operative game, which we call the `non-monopolize social subsidy' game. It turns out that the quantum states leading to the desired advantage must possess non-classicality in the form of quantum discord. On the other hand, while distributing such sources of shared randomness between two parties via noisy channels, quantum channels with zero capacity as well as with classical capacity strictly less than unity perform more efficiently than the perfect classical channel. Protocols presented here are noise-robust and hence should be realizable with state-of-the-art quantum devices.

Jader E. Brasil ◽  
Josué Knorst ◽  
Artur O. Lopes

Denote [Formula: see text] the set of complex [Formula: see text] by [Formula: see text] matrices. We will analyze here quantum channels [Formula: see text] of the following kind: given a measurable function [Formula: see text] and the measure [Formula: see text] on [Formula: see text] we define the linear operator [Formula: see text], via the expression [Formula: see text]. A recent paper by T. Benoist, M. Fraas, Y. Pautrat, and C. Pellegrini is our starting point. They considered the case where [Formula: see text] was the identity. Under some mild assumptions on the quantum channel [Formula: see text] we analyze the eigenvalue property for [Formula: see text] and we define entropy for such channel. For a fixed [Formula: see text] (the a priori measure) and for a given a Hamiltonian [Formula: see text] we present a version of the Ruelle Theorem: a variational principle of pressure (associated to such [Formula: see text]) related to an eigenvalue problem for the Ruelle operator. We introduce the concept of Gibbs channel. We also show that for a fixed [Formula: see text] (with more than one point in the support) the set of [Formula: see text] such that it is [Formula: see text]-Erg (also irreducible) for [Formula: see text] is a generic set. We describe a related process [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], taking values on the projective space [Formula: see text] and analyze the question of the existence of invariant probabilities. We also consider an associated process [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], with values on [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text] is the set of density operators). Via the barycenter, we associate the invariant probability mentioned above with the density operator fixed for [Formula: see text].

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Cillian Harney ◽  
Stefano Pirandola

AbstractThe characterisation of Quantum Channel Discrimination (QCD) offers critical insight for future quantum technologies in quantum metrology, sensing and communications. The task of multi-channel discrimination creates a scenario in which the discrimination of multiple quantum channels can be equated to the idea of pattern recognition, highly relevant to the tasks of quantum reading, illumination and more. Although the optimal quantum strategy for many scenarios is an entangled idler-assisted protocol, the extension to a multi-hypothesis setting invites the exploration of discrimination strategies based on unassisted, multipartite probe states. In this work, we expand the space of possible quantum-enhanced protocols by formulating general classes of unassisted multi-channel discrimination protocols which are not assisted by idler modes. Developing a general framework for idler-free protocols, we perform an explicit investigation in the bosonic setting, studying prominent Gaussian channel discrimination problems for real-world applications. Our findings uncover the existence of strongly quantum advantageous, idler-free protocols for the discrimination of bosonic loss and environmental noise. This circumvents the necessity for idler assistance to achieve quantum advantage in some of the most relevant discrimination settings, significantly loosening practical requirements for prominent quantum-sensing applications.

2021 ◽  
pp. 127755
Chi-Shung Tang ◽  
Ying-Yen Chen ◽  
Quoc-Hung Phan ◽  
Nzar Rauf Abdullah ◽  
Vidar Gudmundsson

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